Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. He was the official world champion from 1975 to 1985, he played five matches against Kasparov for the title from 1984 to 1990, before becoming FIDE World Champion once again after Kasparov broke away from FIDE in 1993. He held the title until 1999, when he resigned his title in protest against FIDE's new world championship rules. For his decades-long standing among the world's elite, many consider Karpov one of the greatest players in history, his tournament successes include over 160 first-place finishes. He had a peak Elo rating of 2780, his 102 total months at world number one is the third longest of all time, behind Magnus Carlsen and Garry Kasparov, since the inception of the FIDE ranking list in 1970. Karpov was born on May 23, 1951, in Zlatoust in the Urals region of the former Soviet Union, learned to play chess at the age of 4, his early rise in chess was swift, as he became a Candidate Master by age 11.
At 12, he was accepted into Mikhail Botvinnik's prestigious chess school, though Botvinnik made the following remark about the young Karpov: "The boy does not have a clue about chess, there's no future at all for him in this profession." Karpov acknowledged that his understanding of chess theory was confused at that time, wrote that the homework Botvinnik assigned helped him, since it required that he consult chess books and work diligently. Karpov improved so under Botvinnik's tutelage that he became the youngest Soviet National Master in history at fifteen in 1966. Karpov finished first in his first international tournament in Třinec several months ahead of Viktor Kupreichik. In 1967, he won the annual European Junior Championship at Groningen. Karpov won a gold medal for academic excellence in high school, entered Moscow State University in 1968 to study mathematics, he transferred to Leningrad State University graduating from there in economics. One reason for the transfer was to be closer to his coach, grandmaster Semyon Furman, who lived in Leningrad.
In his writings, Karpov credits Furman as a major influence on his development as a world-class player. In 1969, Karpov became the first Soviet player since Spassky to win the World Junior Chess Championship, scoring an undefeated 10/11 in the finals at Stockholm. In 1970, he tied for fourth place at an international tournament in Caracas and was awarded the grandmaster title, he won the 1971 Alekhine Memorial in Moscow, ahead of a star-studded field, for his first significant adult victory. His Elo rating shot from 2540 in 1971 to 2660 in 1973, when he shared second in the USSR Chess Championship, finished equal first with Viktor Korchnoi in the Leningrad Interzonal Tournament; the latter success qualified him for the 1974 Candidates Matches, which would determine the challenger to the reigning world champion, Bobby Fischer. Karpov defeated Lev Polugaevsky by the score of +3=5 in the first Candidates' match, earning the right to face former champion Boris Spassky in the semifinal round. Karpov was on record saying that he believed Spassky would beat him and win the Candidates' cycle to face Fischer, that he would win the following Candidates' cycle in 1977.
Spassky won the first game as Black in good style, but tenacious, aggressive play from Karpov secured him overall victory by +4−1=6. The Candidates' final was played in Moscow with Korchnoi. Karpov took an early lead, winning the second game against the Sicilian Dragon scoring another victory in the sixth game. Following ten consecutive draws, Korchnoi threw away a winning position in the seventeenth game to give Karpov a 3–0 lead. In game 19, Korchnoi succeeded in winning a long endgame notched a speedy victory after a blunder by Karpov two games later. Three more draws, the last agreed by Karpov in a better position, closed the match, as he thus prevailed +3−2=19, moving on to challenge Fischer for the world title. Though a world championship match between Karpov and Fischer was anticipated, those hopes were never realised. Fischer not only insisted that the match be the first to ten wins, but that the champion retain the crown if the score was tied 9–9. FIDE, the International Chess Federation, refused to allow this proviso, after Fischer's resignation of the championship on June 27, 1975, FIDE declared that Fischer forfeited his crown.
Karpov attempted to set up another match with Fischer, but the negotiations fell through. This thrust the young Karpov into the role of World Champion without having faced the reigning champion. Garry Kasparov argued that Karpov would have had good chances, because he had beaten Spassky convincingly and was a new breed of tough professional, indeed had higher quality games, while Fischer had been inactive for three years. Spassky thought that Fischer would have won in 1975 but Karpov would have qualified again and beaten Fischer in 1978. Determined to prove himself a legitimate champion, Karpov participated in nearly every major tournament for the next ten years, he convincingly won the strong Milan tournament in 1975, captured his first of three Soviet titles in 1976. He created a phenomenal streak of tournament wins against the strongest players in the world. Karpov held the record for most consecutive tournament victories until it was shattered by Garry Kasparov; as a result, most chess professionals soon agreed.
In 1978, Karpov's first title defence was against Korchnoi, the opponent he had defeated in the 1973–75 Candidates' cyc
Penny O'Brian was a Canadian outfielder who played in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League during the 1945 season. Listed at 5′2″, 120 lb. O'Brian batted and threw right handed. Born in Edmonton, Penny O'Brian was one of the 57 players born in Canada to join the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in its twelve years history, her career was cut short when her husband prompted her to quit the league and concentrate on her homemaking responsibilities. Nicknamed ״Peanuts״, O'Brian began playing softball at age 14, she started her professional career in Edmonton, gained notoriety for her blazing speed on the bases as well as in the outfield. She married in 1944 with Earl Cooke, serving in the Royal Canadian Navy during World War II conflict. While playing in Saskatoon, she was offered 65 USD a week to play in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, more than the 18 CAD she was making to drive a taxi, she joined the league in 1945 with the expansion club Fort Wayne Daisies.
