Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject to another, or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction and abduction, in which at least one of the premises, or the conclusion, is general rather than particular in nature; the term analogy can refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, as well as decision making, perception, memory, invention, emotion, conceptualization and communication, it lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places and people, for example, in face perception and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition". Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, metaphors, similes and parables, but not metonymy.
Phrases like and so on, the like, as if, the word like rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense but in science, philosophy and the humanities; the concepts of association, correspondence and morphological homology, iconicity, metaphor and similarity are related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy. Analogy is a basis for any comparative arguments as well as experiments whose results are transmitted to objects that have been not under examination. Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers; the last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notably in cognitive science. With respect to the terms source and target there are two distinct traditions of usage: The logical and cultures and economics tradition speaks of an arrow, mapping, or morphism from what is the more complex domain or source to what is the less complex codomain or target, using all of these words in the sense of mathematical category theory.
The tradition in cognitive psychology, in literary theory, in specializations within philosophy outside of logic, speaks of a mapping from what is the more familiar area of experience, the source, to what is the more problematic area of experience, the target. In ancient Greek the word αναλογια meant proportionality, in the mathematical sense, it was indeed sometimes translated to Latin as proportio. From there analogy was understood as identity of relation between any two ordered pairs, whether of mathematical nature or not. Kant's Critique of Judgment held to this notion. Kant argued that there can be the same relation between two different objects; the same notion of analogy was used in the US-based SAT tests, that included "analogy questions" in the form "A is to B as C is to what?" For example, "Hand is to palm as foot is to ____?" These questions were given in the Aristotelian format: HAND: PALM:: FOOT: ____ While most competent English speakers will give the right answer to the analogy question, it is more difficult to identify and describe the exact relation that holds both between pairs such as hand and palm, between foot and sole.
This relation is not apparent in some lexical definitions of palm and sole, where the former is defined as the inner surface of the hand, the latter as the underside of the foot. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, analogy is an easier one; this analogy is not comparing all the properties between a hand and a foot, but rather comparing the relationship between a hand and its palm to a foot and its sole. While a hand and a foot have many dissimilarities, the analogy focuses on their similarity in having an inner surface. A computer algorithm has achieved human-level performance on multiple-choice analogy questions from the SAT test; the algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words by statistical analysis of a large collection of text. It answers SAT questions by selecting the choice with the highest relational similarity. Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle used a wider notion of analogy, they saw analogy as a shared abstraction. Analogous objects did not share a relation, but an idea, a pattern, a regularity, an attribute, an effect or a philosophy.
These authors accepted that comparisons, metaphors and "images" could be used as arguments, sometimes they called them analogies. Analogies should make those abstractions easier to understand and give confidence to the ones using them; the Middle Age saw theorization of analogy. Roman lawyers had used analogical reasoning and the Greek word analogia. Medieval lawyers distinguished analogia legis and analogia iuris. In Islamic logic, analogical reasoning was used for the process of qiyas in Islamic sharia law and fiqh jurisprudence. In Christian theology, analogical arguments were accepted in order to explain the
Saseong Hermitage, Saseongam, is located in Gurye County on Mount Osan, a foothill of Jirisan in the province of Jeollanam-do, South Korea. Saseongam is said to have been built in 544, the 22nd year of the reign of King Seong of Baekche, by Priest Yeongi Josa, but there are no records to substantiate it. Yeongi Josa is credited with establishing the nearby Hwaseomsa and Yeongoksa; the hermitage was called Osanam, being positioned near the 531 meter/1,742 foot summit of mount Osan, before it was renamed Saseongam, or the Hermitage of Four Saints, in honor of the four high priests Yongi Chosa, Wonhyo Daesa, Toseon Kuksa, Chinkak Seonsa, that lived and studied here. Records do indicate that both Great Master Wonhyo Daesa and National Master Doseon Guksa practiced the Dharma in retreat on these cliffs when they visited this area. Hermitage buildings were reconstructed under supervision of National Meditation-Master Jingak Seonsa; the Main Hall was reconstructed in the 1980s. It is believed that the high priests practiced asceticism here for an interval from the closing period of Unified Silla era through the Goryeo Kingdom era.
Two halls, at the front of the hermitage are supported by large painted pillars, are set against the steep granite cliff, two other halls rest atop a crest to the west of the main hall. Around Mount Osan are found many peculiarly shaped rocks, one of which has an engraving of a standing Buddha; the Main Hall sits atop three massive red wood pillars positioned in front a standing Buddha cut into rock face, called Maaeyeoraeipsang. The Buddha carved into the rock face is visible through a large glass window that makes up most of the back wall of the main hall. Cultural authorities estimate. A steep stone stairway leads up to a bridge. Jijangjeon is found up a second set of stone stairways to the west of the main hall behind a lesser hall perched atop two large red wood pillars. Jijangjeon is a tribute building for the Bodhisattva Jijang, or Ksitigarbha, the Bodhisattva who cures suffering. Jijang goes to the various levels of hell and pleads with the souls of men to repent. Sanshingak is a small hall dedicated to Sanshin behind Jijangjeon.
