Anaconda Smelter Stack
The Anaconda Smelter Stack is the tallest surviving masonry structure in the world with an overall height of about 585 feet, including a brick chimney 555 feet tall and the downhill side of a concrete foundation 30 feet tall. It is a brick smoke stack or chimney, built in 1918 as part of the Washoe Smelter of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company at Anaconda, Montana in the United States. A terra cotta coating covered the entire brick chimney when new, but by the time the smelter closed in 1981, most had eroded away except for the upper 40%, exposing most of its bricks and reinforcing rods; the inside diameter at the bottom of the brick chimney is 76 feet while that at the top is about 60 feet. The stack and its viewing area are now the two part Anaconda Smoke Stack State Park; the overall height of the stack is 585 feet 1 1⁄2 inches, including a brick chimney 555 feet 1 1⁄2 inches tall and the downhill side of a concrete foundation 30 feet high. This was the height when new in 1918, but loss of the terra cotta that covered the top course of bricks since reduced its height one or more inches.
The lowest 68 feet of the brick chimney is an octagon, the vertices of which point to the cardinal and intercardinal directions, northeast, etc. while its sides face the secondary-intercardinal directions, north-northeast, east-northeast, etc. Two large vertical openings are in the octagonal portion, each 12.5 by 60 feet, on its east-southeast and south-southwest sides. When operational, the main flue carried hot exhaust gases to these openings and into the stack from the smelter, on the opposite side of the hill upon which the stack rests, its north side; the base of the octagon was 86 feet 7⁄8 inch side to side across its bottom before the loss of its terra cotta covering. But the inner surface of the octagon is circular with an inside diameter of 76 feet across its bottom; the wall thickness of the octagon at its bottom ranges from 64 inches at the center of a side to 102 inches at each vertex. The rest of the chimney is a tapering cylinder with a top inside diameter of 60 feet 2 inches and a wall thickness of 22 1⁄4 inches just below a flared top.
Its cylindrical portion plus the top 5 feet of the octagon are encircled by many large steel rods for reinforcement. It has had 20 lightning rods around its rim; the stack contains 2,464,652 locally manufactured perforated tile bricks, each averaging 2.7 times larger by volume than the size of a normal brick. Most are radial bricks; the brick chimney weighs 23,810 short tons. The lowest part of the stack is a concrete foundation or footing, built on sloped ground with a grade of 21% because it is just below the top of a hill, it is 30 feet high above ground at its downhill side and 10 feet high above ground at its uphill side. It is a hollow octagon, 89 feet side to side on top and 99 feet 6 inches side to side across its bottom, 33 feet high on its downhill side and 21 feet high on its uphill side, a third of the foundation being below ground; the stepped bottom of the foundation fits the stepped rock formation upon. The floor of the stack is conical leading 17 feet down below the brick chimney to a 5-by-33-foot rectangular grate into a 5-foot square horizontal duct that exits the stack at the center of the downhill side of the foundation on its south-southeast side.
This allowed any valuable metal dust particles left in the flue gases that precipitated down to that conical floor to be collected by a car on a track within the duct and sent back to the smelter for more processing. After the concrete foundation was completed in May 1918, construction of the stack began on May 23, 1918 and was completed on November 30, 1918, it was placed into operation on May 5, 1919. It was built by the Alphons Custodis Chimney Construction Company of New York under the direction of W. C. Capron, mechanical superintendent of the Washoe Smelting Company. At the time it was built, it was the tallest masonry, brickwork structure and chimney of any kind in the world and it remains the world's tallest surviving masonry structure. Taller masonry chimneys have since been demolished. Taller chimneys that still exist are made of reinforced concrete. See List of tallest chimneys; the Washington Monument would fit inside the stack's brick portion except for their lowest 100 feet where an overlap of as much as one foot at each corner of the monument would occur.
