George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic and political activist. His influence on Western theatre and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond, he wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Dublin, Shaw moved to London in 1876, where he struggled to establish himself as a writer and novelist, embarked on a rigorous process of self-education. By the mid-1880s he had become a respected music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society and became its most prominent pamphleteer. Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success and the Man in 1894. Influenced by Henrik Ibsen, he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas.
By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara, The Doctor's Dilemma and Caesar and Cleopatra. Shaw's expressed views were contentious, he courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as culpable, although not a republican, castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period. These stances had no lasting effect on his productivity as a dramatist. In 1938 he provided the screenplay for a filmed version of Pygmalion for which he received an Academy Award, his appetite for politics and controversy remained undiminished. In the final decade of his life he made fewer public statements, but continued to write prolifically until shortly before his death, aged ninety-four, having refused all state honours, including the Order of Merit in 1946. Since Shaw's death scholarly and critical opinion has varied about his works, but he has been rated as second only to Shakespeare among British dramatists.
The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaw's ideas and his means of expressing them. Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in a lower-middle-class part of Dublin, he was the youngest child and only son of Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw. His elder siblings were Elinor Agnes; the Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. His relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early 1850s. In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly. If, as Holroyd and others surmise, George's motives were mercenary he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her family's money, she came to despise her ineffectual and drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of "shabby-genteel poverty". By the time of Shaw's birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession; the young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply.
He found solace in the music. Lee was a teacher of singing; the Shaws' house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players. In 1862, Lee and the Shaws agreed to share a house, No. 1 Hatch Street, in an affluent part of Dublin, a country cottage on Dalkey Hill, overlooking Killiney Bay. Shaw, a sensitive boy, found the less salubrious parts of Dublin shocking and distressing, was happier at the cottage. Lee's students gave him books, which the young Shaw read avidly. Between 1865 and 1871, Shaw attended four schools, his experiences as a schoolboy left him disillusioned with formal education: "Schools and schoolmasters", he wrote, were "prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents." In October 1871 he left school to become a junior clerk in a Dublin firm of land agents, where he worked hard, rose to become head cashier. During this period, Shaw was known as "George Shaw". In June 1873, Lee left Dublin for London and never returned.
A fortnight Bessie followed him. Shaw's explanation of why his mother followed Lee was that without the la
The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at the St James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personæ to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, the resulting satire of Victorian ways; some contemporary reviews praised the play's humour and the culmination of Wilde's artistic career, while others were cautious about its lack of social messages. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde's most enduringly popular play; the successful opening night marked the climax of Wilde's career but heralded his downfall. The Marquess of Queensberry, whose son Lord Alfred Douglas was Wilde's lover, planned to present the writer with a bouquet of rotten vegetables and disrupt the show.
Wilde was tipped off and Queensberry was refused admission. Their feud came to a climax in court, where Wilde's homosexuality was revealed to the Victorian public and he was sentenced to imprisonment. Despite the play's early success, Wilde's notoriety caused the play to be closed after 86 performances. After his release from prison, he published the play from exile in Paris, but he wrote no further comic or dramatic work; the Importance of Being Earnest has been revived many times since its premiere. It has been adapted for the cinema on three occasions. In The Importance of Being Earnest, Dame Edith Evans reprised her celebrated interpretation of Lady Bracknell. After the success of Wilde's plays Lady Windermere's Fan and A Woman of No Importance, Wilde's producers urged him to write further plays. In July 1894, he mooted his idea for The Importance of Being Earnest to George Alexander, the actor-manager of the St James's Theatre. Wilde spent the summer with his family at Worthing, where he wrote the play in August.
His fame now at its peak, he used the working title Lady Lancing to avoid preemptive speculation of its content. Many names and ideas in the play were borrowed from people or places the author had known. Wilde scholars agree the most important influence on the play was W. S. Gilbert's 1877 farce Engaged, from which Wilde borrowed not only several incidents but "the gravity of tone demanded by Gilbert of his actors". Wilde continually revised the text over the next months. No line was left untouched and the revision had significant consequences. Sos Eltis describes Wilde's revisions as refined art at work; the earliest and longest handwritten drafts of the play labour over farcical incidents, broad puns, nonsense dialogue and conventional comic turns. In revising, "Wilde transformed standard nonsense into the more systemic and disconcerting illogicality which characterises Earnest's dialogue". Richard Ellmann argues Wilde had reached his artistic maturity and wrote more and rapidly. Wilde hesitated about submitting the script to Alexander, worrying it might be unsuitable for the St James's Theatre, whose typical repertoire was more serious, explaining it had been written in response to a request for a play "with no real serious interest".
