Anarcho-syndicalism is a political philosophy and anarchist school of thought that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and thus control influence in broader society. Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs; the basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity, direct action and direct democracy, or workers' self-management. The end goal of syndicalism is to abolish the wage system. Anarcho-syndicalist theory therefore focuses on the labour movement. Anarcho-syndicalists view the primary purpose of the state as being the defense of private property, therefore of economic and political privilege, denying most of its citizens the ability to enjoy material independence and the social autonomy that springs from it. Reflecting the anarchist philosophy from which it draws its primary inspiration, anarcho-syndicalism is centred on the idea that power corrupts and that any hierarchy that cannot be ethically justified must either be dismantled or replaced by decentralized egalitarian control.

Hubert Lagardelle wrote that Pierre-Joseph Proudhon laid out fundamental ideas of anarcho-syndicalism and repudiated both capitalism and the state in the process since he viewed free economic groups and struggle, not pacifism, as dominant in humans. In September 1903 and March 1904, Sam Mainwaring published in Britain two issues of a short-lived newspaper called The General Strike, a publication that made detailed criticisms of the "officialism" of union bureaucracy and publicized strikes in Europe making use of syndicalist tactics. In 1910, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in the middle of the restoration in Barcelona in a congress of the Catalan trade union Solidaridad Obrera with the objective of constituting an opposing force to the then-majority trade union, the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores and "to speed up the economic emancipation of the working class through the revolutionary expropriation of the bourgeoisie"; the CNT started small, counting 26,571 members represented through several trade unions and other confederations.

In 1911, coinciding with its first congress, the CNT initiated a general strike that provoked a Barcelona judge to declare the union illegal until 1914. In 1911, the trade union adopted its name formally. From 1918 on, the CNT grew stronger and had an outstanding role in the events of the La Canadiense general strike, which paralyzed 70% of industry in Catalonia in 1919, the year the CNT reached a membership of 700,000. Around that time, panic spread among employers, giving rise to the practice of pistolerismo, causing a spiral of violence that affected the trade union; these pistoleros are credited with killing 21 union leaders in 48 hours. In 1922, the International Workers' Association was founded in Berlin and the CNT joined but with the rise of Miguel Primo de Rivera's dictatorship the labor union was outlawed once again the following year. However, with the workers' movement resurgent following the Russian Revolution, what was to become the modern IWA was formed, billing itself as the "true heir" of the original International.

The successful Bolshevik-led revolution of 1918 in Russia was mirrored by a wave of syndicalist successes worldwide, including the struggle of the Industrial Workers of the World in the United States alongside the creation of mass anarchist unions across Latin America and huge syndicalist-led strikes in Germany, Spain and France, where it was noted that "neutral syndicalism had been swept away". The final formation of this new international known as the International Workingmen's Association, took place at an illegal conference in Berlin in December 1922, marking an irrevocable break between the international syndicalist movement and the Bolsheviks; the IWA included the Italian Syndicalist Union, the Argentine Workers Regional Organisation, the General Confederation of Workers in Portugal, the Free Workers' Union of Germany, the Committee for the Defense of Revolutionary Syndicalism in France, the Federation du Combattant from Paris, the Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, the National Labor Secretariat of the Netherlands, the Industrial Workers of the World in Chile and the Union for Syndicalist Propaganda in Denmark.

The first secretaries of the International included the famed writer and activist Rudolph Rocker, along with Augustin Souchy and Alexander Schapiro. Following the first congress, other groups affiliated from France, Denmark, Switzerland, Bulgaria and Romania. A bloc of unions in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Costa Rica and El Salvador shared the IWA's statutes; the biggest syndicalist union in the United States was the IWW and considered joining, but ruled out affiliation in 1936, citing the IWA's policies on religious and political affiliation. Although not anarcho-syndicalist, the IWW were informed by developments in the broader revolutionary syndicalist milieu at the turn of the 20th century. At its founding congress in 1905, influential members with strong anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist sympathies like Thomas J. Hagerty, William Trautmann and

