click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Analemma

In astronomy, an analemma is a diagram showing the position of the Sun in the sky, as seen from a fixed location on Earth at the same mean solar time, as that position varies over the course of a year. The diagram will resemble the figure 8. Globes of Earth display an analemma; the north–south component of the analemma results from the change in the Sun's declination due to the tilt of Earth's axis of rotation. The east–west component results from the nonuniform rate of change of the Sun's right ascension, governed by combined effects of Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity. One can photograph an analemma by keeping a camera at a fixed location and orientation and taking multiple exposures throughout the year, always at the same time of day. Diagrams of analemmas carry marks that show the position of the Sun at various spaced dates throughout the year. Analemmas with date marks can be used for various practical purposes. Analemmas have been used in conjunction with sundials since the 18th century to convert between apparent and mean solar time.

Before this, the term has a more generic meaning that refers to a graphical procedure of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions, now known as orthographic projection. Although the term analemma refers to Earth's solar analemma, it can be applied to other celestial bodies as well. An analemma can be traced by plotting the position of the Sun as viewed from a fixed position on Earth at the same clock time every day for an entire year, or by plotting a graph of the Sun's declination against the equation of time; the resulting curve resembles a slender figure-eight with one lobe much larger than the other. This curve is printed on terrestrial globes in the eastern Pacific Ocean, the only large tropical region with little land, it is possible, though challenging, to photograph the analemma, by leaving the camera in a fixed position for an entire year and snapping images on 24-hour intervals. The long axis of the figure—the line segment joining the northernmost point on the analemma to the southernmost—is bisected by the celestial equator, to which it is perpendicular, has a "length" of twice the obliquity of the ecliptic, i.e. about 47°.

The component along this axis of the Sun's apparent motion is a result of the familiar seasonal variation of the declination of the Sun through the year. The "width" of the figure is due to the equation of time, its angular extent is the difference between the greatest positive and negative deviations of local solar time from local mean time when this time-difference is related to angle at the rate of 15° per hour, i.e. 360° in 24 h. This width of the analemma is 7.7°, so the length of the figure is more than six times its width. The difference in size of the lobes of the figure-eight form arises from the fact that the perihelion and aphelion occur far from equinoxes, they occur a mere couple of weeks after solstices, which in turn causes slight tilt of the figure eight and its minor lateral asymmetry. There are three parameters that affect the size and shape of the analemma—obliquity and the angle between the apse line and the line of solstices. Viewed from an object with a circular orbit and no axial tilt, the Sun would always appear at the same point in the sky at the same time of day throughout the year and the analemma would be a dot.

For an object with a circular orbit but significant axial tilt, the analemma would be a figure of eight with northern and southern lobes equal in size. For an object with an eccentric orbit but no axial tilt, the analemma would be a straight east–west line along the celestial equator; the north–south component of the analemma shows the Sun's declination, its latitude on the celestial sphere, or the latitude on the Earth at which the Sun is directly overhead. The east–west component shows the equation of time, or the difference between solar time and local mean time; this can be interpreted as. It shows how far west or east the Sun is, compared with its mean position; the analemma can be considered as a graph in which the Sun's declination and the equation of time are plotted against each other. In many diagrams of the analemma, a third dimension, that of time, is included, shown by marks that represent the position of the Sun at various closely spaced, dates throughout the year. In diagrams, the analemma is drawn.

If north is at the top, west is to the right. This corresponds with the sign of the equation of time, positive in the westward direction; the further west the Sun is, compared with its mean position, the more "fast" a sundial is, compared with a clock. If the analemma is a graph with positive declination plotted upward, positive equation of time is plotted to the right; this is the conventional orientation for graphs. When the analemma is marked on a geographical globe, west in the analemma is to the right, while the geographical features on the globe are shown with west to the left. To avoid this confusion, it has been suggested that analemmas on globes should be printed with west to the left, but this is not done, at least, not frequently. In practice, the analemma is so nearly symmetrical that the shapes of the mirror images are not distinguished, but if date markings are present, they go in opposite directions; the Sun moves eastward on the analemma near the solstices. This can be used to tell which way the analemma is p

Death Fiend

Death Fiend is an unreleased demo tape by the Swiss extreme metal band Hellhammer. It was recorded in June 1983, along with the Triumph of Death demo, appeared on the compilation album Demon Entrails. "Maniac" – 4:15 "Angel of Destruction" – 3:03 "Hammerhead" – 2:57 "Bloody Pussies" – 5:35 "Death Fiend" – 2:44 "Dark Warriors" – 3:15 "Chainsaw" – 4:12 "Ready for Slaughter" – 3:45 "Sweet Torment" – 2:17 Thomas Gabriel Fischer a.k.a. Satanic Slaughtervocals, guitars Urs Sprenger a.k.a. Savage Damage – bass Jörg Neubart a.k.a. Bloodhunter – drums Fischer, T. G.. Are You Morbid? Into the Pandemonium of Celtic Frost. London: Sanctuary Publishing Limited