The stack's brick portion is about 6 inches taller than the monument's 2015 height. The masonry portion of the stack is about 15 inches taller than the above ground portion of the monument's masonry, which disregards the monument's aluminum apex; the stack was designed to discharge exhaust gases from the various roasting and smelting furnaces at the smelter. The smelter had a large network of exhaust flues from the furnaces that all fed a main flue, which carried them a half-mile south up the hill to the stack; the flue system and stack combined to provide a natural draft capable of carrying 3–4 million cubic feet per minute of exhaust gases. The Washoe Smelter was demolished after its closure in 1981; the stack alone, remains standing because the citizens of Anaconda organized to “Save the Stack.” It is referred to as "The Stack" or "The Big Stack" and is a well-k
Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company. It was one of the largest trusts of the early 20th century and one of the largest mining companies in the world for much of the 20th century. Founded in 1881 when Marcus Daly bought a silver mine, the company expanded based on the discovery of huge copper deposits. Daly built a smelter in Anaconda to process copper mined in Butte. Daly sold his assets in 1899 to H H William Rockefeller. By 1910, Amalgamated had expanded its operations and bought the assets of two other Montana copper companies. In 1922, Anaconda bought mining operations in Chile; the company added aluminum reduction to its portfolio in 1955. In 1960 its operations still had 37,000 employees in North Chile, it was purchased by Atlantic Richfield Company on January 12, 1977. Anaconda halted production in 1980, mining ceased in 1982 when the deep pumps keeping the mine drained were shut off, allowing the mine to fill.
It exists only as a massive environmental liability for Marathon Petroleum, the current owner of ARCO. Anaconda Copper Mining Company was started in 1881 when Marcus Daly bought a small silver mine called Anaconda near Butte, Montana. At the time, Daly was working for the Walker Bros. of Salt Lake City, Utah, as a mine manager and engineer of the Alice, a silver mine in Walkerville, a suburb of Butte. While working in the Alice, he noticed significant quantities of high grade copper ore. Daly obtained permission from the owner of the Anaconda and several other mines in the area, to inspect the workings, he knew the red mineral he was looking at. After Daly's employers refused to buy the Anaconda, Daly sold his interest in the Alice and bought it himself. Placer gold and silver lode mining had taken place at Butte, placer mining at Helena and Virginia City, Montana territory. Daly asked San Francisco mining magnate, for additional support. Hearst agreed to buy one-fourth of the new company's stock without visiting the site.
While mining the silver left in his mine, huge deposits of copper were soon developed and Daly became a copper magnate. When surrounding silver mines "played out" and closed, Daly bought up the neighboring mines, forming a mining company. Daly built a smelter at Anaconda and connected his smelter to Butte by a railway. Anaconda Company owned all the mines on Butte Hill. Butte, a small and poor town, became one of the most prosperous cities in the country called "the Richest Hill on Earth." From 1892 through 1903, the Anaconda mine was the largest copper-producing mine in the world. It produced more than $300 billion worth of metal in its lifetime. In 1889 the Rothschilds tried to gain control of the world copper market. In 1892 the French Rothschilds began negotiations to buy the Anaconda mine. In mid-October 1895 the Rothschilds and British, bought one quarter of the stock in Anaconda for $7.5 million. By the late 1890s the Rothschilds had control over the sale of about forty percent of the world's copper production.
The Rothschilds' role in Anaconda was brief. In 1899, Daly teamed up with two directors of Standard Oil to create the giant Amalgamated Copper Mining Company, one of the largest trusts of the early 20th century; the leading roles in the takeover were played by Henry Huttleston William Rockefeller. They were aided by company promoter Thomas W. Lawson. Although Rogers and William Rockefeller were Standard Oil directors, the company of Standard Oil did not have a stake in this business, nor did its founder and head, John D. Rockefeller, who disliked such stock promotions. By 1899 Amalgamated Copper acquired majority stock in the Anaconda Copper Company, the Rothschilds appear to have had no further role in the company. By his death in 1900, Marcus Daly had just become president of the holding company valued at $75 million. Lawson had a falling out with Rogers and Rockefeller, wrote of the experience in a book Frenzied Finance. Colored by Lawson's bitterness, the book offered insight into aspects of high finance.
