Ivor Novello, born David Ivor Davies, was a Welsh composer and actor who became one of the most popular British entertainers of the first half of the 20th century. He was born into a musical family, his first successes were as a songwriter, his first big hit was "Keep the Home Fires Burning", enormously popular during the First World War. His 1917 show, Theodore & Co, was a wartime hit. After the war, Novello contributed numbers to several successful musical comedies and was commissioned to write the scores of complete shows, he wrote his musicals in the style of operetta and composed his music to the libretti of Christopher Hassall. In the 1920s, he turned to acting, first in British films and on stage, with considerable success in both, he starred in two silent films directed by The Lodger and Downhill. On stage, he played the title character in the first London production of Liliom. Novello went to Hollywood, but he soon returned to Britain, where he had more successes on stage, appearing in his own lavish West End productions of musicals.
The best known of these were Glamorous The Dancing Years. From the 1930s, he performed with Zena Dare, writing parts for her in his works, he continued to write for film, but he had his biggest late successes with stage musicals: Perchance to Dream, King's Rhapsody and Gay's the Word. The Ivor Novello Awards were named after him in 1955. Novello was born in Cardiff, Wales, to David Davies, a rent collector for the city council, his wife, Clara Novello Davies, an internationally known singing teacher and choral conductor; as a boy, Novello was a successful singer in the Welsh Eisteddfod. His mother set up as voice teacher in London, where he met leading performers, including members of George Edwardes's Gaiety Theatre company, classical musicians such as Landon Ronald, singers such as Adelina Patti. Another of his mother's associates was Clara Butt, who taught him to sing "Abide with Me" when he was a boy of six. Novello was educated in Cardiff and in Gloucester, where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Herbert Brewer, the cathedral organist.
From there he won a scholarship to Magdalen College School in Oxford, where he was a solo treble in the college choir. He said that this prolonged youthful exposure to early sacred choral music had turned his tastes, in reaction, to lush romantic music. Although Brewer had told him he would not have a career in music, Novello from his early youth showed a facility for writing songs, when he was only 15, one of his songs was published. After leaving school, he gave piano lessons in Cardiff, moved to London in 1913 with his mother, they took a flat above the Strand Theatre. In London he found a mentor in a well-known patron of the arts. Marsh introduced him to people who could help his career, he adopted part of his mother's maiden name, "Novello" as his professional surname, although he did not change it until 1927. In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Novello wrote "Keep the Home Fires Burning", a song that expressed the feelings of innumerable families sundered by World War I. Novello composed the music for the song to a lyric by the American Lena Guilbert Ford, it became a huge popular success, bringing Novello money and fame at the age of 21.
In other respects, the war had less impact on Novello than on many young men of his age. He avoided enlistment until June 1916, when he reported to a Royal Naval Air Service training depot as a probationary flight sub-lieutenant. After twice crashing an aeroplane, with the influence of Marsh, he was moved to the Air Ministry office in central London performing clerical duties for the duration of the war. Novello continued to write songs while serving in the RNAS, he had his first stage success with Theodore & Co in 1916, a production by George Grossmith, Jr. and Edward Laurillard with a score composed by Novello and the young Jerome Kern. In the same year, Novello contributed to André Charlot's revue See-Saw. In 1917 he wrote for another Grossmith and Laurillard production, the operette Arlette, for which he contributed additional numbers to an existing French score by Jane Vieu and Guy le Feuvre. In the same year, Marsh introduced him to the actor Bobbie Andrews, who became Novello's life partner.
Andrews introduced Novello to the young Noël Coward. Coward, six years Novello's junior, was envious of Novello's effortless glamour, he wrote, "I just felt conscious of the long way I had to go before I could break into the magic atmosphere in which he moved and breathed with such nonchalance". In 1918 and after the war, Novello continued to write for musical comedy and revue; the former included Who's Hooper?, an adaptation of a Pinero play, with a book by Fred Thompson, lyrics by Clifford Grey, music by Howard Talbot and Novello, The Golden Moth by Thompson and P. G. Wodehouse, for which Novello provided the entire score. For Charlot, he contributed numbers to A to Z and Puppets. For the second of these, his songs included one of his few well-known comedy numbers, "And her mother came too", with lyrics by Dion Titheradge, written for Jack Buchanan. At the same time as his successes as a composer, Novello was making a career as an actor. With "a classic profile that gained him matinee idol status amongst the film-going public", he was sought out, on the strength of a publicity photograph, by the Swiss film director Louis Mercanton.
