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Anatolic Theme

The Anatolic Theme, more properly known as the Theme of the Anatolics was a Byzantine theme in central Asia Minor. From its establishment, it was the largest and senior-most of the themes, its military governors were powerful individuals, several of them rising to the imperial throne or launching failed rebellions to capture it; the theme and its army played an important role in the Arab–Byzantine wars of the 7th–10th centuries, after which it enjoyed a period of relative peace that lasted until its conquest by the Seljuk Turks in the late 1070s. In its "classical" form during the 8th and 9th centuries, the theme stretched over the ancient regions of Lycaonia, Isauria, as well as most of Phrygia and parts of Galatia Salutaris; the Anatolic Theme included the western and southern shores of Asia Minor as well, but by c. 720 they were split off to form the Thracesian and Cibyrrhaeot themes. Under Theophilos, its eastern and south-eastern portions, facing the Arab frontier zone and including the forts that guarded the northern entrance to the Cilician Gates, were detached to form two new frontier districts, those of Cappadocia and Seleucia.

Emperor Leo VI the Wise ceded the region west of Lake Tuz to Cappadocia. The theme's capital was Amorium, until the sack of the city by the Abbasids in 838. After that, it was transferred to the nearby fortress of Polybotos. According to the 10th-century Arab geographers Qudama ibn Ja'far and Ibn al-Faqih, the Anatolic Theme, "the largest of the provinces of the Romans", fielded 15,000 men, contained 34 fortresses, it and its military governor, or stratēgos, first attested in 690, ranked first in precedence among the theme governors. As such, the "stratēgos of the Anatolics" was one of the highest in the Empire, one of the few posts from which eunuchs were barred; the holders of the post received an annual salary of 40 pounds of gold, are attested as holding the senior court ranks of patrikios, prōtospatharios. In addition, they were the only ones to be appointed to the exceptional post of monostrategos, overall commander of the Asian land themes; the exact date of the theme's establishment is unknown.

Along with the other original themes, it was created sometime after the 640s as a military encampment area for the remnants of the old field armies of the East Roman army, which were withdrawn to Asia Minor in the face of the Muslim conquests. The Anatolic Theme was settled and took its name from the army of the East.> The theme is attested for the first time in 669, while the army itself is mentioned, as the exercitus Orientalis, as late as an iussio of Justinian II in 687. During the wars with the Arabs in the 7th and 8th centuries, the Anatolic Theme—especially Cappadocia, its easternmost region—was either a target of Arab invasions, or at the forefront of the Byzantine counter-raids into Arab territory, which began after the middle of the 8th century; the thematic capital, was a frequent target of the Arabs. It was attacked in 644, captured in 646, occupied in 669; the Arabs reached it again in 708 and besieged it without success in 716, during their march on Constantinople. The tide of the Arab attacks ebbed in the 740s, after the Byzantine victory at the Battle of Akroinon and the turmoil of the Third Fitna and the Abbasid Revolution, under Emperor Constantine V, the Anatolics spearheaded the Byzantine campaigns into Arab-held territory.

This in turn provoked the reaction of the Abbasid Caliphate, which in the quarter-century after 780 launched repeated invasions of Byzantine Asia Minor. Thus the Anatolics suffered a heavy defeat at Kopidnadon in 788, Amorium was threatened again in 797. In the early years of the 9th century, Cappadocia was the focus of Arab attacks, which culminated in the great invasion of 806 led by Caliph Harun al-Rashid himself, which took Heraclea Cybistra and several other forts; the late antique urban fabric suffered from the Arab attacks and the concomitant decline of urbanization, but most of the cities in the interior of the theme, i.e. in Phrygia and Pisidia, albeit in a reduced form. The cities of eastern Cappadocia, which bordered the Caliphate, were destroyed, as was Antioch in Pisidia; the foundation of the new kleisourai along the eastern frontier Cappadocia, in the 9th century, meant that Arab raids henceforth were absorbed there, reached the Anatolic Theme's territory. Apart from Caliph al-Mu'tasim's great invasion against Amorium in 838, attacks that penetrated into the Anatolics' territory are reported for the year 878, when the thematic troops defended Mistheia, again in 888, 894 and 897, always in the southeastern portion of the theme around Iconium.

