SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anapanasati

Ānāpānasati, meaning "mindfulness of breathing", is a form of Buddhist meditation taught by Gautama Buddha in several suttas including the Ānāpānasati Sutta. Ānāpānasati is now common to Tibetan, Zen and Theravada Buddhism as well as Western-based mindfulness programs. Defined, Anapanasati is to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body as is practiced in the context of mindfulness meditation. Anapanasati is a core meditation practice in Theravada and Chan traditions of Buddhism as well as a part of many mindfulness programs. In both ancient and modern times, anapanasati by itself is the most used Buddhist method for contemplating bodily phenomena; the Ānāpānasati Sutta concerns mindfulness of inhalation and exhalation, as a part of paying attention to one's body in quietude, recommends the practice of anapanasati meditation as a means of cultivating the Seven Factors of Enlightenment: sati, dhamma vicaya, which leads to pīti to passaddhi, which in turn leads to samadhi and to upekkhā.

The Buddha taught that, with these factors developed in this progression, the practice of anapanasati would lead to release from dukkha, in which one realizes nibbana. A traditional method given by the Buddha in the Anapanasati Sutta is to go into the forest and sit beneath a tree and to watch the breath, if the breath is long, to notice that the breath is long, if the breath is short, to notice that the breath is short. While inhaling and exhaling, the meditator practises: training the mind to be sensitive to one or more of: the entire body, pleasure, the mind itself, mental processes training the mind to be focused on one or more of: inconstancy, dispassion and relinquishment steadying, satisfying, or releasing the mind. A popular non-canonical method used today, loosely based on Buddhaghosa's commentary the Visuddhimagga, follows four stages: counting exhalations in cycles of 10 counting inhalations in cycles of 10 focusing on the breath without counting focusing only on the spot where the breath enters and leaves the nostrils.

Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā teaches the counting of breaths to 10 as does the dhyāna sutras translated into Chinese by An Shigao. This is organized into a teaching called "the six aspects" or "the six means" which according to Florin Deleanu: The practice starts with "counting", which consists in counting breathing from one to ten; when this is accomplished without any counting failure, the practitioner advances to the second step, i.e. "pursuing", which means intently following the inhalation as it enters the body and moves from the throat, through the heart, the navel, the kidneys, the thighs to the toes and the reverse movement of the exhalation until it leaves the body. Next comes "concentration" which denotes focusing one's attention on some part of the body from the tip of the nose to the big toe. In the fourth step, called" observation", the practitioner discerns that the air breathed in and out as well as form and mental functions consists of the four great elements, he thus analyzes all the five aggregates.

Next follows "the turning away" which consists of changing the object of observation from the air breathed in and out to "the wholesome roots" of purity and to "the highest mundane dharma". The last step is called "purification" and it marks entering the stage of "realization of the Way", which in Abhidharma literature denotes the stage of "the stream entry" that will lead the adept to Nirvana in no more than seven lives. Anapanasati is described in detail in the Anapanasati Sutta: Breathing in long, he discerns,'I am breathing in long'. Or breathing in short, he discerns,'I am breathing in short', he trains himself,'I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.' He trains himself,'I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.' He trains himself,'I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.' He trains himself,'I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.' If it is pursued and well developed, it is said to bring great benefit: "This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit."

As for the training, the Anapanasati sutta states: On whatever occasion the monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world, on that occasion his mindfulness is steady & without lapse. When his mindfulness is steady & without lapse mindfulness as a factor for awakening becomes aroused, he develops it, for him it goes to the culmination of its development. First, for the practice to be successful, one should dedicate the practice, set out the goal of the meditation session. One may decide to either practice anapanasati while seated or standing or lying down or walking, or to alternate seated, lying down and walking meditation. One may concentrate on the breath going through one's nose: the pressure in the nostrils on each inhalation, the feeling of the breath moving along the upper lip on each exhalation. Other times practitioners are advised to attend to the breath at the tanden, a point below the navel and beneath the surface of the

Roki Spa

The Roki Spa was an army of mercenaries between the 12th and 13th centuries recruited by Georgian monarchs during the wars. The term Roki was adopted from Byzantine Empire — Roga, that meant cash salary remunerations paid to members of the armed forces and civil service, it was formed after the successful military reforms of David IV of Georgia. He made provision for the recruitment of a mercenary army among Alans, Durdzuks, Kurds, etc, they were headed by Monatukhutsesi. Their duty was protection of strategic places, such as castles in frontier provinces, where they would be headed by Tsikhistavi; the number of employees depended on the country's economic ability. The hired mercenaries were sometimes paid with money, sometimes in nature. In order to pay a hired army, the government imposed special taxes. Between the 12th to 13th centuries, such a tax was called "Sak'ivchak'o"; the mercenaries were used by the central authorities against both the foreign enemy, as well as feudal opposition. The mercenary army was never a major military force of Georgian feudal army, it only served as a supportive force.