When Henry James's Guy Domville failed, Alexander agreed to put on Wilde’s play. After working with Wilde on stage movements with a toy theatre, Alexander asked the author to shorten the play from four acts to three. Wilde combined elements of the second and third acts; the largest cut was the removal of the character of Mr. Gribsby, a solicitor who comes from London to arrest the profligate "Ernest" for unpaid dining bills; the four-act version is still sometimes performed. Some consider the three-act structure more effective and theatrically resonant than the expanded published edition; the play was first produced at the St James's Theatre on Valentine's Day 1895. It was freezing cold but Wilde arrived dressed in "florid sobriety", wearing a green carnation; the audience, according to one report, "included many members of the great and good, former cabinet ministers and privy councillors, as well as actors, writers and enthusiasts". Allan Aynesworth, who played Algernon Moncrieff, recalled to Hesketh Pearson that "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never remember a greater triumph than first night".
Aynesworth was himself "debonair and stylish", Alexander, who played Jack Worthing, "demure". The cast was: John Worthing, J. P.—George Alexander Algernon Moncrieff—Allan Aynesworth Rev. Canon Chasuble, D. D.—H. H. Vincent Merriman—Frank Dyall Lane—F. Kinsey Peile Lady Bracknell—Rose Leclercq Hon. Gwendolen Fairfax—Irene Vanbrugh Cecily Cardew—Evelyn Millard Miss Prism—Mrs. George CanningeThe Marquess of Queensberry, the father of Wilde's lover Lord Alfred Douglas, had planned to disrupt the play by throwing a bouquet of rotten vegetables at the playwright when he took his bow at the end of the show. Wilde and Alexander learned of the plan, the latter cancelled Queensberry's ticket and arranged for policemen to bar his entrance, he continued harassing Wilde, who launched a private prosecution against the peer for criminal libel, triggering a series of trials ending in Wilde's imprisonment for gross indecency. Alexander tried, unsuccessfully, to save the production by removing Wilde's name from the billing, but t
Brenda Anne Blethyn is an English actress. She is known for her portrayals of working class women with eccentric qualities, she is the recipient of several accolades, including one Golden Globe, one BAFTA, two Academy Award nominations. Blethyn pursued an administrative career before enrolling in the Guildford School of Acting in her late 20s, she subsequently joined the Royal National Theatre and gained attention for her performances in Troilus and Cressida, Mysteries and Benefactors, receiving an Olivier nomination for the latter. In 1980, Blethyn made her television debut in Mike Leigh's Grown-Ups, she won leading roles on the short-run sitcoms Chance in a Million and The Labours of Erica. She made her big-screen debut with a small role in Nicolas Roeg's 1990 film adaptation of Roald Dahl's The Witches, she experienced a major career breakthrough with her leading role in Mike Leigh's 1996 drama Secrets & Lies, for which she received multiple awards, including Best Actress at Cannes, a BAFTA, a Golden Globe, an Academy Award nomination.
She earned her second Academy Award nomination two years for her performance in Little Voice. Blethyn has since appeared in a range of big-budget and independent features, including Girls' Night, Music from Another Room, Night Train, Saving Grace and Amazing, Sonny, Plots with a View, Beyond the Sea, A Way of Life, Pride & Prejudice and Atonement. In addition, she has continued to appear on television, in productions such as Anne Frank: The Whole Story and War and Peace. Since 2011, she has played the title role of DCI Vera Stanhope in the British crime drama series Vera. Born in Ramsgate, Blethyn was the youngest of nine children in a Roman Catholic, working-class family, her mother, Louisa Kathleen, was a housewife and former maid, who met Blethyn's father, William Charles Bottle in 1922 while working for the same household in Broadstairs, Kent. Bottle had worked as a shepherd, spent six years in British India with the Royal Field Artillery prior to returning home to Broadstairs to become the family's chauffeur.
