A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced in Latin America. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão, novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". Similar genres around the world include teleserye, téléroman, or dramas. In Spain, they are called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world; the significant difference is their series run length. This makes them shorter than most other television series, but still much longer than a miniseries; this planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas last between 30 and 45 minutes, more than an hour, except for final episodes; the telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur.
The medium has been used by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. By the 1970s and 1980s, Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil in the 1990s, played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, while Asia overtook the role in the 21st century, thus the so-called'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover taboo themes such as urban violence and homosexuality were incorporated into telenovelas. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama, were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
By 2018 some signs of fading popularity emerged. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are produced in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are shown during prime time; the first telenovelas were produced in Brazil and Mexico: Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, Senderos de amor and Ángeles de la calle were shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli; the first global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, the United States and other countries. Countries that produce well-known telenovelas are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Germany, the Philippines, Spain and the USA. Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: Working-class melodrama, the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content; this is reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.
Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period, the restoration of the Republic, the late 19th Century the Mexican Revolution, the 20th-century military dictatorships Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with Quinceañera in 1987. Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela, more cold-hearted than the other subgenres, it may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples families apart, such as Cuna de Lobos, La Casa al Final de la Calle, La Mujer de Judas, ¿Dónde está Elisa?, El Rostro de la Venganza or La Casa de al Lado. Chile has produced this genre. Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of comedy such as Las tontas no van al cielo "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or Yo soy Betty, la fea. Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in Alcanzar una estrella and its sequel Alcanzar una estrella II, as well as Rebelde, which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD.
Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent
Chiapas the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that along with the federal district of Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 124 municipalities as of September 2017 and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga, it is the southernmost state in Mexico. It is located in Southeastern Mexico, it borders the states of Oaxaca to the west, Veracruz to the northwest and Tabasco to the north, by the Petén, Quiché, Huehuetenango and San Marcos departments of Guatemala to the east and southeast. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas has a tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, rainfall can average more than 3,000 mm per year. In the past, natural vegetation in this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been completely cleared to allow agriculture and ranching.
Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is still abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas and many other tropical crops near Tapachula. On the several parallel "sierras" or mountain ranges running along the center of Chiapas, climate can be quite temperate and foggy, allowing the development of cloud forests like those of the Reserva de la Biosfera el Triunfo, home to a handful of resplendent quetzals and horned guans. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and Toniná, it is home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the state's history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions; the last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people. The official name of the state is Chiapas, it is believed to have come from the ancient city of Chiapan, which in Náhuatl means "the place where the chia sage grows."
After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities. The first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the modern coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the central valley of the state around 7000 BCE, but little is known about them; the oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools and weapons made of stone and bone. It includes burials. In the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. Recent excavations in the Soconusco region of the state indicate that the oldest civilization to appear in what is now modern Chiapas is that of the Mokaya, which were cultivating corn and living in houses as early as 1500 BCE, making them one of the oldest in Mesoamerica.
There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north, Olmec territory. One of these people's ancient cities is now the archeological site of Chiapa de Corzo, in, found the oldest calendar known on a piece of ceramic with a date of 36 BCE; this is. The descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, but had close relations with them the Olmecs of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands; the Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the state looking for amber with one of the main pieces of evidence for this called the Simojovel Ax. Mayan civilization began in the pre-Classic period as well, but did not come into prominence until the Classic period. Development of this culture was agricultural villages during the pre-Classic period with city building during the Classic as social stratification became more complex.
The Mayans built cities on west into Guatemala. In Chiapas, Mayan sites are concentrated along the state's borders with Tabasco and Guatemala, near Mayan sites in those entities. Most of this area belongs to the Lacandon Jungle. Mayan civilization in the Lacandon area is marked by rising exploitation of rain forest resources, rigid social stratification, fervent local identity, waging war against neighboring peoples. At its height, it had large cities, a writing system, development of scientific knowledge, such as mathematics and astronomy. Cities were centered on large political and ceremonial structures elaborately decorated with murals and inscriptions. Among these cities are Palenque, Yaxchilan, Toniná and Tenón; the Mayan civilization had extensive trade networks and large markets trading in goods such as animal skins, amber and quetzal feathers. It is not known what ended the civilization but theories range from over population size, natural disasters and loss of natural resources through over exploitation or climate change.