Savage River State Forest

Savage River State Forest is located in the north and northeastern part of Garrett County, in the U. S. state of Maryland. The state forest has many waterways, including Savage River Reservoir, built in 1952 by the U. S. Army; the dam was built as an emergency water supply for Washington, D. C. Savage River State Forest is known for its hunting, fishing and hiking trails. Savage River State Forest is located on the eastern side of the Eastern Continental Divide, which means that most of its waterways will lead to the Potomac River and thus the Chesapeake Bay, but some of its waterways flow into the Youghiogheny River. In 1800, there were 1000 settlers who lived in Garrett County, but cheap land, improved transportation and growth along the eastern seaboard led to a settlement boom. The national road was completed in 1818 and the rail road arrived in 1852; the transportation system better connected the resource rich Garrett County to the growth needs of the east. Increased quantities of lumber and wheat were shipped east.

By the early 1900s, narrow gauge railroads were used to facilitate logging on steeper slopes as the demand for wood products continued to increase. The result was that Garrett County was cut-over clear cut, within a 20-year period; the train engines caused forest fires in the tops and slash that were left from the clear-cutting. As a result of the fires, a new forest was created; this legacy we can see today as most of our older forests are the same age and are 100 years old. In part, as a reaction to the rapid cutting of trees and the burning, taking place, the Garrett Brothers, in 1906 gave 2000 acres to the state with the proviso that an agency would be created to manage the property and to institute scientific forestry- this led to the birth of the Maryland Forest Service; the rapid exploitation of the forests came to an end by the 1930s and logging companies moved west or converted to coal mining. The early efforts of the MD Forest Service were fire suppression. On January 8, 1929, the state purchased 9,352 acres of cut-over forest land from the N.

U. Bond Company; this was the beginning of Savage River State Forest. Since that time there has been a number of acquisitions both small. Now Savage River State Forest consists of 54,324 acres. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps assisted the forest service with fire suppression efforts, tree planting, constructing facilities for recreational activities; the CCC boys helped with the early snow skiing activities on the forest – to become New Germany State Park. They helped build many trails where hiking, horseback riding, ORV riding are still taking place; the Savage River State Forest covers 54,324 acres of land in Garrett County. Mature mixed oak and northern hardwood forests comprise a large proportion of the Savage River State Forest. In general, sixty-six percent of the area is composed of older, more mature forests, while thirty-four percent are younger and smaller. Old growth forests have been defined as forests in existence since pre-settlement times and lacking any significant Euro-American disturbance.

The definition can differ according to climatic and eco-regional perspectives and the growth characteristics of specific native forest systems. In Maryland, an old growth forest is defined as a minimum of five acres in size with a preponderance of old trees, of which the oldest trees exceed at least half of the projected maximum attainable age for that species, that exhibits most of the following characteristics: Shade tolerant species are present in all age/size classes. There are randomly distributed canopy gaps. There is a high degree of structural diversity characterized by multiple growth layers that reflect a broad spectrum of ages. There is an accumulation of dead wood of varying sizes and stages of decomposition and down, accompanied by decadence in live dominant trees. Pit-and-mound topography can be observed, it is important to recognize that old-growth forests are not static and may not be a permanent fixture on the landscape. The forests and trees within and around them change continuously.

This would be true if human influence could be eliminated. All forests, including old-growth, succumb to natural, destructive disturbances and regenerate over time. A functional old-growth ecosystem includes the loss of old trees due to natural disturbances and the death of old trees. An old-growth system is not static, nor is it always dominated by old trees. Natural processes dictate the age composition at any time; the important factor in this process is that the trees have the opportunity to reach old age if natural disturbances do not intercede. "Savage River State Forest has been managed for industrial forest production for decades, has been a major contributor to the region’s forest products industry. Numerous sawmills and New Page paper mill operations provide outlets for timber from local forests. Savage River State Forest makes up about 19.0% of the productive forests in the Garrett County area. However Potomac-Garrett State Forest is managed in a similar manner as Savage River State Forest and these two state properties comprise 25.4% of forest in the county."