Before WWII, he found work as a mechanic at the Vauxhall car factory in Bedfordshire. The family lived in poor circumstances at their maternal grandmother's home, it was, not until 1944, after an engagement of twenty years and the births of eight children, that the couple wed and moved into a small rented house in Ramsgate. By the time Blethyn was born in 1946, her three eldest siblings, Pam and Bernard, had left home, her parents were the first to introduce Blethyn to the cinema. Blethyn trained at technical college and worked as a stenographer and bookkeeper for a bank. At the end of a marriage, she opted to turn her hobby of amateur dramatics to her professional advantage. After studying at the Guildford School of Acting, she went onto the London stage in 1976, performing several seasons at the Royal National Theatre; the shows she participated in during the following three years, included Troilus and Cressida, Tamburlaine the Great, The Fruits of Enlightenment opposite Sir Ralph Richardson, Bedroom Farce, The Passion and Strife.
After winning the London Critics' Circle Theatre Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1980, Blethyn made her screen debut, starring in the play Grown Ups as part of the BBC's Playhouse strand. Directed by Mike Leigh, their first collaboration marked the start of a professional relationship which would earn both of them huge acclaim. Blethyn followed this with roles in Shakespearean adaptations for the BBC, playing Cordelia in King Lear and Joan of Arc in Henry VI, Part 1, she appeared with Robert Bathurst and others in the popular BBC Radio 4 comedy series Dial M For Pizza. In the following years, Blethyn expanded her status as a professional stage actress, appearing in productions including A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Beaux' Stratagem and Born Yesterday, she was nominated for an Olivier Award for her performance as Sheila in Benefactors. Meanwhile, she continued with roles on British television, playing opposite Simon Callow as Tom Chance's frustrated fiancée Alison Little in three series of the sitcom Chance in a Million.
She had roles in comedies such as Yes Minister, Who Dares Wins and a variety of roles in the BBC Radio 4 comedy Delve Special alongside Stephen Fry and a role in the school comedy/drama King Street Junior. In 1989, she starred in The Labours of Erica, a sitcom written for her by Chance in a Million writers Richard Fegen and Andrew Norriss. Blethyn played Erica Parsons, a single mother approaching her fortieth birthday who realises that life is passing her by. Finding her teenage diary and discovering a list of twelve tasks and ambitions which she had set for herself, Erica sets out to complete them before reaching the milestone. After fifteen years of working in theatre and television Blethyn made her big screen debut with a small role in 1990s dark fantasy film The Witches; the film, based on the same-titled book by Roald Dahl, co-starred actresses Anjelica Huston and Jane Horrocks. Witches received positive reviews, as did Blethyn, whom Craig Butler of All Media Guide considered as a "valuable support" for her performance of the mother, Mrs Jenkins.
In 1991, after starring in a play in New York, Blethyn was recommended to Robert Redford to audition for the soft-spoken mother role in his next project A River Runs Through It. A period drama based on the same-titled 1976 novel by Norman Maclean starring Craig Sheffer a
Julia Emilie Neilson was an English actress best known for her numerous performances as Lady Blakeney in The Scarlet Pimpernel, for her roles in many tragedies and historical romances, for her portrayal of Rosalind in a long-running production of As You Like It. After establishing her reputation in a series of plays by W. S. Gilbert in 1888, Neilson joined the company of Herbert Beerbohm Tree, where she remained for five years, meeting her future husband, Fred Terry. With Terry, she played on tour for nearly three decades, she was the mother of actor Dennis Neilson-Terry. Neilson was born in London, the only child of Alexander Ritchie Neilson, a jeweller, his wife, Emilie Davis, a member of a family of five Jewish sisters, many of whose offspring became actresses. Neilson's parents divorced shortly after her birth, her father soon died, leaving her mother to struggle to support her child, her mother much married a solicitor, William Morris, the widower of the actress Florence Terry, elder sister of the actor Fred Terry, who had, by that time, married Neilson.