Nearly all Mayan cities collapsed around the same time, 900 CE. From until 1500 CE, social organization of the region fragmented into much smaller units and social structure became much less complex. There was some influence from the ris
Nada personal (1996 TV series)
Nada personal is a Mexican telenovela, broadcast in 1996. It was the first began on May 20 of that year, it was the production. It was the first telenovela of Ana Colchero after her leave from Televisa and the first telenovela that discussed political topics, she played the role of Camila but had to be replaced by Christianne Gout when Colchero had issues with the network. It was directed by Antonio Serrano, director of Teresa and the blockbuster film Sexo, pudor y lágrimas. Police chief Fernándo Gomez Miranda kills his friend, the well-respected lawyer and candidate for Attorney General, Raúl de Los Reyes and his youngest daughter of only thirteen in a vehicle ambush. Luis Mario, a sad-eyed broadcast journalist of passionate conviction, arrives on the scene soon after with his camara and discovers a wounded survivor in the car. Luis rushes her to the hospital, saving her life and thereby creating a bond between them that he cannot escape. Luis' police detective and half-brother, Alfonso Carbajal, is assigned to the case.
An old schoolmate of Camila's, he has long been in love with her and conflicts arise when all evidence points to Camila being involved in the drug trade. The two brothers find themselves caught between their professional duty that would require them to exploit Camila and their desire to protect her. Standing in their way is Fernando, busy fabricating evidence to sink Camila and at the same time taking a personal interest in Raúl's widow, María Dolores; each on his own and Luis Mario work to prove Camila's innocence and find the real killer, without knowing that the man they seek is their own father. The series is based on the life of the former Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari from 1988 to 1994 and his scandalous family story. José Ángel Llamas as Luis Mario Gómez Ana Colchero as Camila de los Reyes Christianne Gout as Camila de los Reyes Anna Ciocchetti as Elsa Grajales Rogelio Guerra as Comandante Fernando Gómez Miranda'El Águila Real' Lupita Ferrer as María Dolores de los Reyes Demián Bichir as Comandante Alfonso Carbajal Guillermo Gil as Mateo Joaquín Garrido as X Vanessa Acosta as Paula Martín Altomaro as Próspero aka "Pop" Mónica Dionne as Alicia Enoc Leaño as "Mandíbulas" Claudia Lobo as Alma Pilar Ixquic Mata as Rosalba Víctor Huggo Martin as Víctor/Hugo Loló Navarro as Xóchitl María Renée Prudencio as Soraya Gloria Peralta as Monica Martha Resnikoff as Ester Josefo Rodríguez as Esteban José Sefami as Marrana Lourdes Villareal as Benigna Dunia Zaldívar as Amalia Claudio Obregón as Raúl de los Reyes Gilberto Perez Gallardo as Lucio Nada personal at the telenovela database Nada personal on IMDb Nada personal at TV Azteca
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Don Juan Tenorio
Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes, is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla. It is the more romantic of the two principal Spanish-language literary interpretations of the legend of Don Juan; the other is the 1630 El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra, attributed to Tirso de Molina. Don Juan Tenorio owes a great deal to this earlier version, as recognized by Zorrilla himself in 1880 in his Recuerdos del tiempo viejo, although the author curiously confuses de Molina with another writer of the same era, Agustín Moreto. In the first part of the drama, the protagonist is still the demonic rake described by de Molina; the story begins with Don Juan meeting Don Luis in a crowded wine shop in Seville so that the two can find out which of them has won the bet that they made one year ago: each expected himself to be able to conquer more women and kill more men than the other. Don Juan wins on both counts. People in the crowd ask him if he isn't afraid that someday there will be consequences for his actions, but Don Juan replies that he only thinks about the present.
