Anastasio Somoza Debayle

Anastasio "Tachito" Somoza DeBayle was a Nicaraguan dictator and the President of Nicaragua from 1 May 1967 to 1 May 1972 and from 1 December 1974 to 17 July 1979. As head of the National Guard, he was de facto ruler of the country from 1967 to 1979, he was the last member of the Somoza family to be President, ending a dynasty, in power since 1936. After being overthrown in an insurrection led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front, he fled Nicaragua and power was ceded to the Junta of National Reconstruction, he was assassinated while in exile in Paraguay. As is customary in most Spanish-speaking countries, he was given both his parents' last names, Somoza being his father's last name and DeBayle being his mother's last name. DeBayle is of French origin. Anastasio Somoza DeBayle, nicknamed "Tachito" by his father, was the third child of Anastasio Somoza García and Salvadora DeBayle. At the age of seven, he was enrolled at the Instituto Pedagógico La Salle, run by the Christian Brothers. One of his classmates was Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, who would grow up to become one of the most prominent opponents of the Somoza dynasty.

From the age of ten, Tachito was educated in the United States. He and older brother Luis Somoza Debayle, both attended St. Leo College Prep and La Salle Military Academy, he passed the examination for West Point, entered the United States Military Academy on July 3, 1943, graduated on June 6, 1946. Two years after his return from West Point, Somoza fathered a daughter, sent to a series of schools abroad. After his return, he was appointed chief of staff of the National Guard, by his father, who had given many important posts to family members and close personal friends; as commander of the Guard, Somoza was head of the nation's armed forces the second-most powerful man in Nicaragua. On 10 December 1950, Somoza and Hope Portocarrero, an American citizen and his first cousin, were married at the Cathedral in Managua by Archbishop Jose Antonio Lezcano. Over 4,000 guests attended the ceremony; the reception was given by Somoza's father, President Anastasio Somoza García, in the luxurious and modern Palacio de Comunicaciones.

The couple had five children: Anastasio Somoza Portocarrero Julio Somoza Portocarrero Carolina Somoza Portocarrero, married to James Minskoff Sterling, son of New York real estate developer Henry H. Minskoff Carla Somoza Portocarrero Roberto Somoza PortocarreroFollowing his father's assassination on 21 September 1956, Somoza's elder brother, took over the presidency. Anastasio had a large hand in the government during this time, saw to it that the presidency was held by politicians loyal to his family from 1963 to 1967. On 1 May 1967, shortly before the death of his brother, Anastasio Somoza was sworn into office following his election on 5 February. While Luis had ruled more than his father had, Anastasio would not tolerate opposition of any sort, his regime soon resembled his father's in all significant respects. With regard to educating the workforce, Somoza replied, “I don’t want an educated population. However, prior to that, Somoza worked out an agreement allowing him to stand for re-election in 1974.

Somoza and his triumvirate drew up a new constitution, ratified by the triumvirate and the cabinet on April 3, 1971. He stepped down as president on May 1, 1972. However, as head of the National Guard, he remained the de facto ruler of the country. Anastasio Somoza and his son were both part owners of Plasmaferesis; the company collected blood plasma from up to 1,000 of Nicaragua's poorest every day for sale in the United States and Europe. According to El Diario Nuevo and La Prensa, “Every morning the homeless and poor people went to sell half a liter of blood for 35 cordobas. On 23 December 1972, an earthquake struck the nation's capital, killing about 5,000 people and destroying the city. Martial law was declared, he took over effective control as head of the National Emergency Committee. He embezzled many of the funds sent from across the world to help rebuild Managua; some parts of Managua have still never been restored, including the National Cathedral. Somoza allegedly exported freshly imported emergency blood plasma abroad, at the time of the earthquake, when most medical supplies in Nicaragua were in short supply.