Neilson was an indifferent student. At the age of twelve, she was sent to a boarding school in Wiesbaden, where she learned to speak French and German and began to study music, discovering that she excelled at this, she returned to England to enter the Royal Academy of Music in 1884, at the age of fifteen, to study piano. She soon discovered that she had a talent as a singer, winning the Llewellyn Thomas Gold Medal, the Westmoreland Scholarship and the Sainton Dolby Prize. While at the Academy, in 1887, she sang at the St James's Hall and played roles in amateur theatre. Neilson met the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, who cast her in her first professional stage appearance in March 1888, she played Cynisca in a charity matinée of his play and Galatea, at the Lyceum Theatre, that year, in the same play, she was the lead character, Galatea, in a similar matinée at the Savoy Theatre. Gilbert suggested that the statuesque young woman concentrate her career on acting rather than singing, he coached her on acting.
Her next role was Lady Hilda in a revival of Gilbert's Broken Hearts. Gilbert wrote the lyrics to a short song for her to sing during Act I, she proposed that a fellow student of hers at the Royal Academy, Edward German, should set it to music, she played Selene in a revival of Gilbert's The Wicked World. In November 1888, she created the role of Ruth Redmayne in Rutland Barrington's production of Gilbert's Brantinghame Hall; these roles led to an invitation for Neilson to join Herbert Beerbohm Tree's company, in which she toured in Captain Swift, The Red Lamp and The Merry Wives of Windsor. She remained with Tree's company for five years at the Haymarket Theatre as a tragedienne, beginning with the role of Julie de Noirville in A Man's Shadow, which opened in September 1889. In 1891, Neilson married another actor in the company, Fred Terry, the brother of Gilbert's former protégée, Marion Terry. Neilson and her husband appeared together in Sydney Grundy's translation of the French play A Village Priest and numerous other productions together with Tree's company, including Beau Austin, Hamlet and Gilbert's Comedy and Tragedy.
She played Drusilla Ives in The Dancing Girl by Henry Arthur Jones, Terry and Neilson's daughter Phyllis was born in 1892. Neilson was soon back on stage as Lady Isobel in Jones's The Tempter, created the role of Hester Worsley in Oscar Wilde's A Woman of No Importance. A review of Neilson's performance in the play Ballad Monger in 1890 declared: Miss Neilson's wonderful singing took the curtain up on the keynote of the beautiful and pathetic play, and to her singing no higher tribute can be paid. One of these days, we do not doubt, it will be possible to write in the same strain about her acting. In that there is splendid promise, and the promise will come the more near to performance when she is a trifle less conscious of her remarkable physical beauty, of the fact that she has been to some extent rushed into her present position. In June 1894, Neilson and Terry appeared together in Shall We Forgive Her? by Frank Harvey at the Adelphi Theatre, with Neilson as Grace. The next year, she played Lady Chiltern in Wilde's comedy An Ideal Husband at the Haymarket under the management of Lewis Waller.
She gave birth to her second child, Dennis, in October 1895. Two months the family travelled to America to perform with John Hare's company. There they played together in New York in The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith by Arthur Wing Pinero, with Neilson as Agnes. In 1896, they returned to England where, at the St James's Theatre, Neilson played Princess Flavia in The Prisoner of Zenda by Anthony Hope, remaining at that theatre for two years. There she played Rosalind in the successful run of As You Like It, she played the title role in Pinero's The Princess and the Butterfly in 1897. Her husband appeared with her in The Tree of Knowledge and other plays from October 1897 until the summer of 1898. Next, they appeared in The Gipsy Earl. Again with Tree's company, now at Her Majesty's Theatre, Neilson was Constance in King John and Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream, they toured in As You Like It. The couple entered into management together in 1900, producing and starring in Sweet Nel
Julianne Moore is an American actress and children's author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is known for her portrayals of troubled women in both independent and Hollywood films, has received many accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actress. After studying theatre at Boston University, Moore began her career with a series of television roles. From 1985 to 1988, she was a regular in the soap opera As the World Turns, earning a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance, her film debut was in Tales from the Darkside: The Movie, she continued to play small roles for the next four years, including in the thriller The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. Moore first received critical attention with Robert Altman's Short Cuts, successive performances in Vanya on 42nd Street and Safe continued this acclaim. Starring roles in the blockbusters Nine Months and The Lost World: Jurassic Park established her as a leading lady in Hollywood. Moore received considerable recognition in the late 1990s and early 2000s, earning Oscar nominations for Boogie Nights, The End of the Affair, Far from Heaven and The Hours.