It is revealed that both caballeros have gotten engaged since they last met, don Luis to doña Ana de Pantoja and don Juan to doña Inés de Ulloa. Don Luis, his pride hurt, admits that Don Juan has slept with every woman on the social ladder from princess to pauper, but is lacking one conquest: a novice about to take her holy vows. Don Juan agrees to the new bet and doubles it by saying that he will seduce a novice and an engaged woman, boasting that he only needs six days to complete the task with don Luis's fiancee as one of the intended conquests. At this point, don Gonzalo, don Juan's future father-in-law, sitting in a corner during this entire exchange, declares that don Juan will never come near his daughter and the wedding is off. Don Juan laughs and tells the man that he will either give doña Inés to him, he now has the second part of the bet concreted with doña Inés set to take her vows. In following scenes, don Juan manages, through charisma and bribery, to fulfill both terms of the bet in less than one night.
However, he does not seduce the saintly doña Inés. There is a tender love scene in which each professes to love the other, it seems that, for once, don Juan does feel something more than lust for doña Inés. Don Luis arrives to demand a duel with don Juan for having seduced doña Ana while pretending to be her fiance. Before they can fight, don Gonzalo shows up with the town guardsmen and accuses don Juan of kidnapping and seducing his daughter. Don Juan kneels and begs don Gonzalo to let him marry doña Inés, saying he worships her and would do anything for her. Don Luis and don Gonzalo continue to demand his life. Don Juan declares that, since they have rejected him in his attempts to become a good person, he will go on being a devil, he shoots don Gonzalo, stabs don Luis in a duel, flees the country, abandoning the now fatherless doña Inés; the second part begins. Don Juan returns to Seville. Upon coming to the place where his father's mansion used to be, turned into a pantheon, he discovers that the building was torn down and a cemetery built in its place.
Lifelike statues of don Gonzalo, don Luis, doña Inés stand over the tombs. The sculptor, who has just finished his work when don Juan arrives, tells him that don Diego Tenorio, don Juan's father, had disowned his son and used his inheritance to build this memorial to his victims. Don Juan finds out that doña Inés died of sorrow not long after being abandoned; the protagonist is at least a bit repentant of what he has done, expressing regret to the statues and praying to doña Inés for forgiveness. As he prays, the statue of doña Inés comes to life and tells him that he only has one day to live, in which he must decide what his fate will be. Inés is speaking from Purgatory, having made a deal with God to offer her own blameless soul on behalf of don Juan's. God therefore agreed that their two souls would be bound together eternally, so don Juan must choose either salvation or damnation for both himself and doña Inés. Two of don Juan's old friends and Avellaneda, show up, don Juan convinces himself that he hadn't seen a ghost at all.
In order to prove his bravado, he heretically invites don Gonzalo's statue to dinner that evening. Don Juan goes on blaspheming against heaven and the dead throughout the following scenes, until don Gonzalo's statue does show up at supper. Don Juan manages to remain nonchalant, although both of his other guests pass out, as don Gonzalo tells him once more that his time is running out; when Avellaneda and Centellas wake up, don Juan accuses them of having contrived this show to make fun of him. Offended, they accuse him of having drugged their drinks to mock them, they end up in a swordfight; the third act of Part Two is difficult to describe in that various critics have interpreted it differently. Don Juan is back in the cemetery, led there by Don Gonzalo's ghost. Don Gonzalo's tomb reveals an hourglass that represents Don Juan's life, it has run out, Don Gonzalo says that Centellas killed don Juan in the duel. He takes Don Juan's arm to lead him into Hell. Don Juan protests that he reaches out to heaven for mercy.
Doña Inés appears and redeems him, the two go to Heaven tog
Corazón salvaje (1993 TV series)
Corazón Salvaje is a Mexican telenovela produced by José Rendón for Televisa in 1993. In addition to breaking audience records in issue, it is one of the most memorable and most successful telenovelas of all time. Is the third television adaptation by Maria Zarattini, about the legendary love triangle between two young countesses and Aimée with the illegitimate son of a wealthy landowner, Juan del Diablo; the historical advisor for this telenovela was Jose Ruiz de Esparza who advised the production of Alondra starred by Ana Colchero in the title role. Edith González and Eduardo Palomo starred as protagonists, while Ana Colchero, Ariel López Padilla, Arsenio Campos and the leading actress Claudia Islas starred as antagonists. César Évora, Isaura Espinoza, Yolanda Ventura, the leading actresses Luz María Aguilar, Queta Lavat, Queta Carrasco, the leading actors Julio Monterde and Enrique Lizalde starred as stellar performances. Francisco Alcazar is a wealthy landowner. Francisco is married to Sofia, a severe and uncompassionate woman, with whom he has a son named Andres.