The 10th century was peaceful, with the exception of yet another sack of Amorium in 931 and a raid that reached Iconium in 963. The first Turkish attack on the theme is recorded in 1069. Most of the province was overrun by the Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, with Iconium becoming the seat of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in the 12th century.> The last appearance of the Anatolic Theme in the historical sources is in 1077, when its stratēgos, Nikephoros Botaneiates, proclaimed himself emperor. The Byzantines managed to recover some of the western

Scott's Hall, Jamaica

Scott's Hall is one of the four official towns of the Jamaican Maroons. It is located in Jamaica. Scott's Hall is one of the towns belonging to the Windward Maroons, which are situated along the Blue Mountains. While Moore Town is in the easternmost part of the mountain range, Charles Town, Jamaica is more centrally located. However, while Moore Town and Charles Town are situated in Portland Parish, Scott's Hall is on the westernmost edge of the range in St Mary; the only Leeward Maroon town in Jamaica is Accompong Town, located in the western Cockpit Country. However, the Returned Maroons of Cudjoe's Town now live just outside Jamaica; the largest Windward Maroon town was Crawford's Town, located high in the Blue Mountains. However, a leadership conflict between Quao and Edward Crawford in 1754 resulted in the destruction of Crawford's Town. Scott's Hall was established by supporters of Quao in 1749, when a conflict five years resulted in the destruction of Crawford's Town, more supporters of Quao were relocated to Scott's Hall.

However, upon the establishment of Scott's Hall, white superintendents assumed control of the Maroon town, the Maroon officers reported to them. In 1760, while Cudjo and Davy the Maroon were the nominal Maroon leaders of Scott's Hall, they reported to the Moore Town superintendent, who marshalled the Maroon forces during Tacky's War. Davy, a legendary marksman, is credited with killing Tacky, bringing an end to the main part of the revolt. By the time Cudjo and Davy died, sometime before the mid-1790s, the superintendent did not see the need to appoint another Maroon officer, instead ruled the smallest Maroon town directly. In 1770, there were 42 Maroons living in Scott's Hall, by 1797 the village's population had only increased marginally to 45. In 1808, the Maroon population of Scott's Hall was just 51, but by 1841 it had more than doubled to 105. In 1781, the superintendent of Scott's Hall, Bernard Nalty, led a party of Windward Maroons that killed Three Fingered Jack, a notorious leader of a group of runaway slaves.

Because only a few Scott's Hall Maroons owned slaves, they did not follow the other two Windward Maroon towns in embracing the Anglican Church version of Christianity. Instead, the Maroons of Scott's Hall welcome Baptist missionaries into their village. Like Charles Town, a large number of residents in Scott's Hall were non-Maroons. C. 1760 - c. 1793 Captain Cudjo and Captain Davy the Maroon c. 1790s Colonel George Gray c. 1807 - c. 1809 Captain John Gordon c. 1809 Captain Peter Ellis c. 1760s Edward Cresswell, Benjamin Brown and John George c. 1773 William Trower c. 1776 - c. 1782 Bernard Nalty c. 1782 - c. 1785 Daniel Fisher 1785 - c. 1787 William Virgo Brodbelt 1787 - 1792/4 John Spence Brodbelt 1792/4 - c. 1796 Edmund Pusey March c. 1796 - c. 1797 John March 1797 - 1831 Thomas March 1831 -? Philip Thomas LivingstonIn 2016, Rudolph Pink was elected Maroon colonel of Scott's Hall

1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague

The 1974 French Embassy attack in The Hague was an attack and siege on the French Embassy in The Hague in the Netherlands starting on Friday 13 September 1974. Three members of the Japanese Red Army stormed the embassy on the orders of their leader Fusaku Shigenobu, demanding the release of their member Yatsuka Furuya; the ambassador and ten other people were taken hostage. The siege and negotiations lasted five days, resulting in the release of Furuya, the embassy hostages, a safe flight out of the Netherlands for the terrorists. During the incident, a café in Paris was bombed, linked to the embassy crisis; the Japanese Red Army was a communist terrorist organisation dedicated to eliminating the Japanese government and monarchy and launching a worldwide revolution. The organisation carried out many attacks and assassinations in the 1970s, including the Lod Airport massacre in Tel Aviv three years earlier. Three Japanese Red Army members stormed the embassy on Friday 13 September. A few minutes three Dutch policemen entered the embassy and were caught under fire.