In the first of these, she played a 1970s pornographic actress, while the other three featured her as an unhappy, mid-20th century housewife. She had success with the films The Big Lebowski, Hannibal, Children of Men, A Single Man, The Kids Are All Right, Crazy, Stupid and won several awards for her portrayal of Sarah Palin in the television film Game Change. Moore went on to give an Academy Award-winning performance as an Alzheimer's patient in Still Alice and was named Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Maps to the Stars, she appeared in the final two films of The Hunger Games series and starred in the spy film Kingsman: The Golden Circle. In addition to acting, Moore has written a series of children's books about a character named "Freckleface Strawberry", she is married to director Bart Freundlich. Moore was born Julie Anne Smith on December 3, 1960, at the Fort Bragg army installation in North Carolina, the oldest of 3 siblings, her father, Peter Moore Smith, a paratrooper in the United States Army during the Vietnam War, attained the rank of colonel and became a military judge.
Her Scottish mother, was a psychologist and social worker from Greenock, who emigrated to the United States in 1951 with her family. Moore has a younger sister, Valerie Smith, a younger brother, the novelist Peter Moore Smith; as Moore is half-Scottish, she claimed British citizenship in 2011 to honor her deceased mother. Moore moved around the United States as a child, due to her father's occupation, she was close to her family as a result, but has said she never had the feeling of coming from one particular place. The family lived in multiple locations, including Alabama, Texas, Nebraska, New York, Virginia, Moore attended nine different schools; the constant relocating made her an insecure child, she struggled to establish friendships. Despite these difficulties, Moore remarked that an itinerant lifestyle was beneficial to her future career: "When you move around a lot, you learn that behavior is mutable. I would change, depending on where I was... It teaches you to watch, to reinvent, that character can change."When Moore was 16, the family moved from Falls Church, where Moore had been attending J.
E. B. Stuart High School, to Frankfurt, where she attended Frankfurt American High School, she was clever and studious, a self-proclaimed "good girl", she planned to become a doctor. She had never considered performing, or attended the theatre, but she was an avid reader and it was this hobby that led her to begin acting at the school, she appeared in several plays, including Tartuffe and Medea, with the encouragement of her English teacher, she chose to pursue a theatrical career. Moore's parents supported her decision, but asked that she train at university to provide the added security of a college degree, she was accepted to Boston University and graduated with a BFA in Theatre in 1983. Moore moved to New York City after graduating, worked as a waitress. After registering her stage name with Actors' Equity, she began her career in 1985 with off-Broadway theatre, her first screen role came in an episode of the soap opera The Edge of Night. Her break came the following year. Playing the dual roles of half-sisters Frannie and Sabrina Hughes, she found this intensive work to be an important learning experience, she said of it fondly: "I gained confidence and learned to take responsibility."
Moore performed on the show until 1988, when she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Ingenue in a Drama Series. Before leaving As the World Turns, she had a role in the 1987 CBS miniseries I'll Take Manhattan. Once she had finished the soap opera, she turned to the stage to play Ophelia in a Guthrie Theater production of Hamlet opposite Željko Ivanek; the actress returned intermittently to television over the next three years, appearing in the TV movies Money, Murder, The Last to Go, Cast a Deadly Spell. In 1990, Moore began working with stage director Andre Gregory on a workshop theatre production of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya. Described by Moore as "one of the most fundamentally important acting experiences I had", the group spent four years exploring the text and giving intimate performances to friends. In 1990, Moore made her cinematic debut as a mummy's victim in Tales from the Darksid
Paulette Goddard was an American actress, a child fashion model and a performer in several Broadway productions as a Ziegfeld Girl. Her most notable films were her first major role, as Charlie Chaplin's leading lady in Modern Times, Chaplin's subsequent film The Great Dictator, she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in So Proudly We Hail!. Her husbands included Chaplin, Burgess Meredith, Erich Maria Remarque. Goddard was the daughter of Joseph Russell Levy, the son of a prosperous Jewish cigar manufacturer from Salt Lake City, Alta Mae Goddard, of Episcopalian English heritage, they married in 1908 and separated while their daughter was young, although the divorce did not become final until 1926. According to Goddard, her father left them, but according to J. R. Levy, Alta absconded with the child. Goddard was raised by her mother, did not meet her father again until the late 1930s, after she had become famous. In a 1938 interview published in Collier's, Goddard claimed.