Before his marriage to Sofia, Francisco had an affair with a married woman, physically abused by her husband. The woman died when the child was 3 years old; this love-child is, in fact, Francisco's true firstborn. When this woman became pregnant, her husband refused to recognize the boy as his son, he did not allow Francisco to recognize the child as his own. Thus, the boy named "Juan", became known as "Juan del Diablo". Juan's mother died of the shame and from the physical abuse she had received from her husband. Juan was raised in poverty and neglect. In his early teens, Juan's stepfather dies. Francisco, hiding the fact that Juan is his son, decides to invite him to live at his estate with his family, on the pretext of being a playmate for Andrés. Sofia tries to send Juan away, to which Francisco objects. Francisco has an accident while riding his horse before he could recognize Juan as his son. Francisco leaves a letter with his intentions addressed to lawyer Noel Mancera. Sofia seizes hides it.
On his deathbed, Francisco sends for his son Andrés, while not telling the truth, asks him to care for Juan as a brother. After his death, Sofía sends Juan away without saying anything to Andrés. Sofia decides to send Andrés to boarding school in Spain. Juan grows up among the sailors and pirates of the port-city, earning a shocking reputation for dirty business and harboring unbound loyalty from his men. Juan is a womanizer, his heart is still untaken, he has learned the identity of his biological father. Through the years, Mancera has given Juan some education, offered to give him his last name. However, Juan refuses the offer because he feels that a last name is unwarranted in his chosen occupation. Meanwhile, Mónica and Aimée are two beautiful young countesses, daughters of the deceased Count of Altamira, a distant cousin of Sofia de Alcazar; the Altamira family are respectable in high society, but they now find themselves in bankruptcy. Their only asset is their nobility and beauty, the long promise of betrothal between Monica and Andrés.
For Mónica, Andres has forgotten about their engagement. While visiting Mexico City, Andres meets. Aimee is beautiful and selfish, she shows interest in Andrés because he has wealth and power. Andrés falls in love with Aimée, a fact he shares with his mother when she comes to visit him; when Sofia returns home, she informs Catalina de Altamira that Andres has broken the engagement with Monica because he is now intent on marrying Aimee. Catalina is mortified at the thought of Monica's heartbreak. With her family's financial ruin in mind, Catalina reluctantly agrees to an engagement between Aimee and Andres; when Monica discovers that Andres has broken their engagement in order to marry her sister, she is heartbroken. Monica decides to enter a convent to become a nun. Monica tells everyone that becoming a nun is her true calling. Meanwhile, Aimée returns to her hometown with her mother. One day, while walking along the beach, she spies Juan taking a bath in his beach house. Aimee is unaware of his past or his connection to the Alcazar family.
She watches him from a distance. Over the next few days, Aimee returns several times to spy on Juan, he catches her while she's hiding. Soon after and Aimée fall in love and become lovers. Juan goes away on a business trip and Aimee promises to wait for his return and marry him; when Andres arrives in his hometown, Aimée agrees to marry Andres. Juan returns from his business trip several weeks as a millionaire. Juan discovers that Aimee is now married to his half-brother and decides to kidnap her so that she carries out her promise. Andres, who knows nothing about his kinship to Juan and the affair between him and his wife, decides to employ him as the steward of Campo Real, his country estate. Meanwhile, Monica leaves the convent to spend some time in the countryside with her family. Monica discovers the affair between Juan and Aimee. Monica confronts her sister. Since Monica decides to leave the convent, Andres attempts to redeem himself by proposing an engagement between Monica and his friend Alberto de la Serna.