Two policemen were injured due to the gunfire and the other opened fire. One of them was policewoman Hanke Remmerswaal, shot in the back, puncturing a lung; the Red Army demanded the release of their member Yoshiaki Yamada, one million dollars, the use of a French aeroplane. Due to the position of the building in a central part of the city, the Dutch authorities, in consultation with the French government, chose to negotiate for the release of the hostage instead of mounting a rescue operation; the two female hostages were released after two days. On 15 September 1974, a grenade was thrown into the Le Publicis Drugstore café in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés district in Paris; the attack killed wounded 34, including two children who were maimed. The attack was linked to the still ongoing siege and hostage-taking at the French embassy in The Hague; the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility of the attack, in 1996 a former member of the group, Carlos the Jackal, was charged with the attack.

The hostage-taking by the PFLP-allied JRA in The Hague had been orchestrated by Carlos according to prosecutors. The Paris attack was said to have pressured the French government into releasing the jailed JRA member. Carlos claimed responsibility for the attack in a 1979 interview with an Arab magazine, which he denied. After lengthy negotiations, around 10:00 am on Tuesday 17 September, the French government agreed to free Furuya from a French prison, in return for the release of the hostages, US$300,000, a flight out of the Netherlands in an Air France-owned Boeing 707, which would take off with the four terrorists and a Dutch-English crew piloted by Pim Sierks from Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport; the plane flew the hostage-takers to Aden, South Yemen for refueling, before bringing them to Damascus, Syria. They were forced to give up their ransom and weapons, which were returned to the French Embassy in Damascus. According to the ambassador Jacques Senard, at least 20 shots were fired by the terrorists during the siege.

Both the captives and Dutch authorities claimed that the kidnappers were trained, the ambassador called the group's leader a "skilled negotiator". The French government said on 18 September that its secret service will organise an international effort against the Japanese Red Army; the Dutch Budget Day, where the reigning monarch addresses Parliament and proposes the next year's budget, was scheduled for 17 September. The traditional ride in the Golden Coach did not happen. Instead Queen Juliana was driven in a car, along a protected route; the JRA's next major activity would be the August 1975 AIA building hostage crisis in Malaysia. Kazue Yoshimura was arrested by Peruvian DIRCOTE agents in Lima on 25 May 1996 after alleged contacts with members of the Maoist Shining Path insurgency; the trace to her arrest was established after the 1995 Bucharest capture of Yukiko Ekita with a false Peruvian passport. She was intended on travelling to the coca-growing Huallaga Valley, the last stronghold of the diminished Peruvian Maoist insurgency as well as a drug-trafficking haven.

According to Peruvian Caretas magazine, she was aiming on helping establish a JRA presence in South America and may have established contacts with Jun Nishikawa, another JRA operative captured in Bolivia. Yoshimura was deported to Japan by the government of Alberto Fujimori, who stated that there was no proof against her despite the overwhelming intelligence data; the move was the result of pressure from Japanese authorities. In December 1997, Yoshimura was sentenced to half years imprisonment for passport forgery. Two of the three members who attacked the embassy, Haruo Wakō and Nishikawa were detained and extradited to Japan, where they were imprisoned; the other member, Junzō Okudaira, is still at large. Fusaku Shigenobu was captured by the Japanese police on 8 November 2000, after many years on the run, she was sentenced in 2006 to 20 years in prison. Carlos the Jackal faced trial for the Paris café attack in 2017, was given a third life sentence. During the trial he claimed that "no one in the Palestinian resistance has executed more people than I have," and claimed responsibility for a total of about 80 killings.

It is thought he bombed the café to put more pressure on the French government into the JRA's demands in Netherlands. Carlos had been imprisoned since 1996 for other international terrorist activities; this event was featured in the 2010 biopic miniserie