In response, Levy filed a suit against his daughter, claiming that the interview had ruined his reputation and cost him his job, demanded financial support from her. In a December 17, 1945 article written by Oliver Jensen in Life, Goddard admitted to having lost the case and being forced to pay her father $35 a week. To avoid a custody battle and her mother moved during her childhood relocating to Canada at one point. Goddard began modeling at an early age to support her mother and herself, working for Saks Fifth Avenue, Hattie Carnegie, others. An important figure in her childhood was her great-uncle, Charles Goddard, the owner of the American Druggists Syndicate, he played a central role in Goddard's career, introducing her to Broadway impresario Florenz Ziegfeld. In 1926, she made her stage debut as a dancer in Ziegfeld's summer revue, No Foolin', the first time that she used the stage name Paulette Goddard. Ziegfeld hired her for another musical, Rio Rita, which opened in February 1927, but she left the show after only three weeks to appear in the play The Unconquerable Male, produced by Archie Selwyn.
It was, closed after only three days following its premiere in Atlantic City. Soon after the play closed, Goddard was introduced to Edgar James, president of the Southern Lumber Company, located in Asheville, North Carolina, by Charles Goddard. Aged 17 younger than James, she married him on June 28, 1927 in Rye, New York, it was a short marriage, Goddard was granted a divorce in Reno, Nevada, in 1929, receiving a divorce settlement of $375,000. Goddard first visited Hollywood in 1929, when she appeared as an uncredited extra in two films, the Laurel and Hardy short film Berth Marks, George Fitzmaurice's drama The Locked Door. Following her divorce, she visited Europe before returning to Hollywood in late 1930 with her mother, her second attempt at acting was no more successful than the first, as she landed work only as an extra. In 1930, she signed her first film contract with producer Samuel Goldwyn to appear as a Goldwyn Girl in Whoopee!. She appeared in City Streets Ladies of the Big House and The Girl Habit for Paramount, Palmy Days for Goldwyn, The Mouthpiece for Warners.
Goldwyn and she did not get along, she began working for Hal Roach Studios, appearing in a string of uncredited supporting roles for the next four years, including Show Business, Young Ironsides, Pack Up Your Troubles, Girl Grief with Charley Chase. Goldwyn used Goddard in The Kid from Spain, The Bowery, Roman Scandals, Kid Millions; the year she signed with Goldwyn, Goddard began dating Charlie Chaplin, a relationship that received substantial attention from the press. It marked a turning point in Goddard's career when Chaplin cast her as his leading lady in his next box office hit, Modern Times, in 1936, her role as "The Gamin", an orphan girl who runs away from the authorities and becomes The Tramp's companion, was her first credited film appearance and garnered her positive reviews, Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times describing her as "the fitting recipient of the great Charlot's championship". Following the success of Modern Times, Chaplin planned other projects with Goddard in mind as a co-star, but he worked and Goddard worried that the public might forget about her if she did not continue to make regular film appearances.
She signed a contract with David O. Selznick and appeared with Janet Gaynor in the comedy The Young in Heart before Selznick lent her to MGM to appear in two films; the first of these, Dramatic School, co-starred Luise Rainer, but the film received mediocre reviews and failed to attract an audience. Her next film, The Women, was a success. With an all-female cast headed by Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, Rosalind Russell, the film's supporting role of Miriam Aarons was played by Goddard. Pauline Kael wrote of Goddard, "she is a stand-out. She's fun." Selznick was pleased with Goddard's performances her work in The Young in Heart, considered her for the role of Scarlett O'Hara. Initial screen tests convinced Selznick and director George Cukor that Goddard would require coaching to be effective in the role, but that she showed promise, she was the first actress given a Technicolor screen test. Russell Birdwell, the head of Selznick's publicity department, had strong misgivings about Goddard, he warned Selznick of the "tremendous avalanche of criticism that will befall us a
BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 3 is a British radio station operated by the BBC. Its output centres on classical music and opera, but jazz, world music, drama and the arts feature; the station describes itself as'the world's most significant commissioner of new music', through its New Generation Artists scheme promotes young musicians of all nationalities. The station broadcasts the BBC Proms concerts, live and in full, each summer in addition to performances by the BBC Orchestras and Singers. There newly commissioned drama. Radio 3 won the Sony Radio Academy UK Station of the Year Gold Award for 2009 and was nominated again in 2011. Radio 3 is the successor station to the BBC Third Programme which began broadcasting on 29 September 1946; the name Radio 3 was adopted on 30 September 1967 when the BBC launched its first pop music station, Radio 1 and rebranded its national radio channels as Radio 1, Radio 2, Radio 3, Radio 4. Radio 3 was the overall label applied to the collection of services which had until gone under the umbrella title of the Third Network, namely: the Third Programme proper the Music Programme sports coverage and adult educational programming in the early part of weekday evenings.