Gene Lyda

Gene Lyda was raised in the San Antonio, Texas area and gained regional fame as a professional bull rider. Lyda now manages the Fort Stockton Division of La Escalera Ranch, one of the largest Black Angus cattle ranches in Texas. Gene Lyda was born in the South Texas brush country in Nixon, Texas on June 20, 1947. Lyda competed in the bareback bronc riding and bull riding as a youth. In 1966, he won the State High School Bull Riding Championship in Hallettsville, the 1966 National High School Bull Riding championship in Wetumka and the Levi's Award - Reserve All Around Cowboy Championship, he joined the Rodeo Cowboys Association and competed in the bull riding at intercollegiate rodeos while on a rodeo scholarship with Southwest Texas Junior College in Uvalde, Texas. In 1967, Lyda won the National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association Reserve Champion Bull Riding title. Lyda competed professionally at National Western Stock Show Rodeo, Grand National Rodeo, Cheyenne Frontier Days, Pendleton Round-Up, American Royal Rodeo, Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, Fort Worth Stock Show and Rodeo and Calgary Stampede.

In 1967, he qualified to compete at the National Finals Rodeo in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma as one of the Top 15 Bull Riders in the nation. At the Finals, Lyda rode 7 out of 8 bulls at the National Finals Rodeo; when his father Gerald Lyda acquired ranch property in New Mexico, Lyda was chosen to manage the family cattle operations and established a headquarters on the family-owned Ladder Ranch, near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico in Sierra County. When media mogul Ted Turner and his then-wife Jane Fonda purchased Ladder Ranch, rather than re-branding the 5,000 family-owned cattle, Lyda registered the brand in Texas under the Spanish word for "ladder" and relocated the cattle to a new ranch, La Escalera Ranch, where Lyda and his family have lived since the early 1980s. La Escalera Ranch now extends over portions of Pecos County, Brewster County, Baylor County and Archer County; the ranch is owned and operated by La Escalera Limited Partnership, a family entity controlled by Lyda siblings, Gene Lyda, Gerald D. Lyda and Eunita Jo Lyda.

La Escalera Ranch Pecos County, Texas Gerald Lyda Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association National Finals Rodeo Bull Riding Rodeo La Escalera Ranch - Official Website Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association National High School Rodeo Association - Past Champions Texas Youth Rodeo Association "La Escalera, Texas - The Roundup: Workin' Calves" - Over 200 digital images of typical West Texas roundup by Trey Lyda New Mexico Business Journal - Gene Lyda & the Ladder Ranch - May 1991 Interview with Gene Lyda, February 18, 2000. University of Texas at San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures: Oral History Collection, UA 15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections

Cheirocerus

Cheirocerus is a genus of long-whiskered catfishes native to South America. There are three recognized species in this genus: Cheirocerus abuelo Cheirocerus eques Eigenmann, 1917 Cheirocerus goeldii Cheirocerus is distributed throughout much of the Amazon River basin, appear to be absent from the Orinoco River. C. abuelo occurs in the Lake Maracaibo basin, C. eques in the Amazon River basin, C. goeldii in the Purus River basin. C. Goeldii is more typical of lowland large rivers where the water may be warmer and deeper, though it may occur far upstream. C. eques appears to occur closer to Andean foothills. Species of Cheirocerus have a ventral mouth with fleshy lips, a broad premaxilla, a crimped gas bladder that appears to have fringe or finger-like projections, the slender hollow tube extensions on each side of the gas bladder; these fish have an undeveloped dorsal fin locking no dorsal fin spine. They have a long adipose fin; these species all have three pairs of barbels. C. eques and C. goeldii display some geographic variations in certain morphometric characteristics.

C. Abuelo has a dusky-gray body colouration that varies from plain to having numerous small brown spots, has a broad, diffuse band crossing the nape at the dorsal fin origin. Both C. goeldii and C. eques have a uniform body colouration without spots. C. Abuelo appears to attain the largest size of the three species. By contrast, the largest known C. eques is about 14 centimetres and the largest C. goeldii is about 15 centimetres. Cheirocerus species are nocturnal; this is evidenced by the specialized gas bladder, hypothesized to enhance hearing, the poorly developed pigmentation. Diet consists of benthic invertebrates, with chironomid larvae being a dominant component, but including ostracods and mayfly nymphs

Paul Hurley

Paul Michael Hurley is a professional ice hockey player who played 477 games in the World Hockey Association and 1 game in the National Hockey League between 1969 and 1977. At Melrose high school, he was a 3-time Middlesex all-star, 2-time first team all-scholastic, 2-time first team high school all-American, 2-time award winner as the outstanding defenseman for the New England school boy tournament. Paul was part of the school's undefeated 1962 team that won the Middlesex league and New England school boy hockey champions. During 1963 at Melrose High School, Paul tied for the league scoring championship while playing defense, he was first team Middlesex all-star, all-State and New England tournament all-star, scoring 26 goals. Paul was inducted into the first Melrose High School sports hall of fame. Paul went to Deerfield Academy for 1-year post graduate in 1964, he was recognized as a first team all-prep all-star. During his freshman year at Boston College, he led the freshman Boston College Eaglets with 22 goals in 18 games as a defenseman.