Meanwhile, Andres learns that Juan is his brother and that he had an unseemly affair w
Grupo Televisa, S. A. B. is a Mexican multimedia mass media company and the largest in Hispanic America and the Spanish-speaking world. It is a major international entertainment business, with much of its programming airing in the United States on Univision, with which it has an exclusive contract. Since its beginning the company has been owned by the Azcárraga family; the company has been owned by three generations of Azcárraga. Grupo Televisa was founded in 1955 as Telesistema Mexicano, linking Mexico's first three television stations: XHTV-TV, XEW-TV and XHGC-TV. Along Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, the O'Farril family and Ernesto Barrientos Reyes, who had signed on Mexico's first radio station, XEW-AM, in 1930, its headquarters, known as Televicentro, were located on Avenida Chapultepec in downtown Mexico City. The building opened on February 10, 1952; the channel was the first national network to be broadcast in color in 1963. Before the launch, Telesistema began airing in color in the late 1950s in select cities along the U.
S.-Mexico border, given the fact that color signals were present since the start of US color television in the decade starting from 1954. In 1968, Telesistema's main competitor, Televisión Independiente de México, entered Mexico City with XHTM-TV Canal 8. At the time, both Telesistema and TIM competed with another new station, XHDF-TV channel 13, which started transmissions in 1968. Over the next four years, both networks competed in content and image until they merged, taking on the name Televisa in 1973. In the merger deal, the owners of Telesistema had 75 percent of the stocks, while the owners of Televisión Independiente had the rest, which were sold to Telesistema because of financial problems. On September 7, 1970, 24 Horas became one of Mexico's most watched news programs; the host, journalist Jacobo Zabludovsky, anchored the program for three decades. On August 17, 1972, Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta died, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo succeeded him as company president and owner. On January 8, 1973, both Telesistema Mexicano and Televisión Independiente de México merged, taking on the name Televisa, an acronym for Televisión Via Satélite in Spanish.
In 1975, brothers Emilio Diez Barroso and Fernando Diez Barroso began working in the presidency offices of Televisa. Televisa started to transmit several programs produced by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in 1977. On March 3, 1983, Canal 8 was reformatted to become a cultural channel, offering informative programs and cultural shows. In 1985, a frequency swap moved the station from channel 8 to 9, Televisa decided to swap its callsign for that of XEQ-TV, on channel 9 and broadcast from Altzomoni. Canal 9 became Galavisión, now known as Gala TV. On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale caused widespread damage in Mexico City and destroyed the south tower of Televisa's main building. Nonetheless, Televisa's transmissions were not affected. However, several dubbed TV shows were lost. In 1991, with help from Japanese public television network NHK, began its first broadcast in HDTV, using the Japanese MUSE system. Between 1993 and 1994 Televisa was about to buy Italian local TV station GBR, based in Rome, planning to import in Italy his mixed sport-telenovelas formula, but the transaction was aborted.
In April 1997, Milmo died and Emilio Azcárraga Jean succeeded him as the president of the company. In December 1997, Televisa joined with other Mexican media companies to create a marathon known as Teletón, whose mission is to provide knowledge about physical disabilities, giving a strong message about respect and support to people in these conditions; this movement from media and Mexicans is reflected in the buildings created with the money from this Marathon, named Centros de Rehabilitación Infantil. It is said that sponsors use it as a way to deduce taxes as the Teletón takes place at the end of the fiscal year and therefore allows companies to deduce their donations before declaring their incomes. Televisa is the largest mass media company in Latin America, it is owned by the Azcárraga family. Televisa controls 66% of the 465 television concessions. Televisa owns television programing and broadcasting, programing pay television, publishing distribution, cable television, radio production and broadcasting, football teams, Televisa editorial, paging services, professional sports and business promotion, film production and distribution, operation of horizontal internet portal, DVD distribution, EMI Televisa music, Playcity casino, etc.
Televisa is capable of creating, destroying or changing what audience believe or think about something or someone due to the high influence that it has over the society. In México, 6 of every 10 Mexicans get informed of what is happening in the country via television few people read newspapers, the access to internet and the programing pay television are limited to the middle and high classes; this is the reason of why Televisa has a great influence over the decisions in the Union Congress and over the politicians in México. Televisa determines who becomes a hero, who the villain. There is complicity between Mexican media and government. Media and political power in México have a symbiotic relationship where the economic elites that control