All these strands, including the Third Programme, kept their separate identities within Radio 3 until 4 April 1970, when there was a further reorganisation following the introduction of the structural changes, outlined the previous year in the BBC document Broadcasting in the Seventies. On 10 July 1969 the BBC published its plans for radio and television in a policy document entitled Broadcasting in the Seventies. Described in 2002 by Jenny Abramsky, Head of Radio and Music, as "the most controversial document produced by radio", the document outlined each station's target audience and what content should be broadcast on each channel; this concept went against the earlier methods laid out by the BBC's first Director General John Reith and caused controversy at the time, despite laying out the radio structure, recognisable today. At the time of the review, Radio 3 faced several problems. An early option to cut costs, required under the proposals, was to reduce the number of networks from four to three, so that Radio 3 would not broadcast during the day and would use the frequencies of either Radio 1 or 2 as the two stations would merge content.
However "Day-time serious music would be the casualty" of these proposals and caused some controversy. A further rumour was expressed that Radio 3 could be closed altogether as a strong statistical case existed against the station according to The Guardian. However, the Director-General, Charles Curran, publicly denied this as "quite contradictory to the aim of the BBC, to provide a comprehensive radio service". Curran had earlier dismissed any suggestion that Radio 3's small audience was a consideration: "What is decisive is whether there is a worthwhile audience, I mean by worthwhile an audience which will get an enormous satisfaction out of it."As a result of Broadcasting in the Seventies, factual content, including documentaries and current affairs, were moved to BBC Radio 4 and the separate titled strands were abolished. The document stated that Radio 3 was to have "a larger output of standard classical music" but with "some element in the evening of cultural speech programmes – poetry, plays".
Questions were being asked by the poet Peter Porter about whether other spoken content, for example poetry, would remain on the station. These concerns led to the composer Peter Maxwell Davies and the music critic Edward Greenfield to fear that "people would lose the mix of cultural experiences which expanded intellectual horizons". However, Radio 3 controller Howard Newby reassured these concerns by replying that only the coverage of political and economic affairs would be passed to Radio 4: Radio 3 would keep drama and talks by scientists and historians; the Broadcasting in the Seventies report proposed a large cutback in the number and size of the BBC's orchestras. In September 1969, a distinguished campaign group entitled the Campaign for Better Broadcasting was formed to protest, with the backing of Sir Adrian Boult, Jonathan Miller, Henry Moore and George Melly; the campaign objected to "the dismantling of the Third Programme by cutting down its spoken word content from fourteen hours a week to six" and "segregating programmes into classes".
Mention of the campaign reached debate in the House of Commons. From the launch until 1987, the controllers of Radio 3 showed preferences towards speech and arts programming as opposed to focus on classical music and the Proms; the first controller, made little contribution to the station, focusing on the transition from the Third programme to Radio 3 and as a result of the Broadcasting in the Seventies report. The second controller, Stephen Hearst who assumed the role in 1972, was different; as Hearst had been head of television arts features his appointment was seen with scepticism among the staff who viewed him as a populariser. According to Hearst when interviewed for Humphrey Carpenter's book, the main rival candidate for controller Martin Esslin, head of Radio Drama, had said to the interviewing panel that audience figures should play no part in the decision making process over programming. Hearst said he responded to the same question about this issue by commenting that as the station was financed by public money it needed to consider the size of its audience – there was a minimum viable figur