At the beginning of the 1900s, due to electrification, copper was profitable, copper mining expanded rapidly. Between 1899 and 1915, controlled by Standard Oil insiders, stayed under the name of Amalgamated Copper Company. Amalgamated was in conflict with powerful copper king F. Augustus Heinze, who owned mines in Butte. Neither organization was able to monopolize copper extraction in Montana. In addition, although Butte was the most prolific copper-mining district in the world, Amalgamated could not control production from other copper-mining districts, such as those in Michigan and countries outside the United States. Marcus Daly died in 1900, his widow began a close friendship with a shrewd, intelligent businessman, John D. Ryan, who assumed the presidency of Daly's bank and management of his widow's fortune; the leaders of Amalgamated turned to Ryan, famous for his negotiation skills, for help in creating a monopoly at Butte. Control of producing mines was a key to high income. Ryan convinced Heinze to walk away with abundant compensation, taking over Heinze's properties, as well as the properties of William A. Clark.
The Rockefellers gained complete control of Butte's copper as they merged these companies with Amalgamated. The reorganized c
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
The Club Moderne is a bar in Anaconda, United States, in the Streamline Moderne style. It was built by Frank Wullus in 1937 for John Francisco; the facade was clad in Carrara glass. The interior was custom-designed and remained in a high state of preservation, with appropriate renovations in 1948. Chosen as "America's Favorite Historic Bar" in 2016 in a contest sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, beating out another notable Montana venue, the Sip'n Dip Lounge, The building was damaged by fire on the evening of October 3, 2016; the current owner, who owned the bar since 1997, expressed an intent to rebuild. Following a soft reopening on April 28, 2017, the remodeled bar reopened to the public on May 13, 2017; the owners had to replace much of the interior and refurbish the exterior, but attempted to retain its traditional look and feel. The bar and a few original furnishings were preserved along with some of the original facade. Historic American Buildings Survey No. MT-53-A, "Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Deer Lodge County, MT", 5 photos, 1 color transparency, 2 data pages, 2 photo caption pages
Butte–Anaconda Historic District
The Butte–Anaconda Historic District is a National Historic Landmark that spans parts of Walkerville and Anaconda, United States. It has the most resources of any U. S. National Historic Landmark District, it was declared an NHL in 1961. In 2006, the district was expanded to include parts of Walkerville and Anaconda, as well as the bed of the Butte and Pacific Railroad; the expanded district covers 9,774 acres with nearly 6,000 contributing properties of historic significance. New York's Adirondack Park and Alaska's Cape Krusenstern Archeological District are much larger by area, but may contain fewer contributing elements; the district's national significance relates to its long history of copper production as well as to its role in the development of the labor union movement in the United States. As the source of nearly one-third of all the world's copper in the early 1900s, Butte's mines provided one of the metals that were critical to American industrialization. Walkerville represents some of the earliest mines in the district and preserves the early mining camp flavor present in the 1890s to 1910s.
Butte itself is an urban metropolis where industrial relics such as mine yards and head frames are juxtaposed with a wide variety of residential and business structures. Anaconda was created as a company town; the Butte Anaconda and Pacific Railroad, connecting Butte and Anaconda, is a designated part of the expanded National Historic Landmark District. Known as the "Gibraltar of Unionism", Butte saw the early development of a mine worker's union in 1878; the Butte union's members were at the forefront of creating the Western Federation of Miners as well as the Industrial Workers of the World and the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Labor strife in Butte from 1914 to 1920 served as a model for corporate and union activities across the nation. Important factors in this labor history include the murder of Frank Little and the Anaconda Road Massacre. Events in Butte shaped the attitudes of politicians, including Burton K. Wheeler, long-time U. S. senator from Montana. List of National Historic Landmarks in Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Deer Lodge County, Montana Media related to Butte–Anaconda Historic District at Wikimedia Commons