Hetaireia Varangian Guard Monaspa Baramize, A. Shot’a Rust’veli da misi poema. Tbilisi, 1966. Nikoloz Berdzenishvili, Issues Concerning History of Georgia, 7nd ed. ჩხატარაიშვილი ქ. უცხოელები XII საუკუნის საქართველოს ლაშქარში, კრ.: საქართველო რუსთაველის ხანაში, თბ. 1966. ქსე, ტ. 7, გვ. 91-92, თბ. 1984

Morrison County, Minnesota

Morrison County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 33,198, its county seat is Little Falls. Camp Ripley Military Reservation occupies a significant area in north-central Morrison County. Dakotah and Ojibwe Indians lived in central Minnesota around the Mississippi River. French and English fur traders and voyageurs traveled through Minnesota from the 17th century to the 19th century, they used the river to transport their goods and trade with the natives. The county was named for fur trading brothers Allan Morrison. In the 19th century three prominent explorers led expeditions along the river through the area that became Morrison County. Zebulon Pike came through in 1805. Michigan Territory Governor Lewis Cass led an expedition through the area in 1820. Joseph Nicollet and scientist, created the first accurate map of the area along the river in 1836. Missionaries were some of the area's first European settlers. Methodist missionaries settled temporarily along the Little Elk River in 1838.

The Reverend Frederic and Elisabeth Ayer moved to the Belle Prairie area in 1849. They started a school there for the Ojibwe. Father Francis Xavier Pierz came to the area in 1852 and started many communities in central Minnesota, including Sobieski and Rich Prairie in Morrison County; the US legislature established the Wisconsin Territory effective 3 July 1836. It existed until its eastern portion was granted statehood in 1848; the federal government set up the Minnesota Territory effective 3 March 1849. The newly organized territorial legislature created nine counties across the territory in October of that year. On 25 February 1856, one of those original counties, had a portion of its northern section partitioned off to create this county, with Little Falls named as the county seat, it was named for Allen Morrison, early fur trappers and traders in the area. The event that prodded further development of the county was the building of Fort Ripley. In order to construct this military outpost, the Little Falls Mill and Land Company built a dam and sawmill in 1849.

The company was formed by James Green, Allan Morrison, Henry Rice, John Irvine, John Blair Smith Todd, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana. Fort Ripley was ostensibly built to protect the Winnebago Indians, relocated by Henry Rice from Iowa to central Minnesota west of the Mississippi River, between the Crow Wing and Long Prairie rivers. Rice hoped the Winnebago would act as a buffer between Dakotah, his plan was unsuccessful and in 1855 the Winnebago were moved to the Blue Earth River in southern Minnesota. The area of Little Falls was first settled in 1848, was platted in 1855, its growth occurred. This dam washed out, as the first had done, Little Falls entered a long period of economic depression and stagnant population. Bit by bit, Little Falls grew, until it was incorporated as a village in 1879. Another wave of immigration occurred between 1880 and 1920. A wide variety of ethnic groups settled in Morrison County; this wave of immigration was spurred by the construction of the third dam at Little Falls in 1887.

A group of investors from Louisville, Kentucky led by M. M. Williams financed the dam. To be sure their investment would succeed, they encouraged other major industries to move to the city, touting the water power. Pine Tree Lumber Company, run by Charles A. Weyerhaeuser and Richard "Drew" Musser, was one business that took advantage of the water power, with their operations in Little Falls beginning in 1890. Hennepin Paper Company started operations that year in the city. In 1889 the Louisville investors drew up a charter to transform Little Falls from a village to a city. Nathan Richardson, one of the original organizers of Morrison County, became the city's first mayor; the Mississippi River flows southward through the west central part of Morrison County. The Platte River flows south-southwestward through the central part of the county, discharging into the Mississippi just at both rivers exit Morrison County at the border with Stearns County; the Little Elk River rises in Morrison County and flows eastward to discharge into the Mississippi just north of Little Falls, picking up the flow of the South Branch of the Little Elk River at Randall.

The Mississippi receives the flow of the Nokasippi River just above Camp Ripley. The Skunk River rises in the northeast part of the county, flows west-southwestward through the lower central part of the county, discharging into the Platte southeast of Little Falls; the county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded, carved with drainages and gullies, with all available area devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the south, slopes to the river valley from both east and west borders, with its highest point on the Camp Ripley Military Reservation, 2.4 miles east and 1.4 mile north of the east end of Lake Alexander, at 1,521' ASL. The county has a total area of 1,153 square miles, of which 1,125 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water. Little Falls/Morrison County Airport - SE of Little Falls Morey's Airport - S of Motley As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 31,712 people, 11,816 households, 8,460 families in the county; the population density was 28.2/sqmi. There were 13,870 housing units at an average density of 12.3/sqmi.

The racial makeup of the county was 98.48% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other ra