Somoza was re-elected president in the 1974 election. By this time, the Catholic Church had begun to speak against his government. By the late 1970s, human rights groups were condemning the record of the Somoza government, while support for the Sandinistas was growing inside and outside the country. In July 1977, Somoza had a heart attack, went to the US to recuperate. In 1975 Somoza Debayle launched a campaign to crush the Sandinistas; the Front, named after Augusto César Sandino, began its guerrilla war against the Somozas in 1963 and was funded by the Soviet Union and Cuba unde


Tectiviridae is a family of viruses with three genera. Gram-negative bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are four species in this genus including the type species Enterobacteria phage PRD1. Tectiviruses have no head-tail structure, but are capable of producing tail-like tubes of ~ 60×10 nm upon adsorption or after chloroform treatment; the name is derived from Latin tectus. The virions of Tectiviridae species are non-enveloped and display a pseudo T=25 symmetry; the capsid has two layers. The outer layer is a protein structure of 240 capsid proteins trimers, the inner one is a proteinaceous lipid membrane which envelopes the virus genome. Apical spikes extending about 20 nanometers protrude from the icosahedrons vertices; the genome is a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA of 15 kilobases in length, has 30 open reading frames. It forms a packed coil and encodes several structural proteins, it encodes about 30 proteins. At least 9 structural proteins are present in the viron; the genome constitutes 14 -- 15 % of the virion by weight.

Lipids constitute a further 15% by weight. Carbohydrates are not present. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. After adsorption to the host cell surface the virion extrudes a tail-tube structure through a vertex for genome delivery into the host. Replication follows. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Capsid proteins polymerize around a lipoprotein vesicle translocated in the cytoplasm by virion assembly factors. Mature virons are released by lysis, which, in the case of PRD1, is achieved with the aid of virus-encoded lysis machinery consisting of four proteins: P15, P35, P36 and P37. Tectiviruses have been classified into three major groups: phages that infect Gram-negative bacteria those that infect Gram-positive bacteria and a virus that infects Gluconobacter cerinus; the tectivirus groups have a similar genome size and organization, but they have no detectable sequence similarity at the nucleotide level.

Three genera have been identified in this family: Alphatectivirus - infecting Enterobactericeae. Examples Bacillus phage AP50 Bacillus phage Bam35 Enterobacteria phage PRD1A fourth genus - Deltatectivirus - has been created for a number of phages infecting Actinobacteria hosts. ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database ICTVdB Management. 00.068. Tectiviridae. In: ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database, version 3. Büchen-Osmond, C. Columbia University, New York, USA Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses H. V. Van Regenmortel, D. H. L. Bishop, M. H. Van Regenmortel, Claude M. Fauquet 68.0.1. Tectivirus Viralzone: Tectivirus ICTV

The Original Soul of Michael Jackson

The Original Soul of Michael Jackson is a remix album by American singer Michael Jackson. It features songs recorded and published early in his solo career during the 1970s and remixed in 1987, before its release that year by Motown. While the album claims that it "contains music never before released", the only new song available was a re-dubbed cover of Edwin Starr's 1970 hit "Twenty-Five Miles", sung by the Jackson Five and credited to Michael; the original recording of the song was included on the 2009 set Hello World: The Motown Solo Collection. Some songs were newly edited on the album, with a newly dubbed version of "Dancing Machine". "Ain't No Sunshine" were slightly different in the vocals and a modern drum machine were added to "Twenty-Five Miles". "Melodie" was planned for a single in an effort to promote the record in the US, but was scrapped for a promo-only single "Twenty-Five Miles"/"Up On The Housetop". Reviewing in Christgau's Record Guide: The'80s, Robert Christgau wrote, "Once you get past the slipshod cynicism of Motown's catalogue exploitation, you have to admit that this remixed, sometimes synthed-up mishmash has its charms and uses—that in fact it's superior to the'real' 1975 best-of the label long ago deleted.

I love the unreleased'Twenty-Five Miles' and the preteen-sings-the-blues'Doggin' Around,' could live without the two J5 nonhits, will no doubt pull this down when I want to remember'Dancing Machine' and'Rockin' Robin.'" The Original Soul of Michael Jackson at Discogs