Mercanton offered him a silent-film role as the romantic lead in The Call of the
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Danielle Yvonne Marie Antoinette Darrieux was a French actress of stage and film, as well as a singer and dancer. Beginning in 1931, she appeared in more than 110 films, she was one of France's great movie stars and her eight-decade career was among the longest in film history. Darrieux was born in Bordeaux, during World War I, the daughter of Marie-Louise and Jean Darrieux, a medical doctor, serving in the French Army, her mother was born in Algeria. Her father died. Raised in Paris, she studied the cello at the Conservatoire de Musique. At 14, she won a part in the musical film Le Bal, her beauty combined with her dancing ability led to numerous other offers. In 1935, Darrieux married director/screenwriter Henri Decoin, she signed a seven-year contract with Universal Studios to star in The Rage of Paris opposite Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Afterwards, she elected to return to Paris. Under the German occupation of France during World War II, Darrieux continued to perform, a decision, criticized by her compatriots.
However, it is reported that her brother had been threatened with deportation by Alfred Greven, the German manager of Continental, the only film production company permitted in occupied France. She received a divorce and fell in love with Porfirio Rubirosa, a Dominican Republic diplomat and notorious womanizer, they married in 1942. His anti-Nazi opinions resulted in his forced residence in Germany. In exchange for Rubirosa's freedom, Darrieux agreed to make a promotional trip in Berlin; the couple lived in Switzerland until the end of the war, divorced in 1947. She married scriptwriter Georges Mitsikidès in 1948, they lived together until his death in 1991. Darrieux appeared in the MGM musical Rich and Pretty. Joseph L. Mankiewicz lured her back to Hollywood to star in 5 Fingers with James Mason. Upon returning to France, she appeared in Max Ophüls' The Earrings of Madame de... with Charles Boyer, The Red and the Black with Gérard Philippe. She starred in Lady Chatterley's Lover, whose theme of uninhibited sexuality led to its being proscribed by Catholic censors in the United States.
She played a supporting role in her last American film, United Artists' epic Alexander the Great starring Richard Burton and Claire Bloom. At the request of director Lewis Gilbert, Darrieux worked in England to shoot The Greengage Summer with Kenneth More. In 1963, she starred in the romantic comedy La Robe Mauve de Valentine at the Chatelet Theatre in Paris; the play was adapted from the novel by Françoise Sagan. In Jacques Demy's film musical The Young Girls of Rochefort her supporting role was the only occasion in which a principal actor in any of Demy's film-musicals to herself sing. During the 1960s, she was a concert singer. In 1970, Darrieux replaced Katharine Hepburn in the Broadway musical Coco, based on the life of Coco Chanel, but the play a showcase for Hepburn, soon folded without her. In 1971 and 1972 she appeared in the short-lived productions of Ambassador, she worked again with Demy for his film Une chambre en ville, an opera-like musical melodrama reminiscent of the director's earlier work The Umbrellas of Cherbourg.
Once again, Darrieux provided her own vocals for her songs. For her long service to the motion picture industry, in 1985 she was given an Honorary César Award, she continued to work, her career spanning eight decades, most providing the voice of the protagonist's grandmother in the animated feature, which deals with the impact of the Islamic revolution on a girl's life as she grows to adulthood in Iran. Danielle Darrieux died on 17 October 2017 at the age of 100, due to complications from a fall. Darrieux, Danielle. Danielle Darrieux – Filmographie commentée par elle-même. Paris: Ramsay Cinéma. ISBN 2-84114-113-6. Danielle Darrieux on IMDb Danielle Darrieux at the TCM Movie Database Danielle Darrieux at AllMovie Danielle Darrieux at the Internet Broadway Database Danielle Darrieux at AlloCiné Danielle Darrieux at filmsdefrance.com Photographs of Danielle Darrieux L'Encinémathèque at Encinémathèque Danielle Darrieux
Olivia de Havilland
Dame Olivia Mary de Havilland is a British-American-French retired actress whose film career spanned from 1935 to 1988. She has appeared in 49 feature films and was one of the leading, is now one of the last surviving movie stars of the ‘Golden Age’ of Classical Hollywood, her younger sister was actress Joan Fontaine. De Havilland came to prominence as a screen couple with Errol Flynn in adventure films such as Captain Blood and The Adventures of Robin Hood. One of her best-known roles is Melanie Hamilton in the film classic Gone with the Wind. De Havilland departed from ingénue roles in the 1940s and won awards for her performances in To Each His Own, The Snake Pit, The Heiress, including two Academy Awards, she was successful in work on stage and television. De Havilland has lived in Paris since the 1950s and received honours like the National Medal of the Arts, the Légion d'honneur and the appointment to Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In addition to her film career, de Havilland continued her work in the theatre, appearing three times on Broadway, in Romeo and Juliet, A Gift of Time.