During his junior year, the only year he played forward, Hurley scored 32 goals in 28 games and had 6 hat tricks. During his college career, he was an All-New England, All-East and first team All-American award recipient. During his senior year, Paul was recognized as the Boston College team MVP and was a first team All-American defenseman. Paul was inducted into the Boston College sports hall of fame. While playing hockey at Boston College, Hurley was a member of the United States men's national ice hockey team for two years, playing in the 1967 Ice Hockey World Championships and the 1968 Winter Olympics. At the end of his senior year of college hockey, Hurley was signed as a free agent by the Boston Bruins, he played his first and only NHL professional hockey game on March 30, 1969. During that game and Ron Murphy assisted on Phil Esposito's 48th goal of the season making the Bruins the first team to reach 300 goals in a season. Paul started his WHA career with the New England Whalers in 1972-1973 and was part of the team's AVCO Cup champions of the World Hockey Association.

In 1975, while with the Whalers, Paul won the team's Unsung Hero Award. He played for Edmonton Oilers and Calgary Cowboys. List of players who played only one game in the NHL Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database

Kyrkogården Runestones

The Kyrkogården Runestones are three Viking Age memorial runestones located at the cemetery of St. Mary's Church in Sigtuna, Stockholm County, Sweden, in the historic province of Uppland. One of the runic inscriptions documents the existence of a Viking Age mercantile guild in Sweden; the inscription on the runestone listed as U 379 in the Rundata catalog consists of runic text in the younger futhark on a serpent that encircles a cross. The inscription on the granite stone is classified as being carved in runestone style KB, a designation used for designs that feature serpents bordered or framed by a runic text band; the runic text indicates that the stone was a memorial raised by members of a mercantile guild in memory of one of their members named Þorkell. U 379 is one of four runestones that mention guilds in Viking Age Sweden, the others being U 391 in Prästgatan, Ög 64 in Bjälbo, Ög MÖLM1960; these stones and others which discuss félags are evidence of the trading activities during this period of Scandinavian history, U 379 evidence of Sigtuna being a center of trade.

Both U 379 and U 391 refer to a Frisian guild. Although merchants from Frisia dominated trade in northwest Europe from about 725 to 830, it is not believed that these two runestones indicate that the guild consisted of ethnic Frisians since the runic text is in Old Norse and the names are Scandinavian, it has been suggested that the word frisa in the late Viking Age had come to denote any person, a merchant, that Frisian guild on these runestones meant a mercantile guild. U 379 is signed by a runemaster named Þorbjôrn, who may either be the runemaster with the normalized name Torbjörn or Torbjörn skald; the name Torbjörn skald is on U 29 in Hillersjö and U 532 in Roslags-Bro, there are several stones signed only with Þorbjôrn. Of these, it is believed that the same runemaster named Þorbjôrn that carved U 379 signed U 391 in Prästgatan, which mentions a guild, U 467 in Tibble. Of the names in the inscription, Þorkell is a diminutive form of Þorketil, which includes as a theophoric name element the Norse pagan god Thor and means a "Vessel of Thor" or "Kettle of Thor" referring to a type of sacrificial cauldron.

The Poetic Edda poem Hymiskviða includes a story of Thor fetching a large cauldron to brew ale. The name Þorbjôrn refers to the Norse god and translates as "Thor Bear". Although the names may refer to Norse pagan gods, this does not indicate any belief as the inscription indicates a Christian faith with its cross. + frisa: kiltar * letu * reisa * sein: þensa: efiʀ * --- ----a * sin: kuþ: hialbi: ant * hans: þurbiurn: risti Frisa gildaʀ letu ræisa stæin þennsa æftiʀ Þora sinn. Guð hialpi and hans. Þorbiorn risti. The Frisian guild-brothers had this stone raised in memory of their guild-brother. May God help his spirit. Þorbjôrn carved. U 380 is the designation for a runestone with a worn inscription, with two possible names read from the runes; the personal name Ásbjôrn from the inscription means "Devine Bear" and has a name element related to the Æsir, the principal gods of Norse mythology....s--arn' auk * kus * li...... sorn ok Kuss/Guss le... Ásbjôrn and Kúss/Guss had... U 381 is the designation for a runestone, part of the outer wall of the Gerner family mausoleum near St. Mary's Church.

Before the historical significance of runestones was understood, they were re-used as materials in the construction of roads and buildings like churches. The inscription on this stone is partial and only a few words that are part of a prayer can be read....-n * ui-......:......n: resa:......ita...a...u * kuþ: hiabi at *.................. ræisa...... Guð hialpi and.................. raised...... May God help spirit