Sanshin are the local gods of mountains represented as an elder male figure surrounded by tigers. Doseongul is just a passageway between gigantic cliff-boulders next to Sanshingak, it is said that Great Monk Wonhyo Daesa spent some time meditating in here, that 200 years National Master Doseon Guksa lived here for a short time while working on the theory of Korea's adaptation of Feng shui, Pungsu-jiri-seol. Saseongam is Jeollanamdo Cultural Property Material #33
FedEx Office Print & Ship Services Inc. is an American retail chain that provides an outlet for FedEx Express and FedEx Ground shipping, as well as printing and binding services. While FedEx dropped the Kinko's name in 2008, to the dismay of the founder, the name remains in use. Unlike its main competitor, The UPS Store, franchised, all FedEx Office stores are corporate-owned. Paul Orfalea, whose nickname was "Kinko" because of his curly hair, founded the company as Kinko's in 1970, its first copy shop, which Orfalea opened with a sidewalk copy machine, was in the college community of Isla Vista, California next to the campus of the University of California, Santa Barbara. He left the company in 2000, following a dispute with the investment firm Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, to which he had sold a large stake in the company three years earlier. Kinko's played a significant role in the development of American counterculture in the 1980s and 1990s. In her study of the role of xerography in urban cultures in this period, the anthropologist Kate Eichhorn recounts: At its height of popularity between the late 1980s and mid-1990s, Kinko's outlets in urban centres across North America were catch basins for writers, anarchists, insomniacs, graduate students, DIY bookmakers, obsessive compulsive hobbyists, scam artists, people living on the street, people just living on the edge.
Whether you were promoting a new band or publishing a pamphlet on DIY gynaecology or making a fake ID for an underage friend, Kinko's was the place to be. Orfalea wrote in his autobiography that disentangling him from Kinko's took enormous effort from the lawyers at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher; the problem was that rather than adopt the traditional franchising model, he had built the company as a series of loosely connected personal partnerships between each store owner and himself. By 1997, he had established over 127 Kinko's partnerships. All had to be dismantled and rolled into a single S corporation to convert the company to a more centralized corporate-owned business model. Orfalea and several other key partners believed doing so would decrease time Orfalea spent mediating disputes between different factions of Kinko's partnerships and enable the oldest partners to cash out smoothly and transition to a new generation of managers. However, the new structure made it easier for CDR to force him out of his own company.
Kinko's corporate headquarters was in Ventura, California for many years, but in 2002, the company relocated to Galleria Tower in Dallas, Texas. In February 2004, FedEx bought Kinko's for $2.4 billion, which became known as FedEx Kinko's Office and Print Centers. Prior to the FedEx acquisition, most Kinko's stores were open 24 hours a day. After the acquisition, FedEx reduced the hours for many locations. On June 2, 2008, FedEx announced that they were re-branding FedEx Kinko's as FedEx Office, the retail branch of the FedEx Corporation; as of early 2010, some stores and branding still showed FedEx Kinko's signage. To ease customer confusion during the transition period, many stores displayed a large purple sign in the window that said "Kinko's Printing Inside." Brian Phillips is the President and Chief Executive Officer, following Ken May's departure on March 7, 2008. The company's primary clientele are small home office clients. According to the company, it has 1,900 operating facilities. With over $2 billion in revenues, the company is the 7th largest printing company in North America.
The company's primary competitors in the crowded North American market include The UPS Store, Office Depot, OfficeMax, AlphaGraphics, Sir Speedy, Vistaprint. Kinko's pursued an international expansion strategy during the boom years of the 1990s and early 2000s. Countries hosting FedEx Office centers outside the U. S. include Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. Kinko's operated in Australia and the Netherlands but withdrew from those markets in late 2008 due to low demand. During the 2008–2012 global recession, FedEx Office subsequently withdrew from China, South Korea and the United Kingdom. Konica Minolta bought the South Korean operations from FedEx. On July 24, 2017, Fedex announced that its 24 Canadian stores, a manufacturing plant in Markham and its head office in Toronto, will be closing on August 18, 2017 after 32 years of operation with 214 employees being laid off. FedEx's Canadian shipping operations will continue, however. In March 2018, FedEx Office announced that it would open 500 stores inside of Walmart locations throughout the U.
S. Besides traditional full-service copy and print shop services, all stores provide a number of self-service features: color and monochrome photocopiers, fax machines, laminating machines, digital photo printer kiosks, several desktop computer rentals, of which one always has an image scanner and some design software installed; the computers available for rental are connected to at least one color and one monochrome laser printer. Some newer stores charge less for monochrome prints. Most locations have at least one or two empty seating areas for patrons to use their own laptop computers, using complimentary Wi-Fi connections provided by AT&T; the stores offer a selection of office supplies and business books for retail purchase. Official website