She worked in television, appearing in the successful miniseries, Roots: The Next Generations, television feature films such as Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna, for which she received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination. During her film career, de Havilland won two Golden Globe Awards, two New York Film Critics Circle Awards, the National Board of Review Award for Best Actress, the Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup. For her contributions to the motion picture industry, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. De Havilland's father, Walter de Havilland, served as an English professor at the Imperial University in Tokyo before becoming a patent attorney, her mother, Lilian Fontaine, was educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London and became a stage actress. Lilian sang with the Master of the King's Music, Sir Walter Parratt, toured England with the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. Olivia's paternal cousin was Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, an aircraft designer and founder of the de Havilland aircraft company.
Lilian and Walter were married the following year. De Havilland was born on July 1, 1916, they moved into a large house in Tokyo, where Lilian gave informal singing recitals for the European colony. Olivia's younger sister Joan —later known as actress Joan Fontaine—was born fifteen months on October 22, 1917. Both sisters became citizens of the United Kingdom automatically by birthright. In February 1919, Lilian persuaded her husband to take the family back to England to a climate better suited for their ailing daughters, they sailed aboard the SS Siberia Maru to San Francisco, where the family stopped to treat Olivia's tonsillitis. After Joan developed pneumonia, Lilian decided to remain with her daughters in California, where they settled in the village of Saratoga, 50 miles south of San Francisco, her father abandoned the family and returned to his Japanese housekeeper, who became his second wife. Olivia was raised to appreciate the arts, beginning with ballet lessons at the age of four and piano lessons a year later.
She learned to read before she was six, her mother, who taught drama and elocution, had her reciting passages from Shakespeare to strengthen her diction. During this period, her younger sister Joan first started calling her "Livvie", a nickname that would last throughout her life. De Havilland did well in her studies, she enjoyed reading, writing poetry, drawing, once represented her grammar school in a county spelling bee, coming in second place. In 1923, Lilian had a new Tudor-style house built. In April 1925, after her divorce was finalized, Lilian married George Milan Fontaine, a department store manager for O. A. Hale & Co. in San Jose. Fontaine was a good provider and respectable businessman, but his strict parenting style generated animosity and rebellion in both of his new stepdaughters. De Havilland continued her education at Los Gatos High School near her home in Saratoga. There she excelled in oratory and field hockey and participated in school plays and the school drama club becoming the club's secretary.
With plans of becoming a schoolteacher of English and speech, she attended Notre Dame Convent in Belmont. In 1933, a teenage de Havilland made her debut in amateur theatre in Alice in Wonderland, a production of the Saratoga Community Players based on the novel by Lewis Carroll, she appeared in several school plays, including The Merchant of Venice and Hansel and Gretel. Her passion for drama led to a confrontation with her stepfather, who forbade her from participating in further extracurricular activities; when he learned that she had won the lead role of Elizabeth Bennet in a school fund-raising production of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, he told her that she had to choose between staying at home, or appearing in the production and not being allowed home. Not wanting to let her school and classmates down, she left home forever, moving in with a family friend. After graduating from high school in 1934, de Havilland was offered a scholarship to Mills College in Oakland to pursue her chosen career as an English teacher.
She was offered the role of Puck in the Saratoga Community Theater production of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. That summer, Austrian director Max Reinhardt came to California for a major n
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire from 1796 to 1919 and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1919 to 1925. It was formed as a governorate in the Right-bank Ukraine region following a division of the Kiev Viceroyalty into the Kiev and the Little Russia Governorates, with the administrative centre in Kiev. By the start of the 20th century it consisted of 12 uyezds, 12 cities, 111 miasteczkos and 7344 other settlements. After the October Revolution it became part of the administrative division of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1923 it was divided into several okrugs and on 6 June 1925 it was abolished by the Soviet administrative reforms; the Kyiv Governorate on the right bank of Dnieper was established by Emperor Paul I's edict of November 30, 1796. However it was not until 1800 when there was appointed the first governor and the territory was governed by the Kyiv Viceroy Vasiliy Krasno-Milashevich. Three existing Left-bank Ukraine viceroyalties were merged into one Little Russia Governorate centered on Chernigov, while the Kyiv Governorate was now comprised on Right-bank Ukraine.
With Kyiv still a capital, the governorate included the right-bank parts of the former Kyiv Viceroyalty merged with territories of the former Kyiv and Bracław Voivodeships which were gained by the Russian Empire from the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The edict took effect on August 1797, bringing the total number of uyezds to twelve. On January 22, 1832, the Kyiv Governorate, along with the Volhynia and the Podolia Governorates formed the Kyiv Governorate General known as the Southwestern Krai. At the time, Vasily Levashov was appointed the Military Governor of Kyiv as well as the General Governor of Podolia and Volhynia. In 1845, the population of the Governorate was 1,704,661. At the turn of the 20th century, the governorate included twelve uyezds named by their centers: Berdychiv, Chyhyryn, Kyiv, Radomyshl, Tarashcha, Uman and Zvenyhorodka. By the 1897 Russian Census, there were 3,559,229 people in the guberniya making it the most populous one in the whole Russian Empire.