"The Savage River State Forest is located within six of Maryland’s 8-digit watersheds. Those watersheds are Savage River, Upper North Branch of the Potomac and George’s Creek in the Chesapeake Bay Drainage and Casselman River, Youghiogheny River and Deep Creek Lake in the Ohio River; the majority of Savage River State Forest is located within the Savage River watershed with smaller amounts in George’s Cree

Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra

The Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra is a professional orchestra based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan administered by the non-profit Saskatoon Symphony Society. The orchestra was founded in 1927 as an amateur orchestra, but today has 10 core members and up to 50 sessional musicians. Arthur Collingwood, Professor of Music at the University of Saskatchewan, presented the first SSO concert; the SSO received major funding from the Carnegie Institute in 1931. The Canada Council, the Saskatchewan Arts Board, the City of Saskatoon have all provided sponsorship of the SSO through the years. In the spring, the symphony holds a Saskatoon Symphony Book & Music Sale to raise funds for the orchestra; the SSO itself offers students grants and hosted a national cello competition in 1990. Dwaine Nelson was responsible for the development of a full-time core of musicians with a size of six, but expanded to the present-day ten members. In the summer of 2014, the SSO announced that Maestro Victor Sawa would move into the position of Conductor Emeritus at the end of the 84th season.

In March 2015, the SSO announced Eric Paetkau as the 16th Music Director of the orchestra. University of Saskatchewan Department of Music, University Chorus, Greystone Singers, Saskatoon Chamber Singers, Saskatoon Children's Choir, Regina Symphony Orchestra, Saskatoon Youth Orchestra, the Amati Quartet have all produced concerts with the SSO; the Canadian Opera Company Ensemble, National Ballet, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet have all performed with accompaniment provided by the SSO. The SSO celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2006. In 1903, William Preston, involved with the Saskatoon Oratorio Society, began an amateur orchestra in Saskatoon. Fredrick William Musselwhite conducted the Saskatoon orchestra as early as 1905 with John Jackson as concertmaster. In 1913, John Jackson began a Saskatoon orchestra, followed by a temporary orchestra established in 1924 by Allan Clifton. In 1931 the current orchestra was established, under the direction of Arthur Collingwood; the conductors of the SSO, a position that includes artistic direction, have been: Arthur Collingwood, Professor J.

R. Macrae Victor Kviesis Professor Murray Adaskin Alexander Reisman Professor David Kaplan Franz Zeidler Dwaine Nelson Ruben Gurevich David Gray Professor Daniel Swift Dennis Simons Earl Stafford Douglas Sanford Earl Stafford – Interim Artistic Director Victor Sawa Eric Paetkau Currently performances are held at TCU Place. Bessborough Hotel’s ballroom, the Capitol Theatre, Convocation Hall at the University of Saskatchewan have provided venues for the SSO performances; each year the SSO presents a varied and dynamic range of concerts through multiple series and specials. The Masters Series features the orchestra in performance of standard orchestral repertoire, symphonies, from all eras of music including living composers and Canadian repertoire. Guest artists have included James Ehnes, Angela Cheng, Jane Coop, Maureen Forrester, Jon Vickers, Angela Hewitt, Pinchas Zukerman; the Pops Series presents concerts featuring pop music from jazz to rock - performances have featured the music of The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Duke Ellington, Frank Sinatra, Led Zeppelin.

Symphony Chamber Players began in 1985. Great Music for Kids introduced children to orchestral music in 1984. 1993 saw the inauguration of Music for a Sunday Afternoon, the series is now known as Sunday Chamber Series. Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra is a member of Canadian Federation of Musicians. Canadian Federation of Musicians purports to help musicians who may need assistance with any number of issues related to the recording and performing of their craft. Services range from immigration, media recordings and theatrical matters, freelance musicians and membership services, contract negotiations and administration and royalty streams. In 2005, the SSO, under the direction of Earl Stafford, recorded a program of music written by Neil Currie; the resulting album, entitled Passionscape, was nominated for Outstanding Classical Composition at the 2006 Western Canada Music Awards. The album includes pieces with solo artists Alain Allen Harrington; the SSO records for CBC Radio. Canadian classical music Culture of Saskatchewan Music of Canada's Prairie Provinces List of symphony orchestras Music of Saskatchewan Official website