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Anatolia

Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey; the region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Europe; the eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Today, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the Armenian Highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.

The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian, among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary.

Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia"; the highest mountain in "Eastern Anatolia" is Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian Plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the English-language name Anatolia derives from the Greek Ἀνατολή meaning "the East" or more "sunrise".

The precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region, centered around Iconium, but ruled from the city of Amorium; the term "Anatolia", with its -ia ending, is a Medieval Latin innovation. The modern Turkish form Anadolu derives directly from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly, the French Anatole and plain Anatol, all stemming from saints Anatolius of Laodicea and Anatolius of Constantinople, share the same linguistic origin. The oldest known reference to Anatolia – as "Land of the Hatti" – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire; the first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, though not popular at the time, was Ἀσία from an Akkadian expression for the "sunrise", or echoing the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.

The Romans used it as the name of their province, comprising the ancient landscapes to the west of the peninsula plus the adhering islands of the Aegean. As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to the vaster region east of the Mediterranean, some Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia, whereas the administration of the Empire preferred the description as Ἀνατολή; the endonym Ῥωμανία was understood as another name for the province by the invading Seljuq Turks, who founded a Sultanate of Rûm in 1077. Thus " Rûm" became another name for Anatolia. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia. During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have vario

Arvind Deshpande

Arvind Deshpande was an acclaimed Indian film and television actor and theatre director. Apart from Marathi theatre as well as Hindi theatre in Mumbai, he acted in many mainstream Bollywood as well as art house films as a character actor, apart from TV series and plays, he was born in 31 May 1932 in Mumbai. Deshpande was a leading figure in experimental theatre movement of the 1960s, he was associated with Rangayan, that he co-founded with his wife Sulabha Deshpande and Vijaya Mehta. In 1971 along with his wife Sulabha Deshpande he co-founded theatre group Awishkar along with its children's wing Chandrashala, which continues to perform professional children theatre. Arvind and Sulabha Deshpande along with playwright Vijay Tendulkar were at the centre of the Chhabildas Movement in Marathi experimental theatre during the 1960s and 70s. Arvind was married to Sulabha Deshpande. National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Marathi He died on 3 January 1987. Arvind Deshpande on IMDb

Glasgow School of Art

The Glasgow School of Art is a higher education art school offering undergraduate degrees. The school is housed in a number of buildings in the centre of Glasgow, upon Garnethill, an area first developed by William Harley of Blythswood Hill in the early 1800s; the most famous of its buildings was designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in phases between 1896–1909. The eponymous Mackintosh Building soon became one of the city's iconic landmarks and stood for over 100 years; the building was damaged by fire in May 2014 and destroyed by a second fire in June 2018, with only the burnt-out shell remaining. In 2019, GSA was placed 8th in the 2019 QS World Rankings for Design. Founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design, the school changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art in 1853. Located at 12 Ingram Street the school moved to the McLellan Galleries in Sauchiehall Street in 1869. In 1897, work began on a new building nearby to house the school on Renfrew Street, funded by a donation of £10,000 from the Bellahouston Trust, left from the will of Moses Stevens of Bellahouston.

The building was designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, chosen for the commission by the school's director, Francis Newbery, who oversaw a period of expansion and fast-growing reputation. The first half of the building was completed in 1899 and the second half in 1909; the School's campus has grown since that time and in 2009 an international architectural competition was held to find an architect-led design team who would develop the Campus Masterplan and design the Phase 1 building. The competition was won by New York-based Steven Holl Architects working with Glasgow-based JM Architects; the Reid Building was completed in 2014 and sits opposite the now destroyed Mackintosh Building on a site occupied by the Foulis and Newbery Tower Buildings. The school has produced most of Scotland's leading contemporary artists including, since 2005, 30 per cent of Turner Prize nominees and five recent Turner Prize winners: Simon Starling in 2005, Richard Wright in 2009, Martin Boyce in 2011, Duncan Campbell in 2014 and Charlotte Prodger in 2018.

The School of Architecture is rated by the architecture profession and the School of Design has been described by Design Week as "leaders in design education". The School is organised into five academic schools: The Mackintosh School of Architecture The School of Design The School of Fine Art The School of Simulation and Visualisation The Innovation SchoolGSA has a long-established portfolio of non-degree art and design classes for children and adults delivered through GSA Open Studio. Disciplines within the five schools include fine-art photography; the original Mackintosh building was damaged by fire on 23 May 2014. An initial fire service estimate was that 90 per cent of the building and 70 per cent of its contents had been saved; the fire, which began in the basement spread upwards and, although it was brought under control quite significant damage was done to the historic studios and stairways. The renowned Mackintosh library was destroyed. There were no reported casualties; the fire broke out.

Eyewitnesses said that the fire appeared to have started when a projector exploded in the basement of the Charles Rennie Mackintosh building just before 12:40 pm. Investigators determined that the cause was not a faulty projector, but "a canister of expanding foam" used in close proximity to a hot projector, causing flammable gases to ignite. According to The Scotsman newspaper, the use of aerosol cans is against school policy; the report from the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service found that the design of the building contributed to the spread of the fire: "the number of timber lined walls and voids, original ventilation ducts running both vertically and horizontally throughout the building" as well as "a vertical service void", which "ran the entire height of the building … allowed flames, hot gases, smoke to travel". Fire and smoke dampers, which are intended to prevent the spread of fire and smoke through ducts, had not been retrofitted. In addition, an intended fire suppression system for the building had not been completed.

A school staff member was on hand when the blaze first ignited, but was unable to contain the fast-spreading flames. A careful restoration process began soon after the fire; the restoration was performed with historical accuracy, including the use of original wood species such as longleaf pine and tulipwood. A large fire broke out in the Mackintosh Building on 15 June 2018. Emergency services received the first call at 11:19 pm BST, 120 firefighters and 20 fire engines were dispatched to the fire. No casualties were reported; the cause of the fire is not yet known. Alan Dunlop, visiting professor of architecture at Robert Gordon University who studied at the Mackintosh School of Architecture, was contacted by the press after the fire and stated: "I can’t see any restoration possible for the building itself, it looks destroyed." This point of view was not supported by the early external building surveys, which appeared to indicate that much of the exterior