Most of population was rural. There were 459,253 people living including about 248,000 in Kyiv. According to the mother tongue, the census classified the respondents as follows: 2,819,145 Little Russians representing 79.2% of the population, 430,489 Jews representing 12.1% of the population, 209,427 Great Russians representing 5.9% of the population, 68,791 Poles representing 1.9% of the population. By faith, 2,983,736 census respondents were Orthodox Christians, 433,728 were Jews and 106,733 were of the Roman Catholic Church. Kyiv Governorate remained a constituent unit of the larger Governorate General with Kyiv being the capital of both well into the 20th century. In 1915, the General Governorate was disbanded. Russian Empire Census of 1897 Kiev – 247,723 Berdichev – 53,351 Uman – 31,016 Cherkassy – 29,600 Skvira – 17,958 Zvenigorodka – 16,923 Vasilkov – 13,132 Tarascha – 11,259 Radomysl – 10,906 Smaller citiesChigirin – 9,872 Kanev – 8,855 Lipovets – 8,658 In the times after the Russian revolution in 1917–1921, the lands of Kiev Governorate switched hands many times.
After the last Imperial governor, Alexey Ignatyev until March 6, 1917, the local leaders were appointed by competing authorities. At times, the Governorate Starosta and the Governorate Commissar both claimed the Governorate, while some of the short-lived ruling regimes of the territory did not establish any particular administrative subdivision; as chaos gave way to stability in the early 1920s, the Soviet Ukrainian authority re-established the Governorate whose leading post was titled the Chairman of the Governorate's Revolutionary Committee or of the Executive Committee. In the course of the Soviet administrative reform of 1923–1929 the Kiev Governorate of Ukrainian SSR was transformed into six okruhas in 1923, since 1932, Kiev Oblast at the territory. Berdychiv Okruha Bila Tserkva Okruha Kiev Okruha Malyn Okruha Uman Okruha Cherkasy Okruha Shevchenko Okruha 1839-1852 Ivan Funduklei 1852-1855 Andrei Krivtsov 1855-1864 Pavel Gesse 1864-1866 Nikolai Kaznakov 1866-1868 Nikolai Eiler 1868-1871 Mikhail Katakazi 1881-1885 Sergei Gudim-Levkovich 1885-1898 Lev Tomara 1898-1903 Fyodor Trepov 1903-1905 Pavel Savvich 1905-1905 Aleksandr Vatatsi 1905-1906 Pavel Savvich 1906-1906 Aleksei Veretennikov 1906-1907 Pavel Kurlov 1907-1909 Pavel Ignatiev 1909-1912 Aleksei Girs 1912-1915 Nikolai Sukovkin 1915-1917 Aleksei Ignatiev as Governing Commissioners 1917-1917 Mikhail Sukovkin 1917-1918 Oleksandr Salikovsky as Governing Elders 1918-1918 I.
Chartoryzhski 1919-1919 Andrei Cherniavsky 1919-1919 Yakov Yakovlev 1919-1920 Abram Glinski 1920-1920 Ivan Klimenko 1920-1920 Panas Lyubchenko 1920-1920 Yan Gamarnik 1920-1921 Ale
Croix de Guerre 1939–1945 (France)
The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II. Due to the large extent of the war zone, recipients included those who fought during, with, at, or in the following: Battle of France French Forces of the Interior Free French Forces Western Front, Middle East Theater Mediterranean Theater African campaigns The Croix de guerre was designed by the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé; the medal is 37 mm in size and is in the shape of a Maltese cross with two swords criss-crossed through the center. In the center of the front, is the profile of the French Republic crested by a Phrygian cap. Around this portrait, are the words République française. On the reverse of the medal are the dates of the conflict: 1939–1940, 1939–1945, or 1940; the suspension and service ribbon of the medal has a red background crossed with four green lines in its center.
On every medal and ribbon, there is at least one ribbon device, either in the shape of a palm or of a star, fashioned from either bronze, silver or gilded silver. The relative importance of the six possible combinations is detailed below; the total number of devices on a "Croix de guerre" is not limited. The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star while the highest degree is represented by a bronze palm: Bronze star for those, mentioned at the regiment or brigade level. Silver star, for those, mentioned at the division level. Silver-gilt star, for those, mentioned at the corps level. Bronze palm, for those, mentioned at the army level. Silver palm, represents five bronze ones. Silver-gilt palm, for those, mentioned at the Free French Forces level; the clasps are awarded for gallantry to any member of the French military or its allies and are, depending on the degree the equivalent for U. S. Bronze Star and Silver Star or UK Military Cross and Military Medal. Ribbons of the French military and civil awards Croix de guerre 1914–1918 Croix de guerre des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures Croix de guerre