In just 83 games, the speedily O'Brian stole 43 bases to rank seventh in the league and led all outfielders with 236 putouts. In an interview, she claimed. After the season, she returned home and went to raise their three children: Lucella and Georgena. Widowed in 1969, she worked as chief cleaner and dishwasher for the family business Motion Foods, retiring in 1985, she is part of the AAGPBL permanent display at the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum at Cooperstown, New York, unveiled in 1988, dedicated to the entire league rather than any individual personality. She gained honorary induction into the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame in 1998. Penny O'Brian died in Vancouver at the age of 90. Batting Fielding
Samuel Thomas Hubbard Jr. was a cotton industry executive and military intelligence officer with the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I. Hubbard served as chief of the Enemy Order of Battle Section in the G2 Military Intelligence Division and as a liaison to the Allied Forces' headquarters for General John Pershing, he served as director of the military intelligence school in Langres, France at the end of the war. Recognizing these efforts, the U. S. Army awarded Hubbard their Distinguished Service Medal, France awarded him their Officier d'Académie Medal. Returning to the U. S. Hubbard worked as an executive with Hubbard Brothers & Company, a cotton grower launched by his family members. Representing HBC, he served as vice president and as president of the New York Cotton Exchange, the oldest commodity exchange in New York City. Hubbard was born in the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey on July 7, 1884, to Samuel T. Hubbard and Elizabeth Van Winkle Hubbard. Like his son, Hubbard's father served as president of the New York Cotton Exchange.
Hubbard graduated from Morristown School in Morristown, New Jersey in 1903. He earned his bachelor's degree at Harvard University in 1907. Hubbard enlisted as a private with the New York Army National Guard in 1911. At the outbreak of World War I, he received a commission in the Signal Officers Reserve Corps. General Pershing appointed him as chief of the Order of Battle Section in the G2 Military Intelligence Division in July 1917; the following year, Hubbard received a promotion to liaison officer. Following the war, Hubbard served with the headquarters of the Army of Occupation in Coblenz, Germany, he gave an invited talk to the 7th Infantry Regiment about his experiences serving in military intelligence. Hubbard described his lessons learned in military intelligence in a book he penned, Memoirs of a Staff Officer: 1917–1919. Since its 1959 publication, this book has influenced historical examinations of American military intelligence. Discussing the history of American involvement in World War I, several nonfiction books make reference to Hubbard's memoir, including: Pershing: General of the Armies by Edward G. Lengel At Belleau Wood by Robert B.
Asprey Military intelligence by John Patrick Finnegan A Grandstand Seat: The American Balloon Service in World War I by Eileen F. Lebow World War I Memories: An Annotated Bibliography of Personal Accounts by Edward G. Lengel In the Shadow of the Sphinx: A History of Army Counterintelligence by James L. Gilbert, John P. Finnegan, Ann Bray Miracle at Belleau Wood: The Birth of the Modern U. S. Marine Corps by Alan Axelrod Foch in Command: The Forging of a First World War General by Elizabeth Greenhalgh World War I and the Origins of U. S. Military Intelligence by James L. Gilbert Haig's Intelligence: GHQ and the German Army, 1916–1918 by James Beach and Jim BeachAdditionally, Pershing's memoir and other history books reference Hubbard's role in World War I without referencing his book, including: World War I by Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall President Wilson Fights His War: World War I and the American Intervention by Harvey Arthur DeWeerd The great battles of World War I by Grosset & Dunlap Duty, privilege: New York's Silk Stocking Regiment and the breaking of the Hindenburg Line by Stephen L. Harris American Battlefields of World War 1, Château-Thierry—then and Now by David C.
Homsher The Illusion of Victory: America in World War I by Thomas Flemming World War I Almanac by David R. Woodward Beginning his career, Hubbard joined W. A. Short & Company in Helena, Arkansas to work as a checker in their cotton classing room and a book keeper, he worked as a cotton purchaser for the firm. In 1909, Hubbard joined Hubbard Brothers & Company, he served as officer manager of their Fall River, Massachusetts office and as office manager of the New York City office. After Hubbard Brothers & Company liquidated in 1928, Hubbard joined Goodbody & Co. one of the largest stockbrokerage firms, as their cotton and commodity partner. He served in that role for 28 years. Hubbard served as a member of the Chicago Board of Trade. Representing the New York Cotton Exchange, Hubbard testified before Congressional hearings on declining cotton prices in 1926 and 1928, he testified at the 1936 Congressional hearing on declining cotton prices. Speaking at this hearing, Hubbard advocated for the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the cotton commodity market.
Hubbard married Margaret Bassett of Fall River, Massachusetts in September 1912. They had five children: Harriet Hubbard Woodhull, Mary Hubbard Alling, Samuel Thomas Hubbard III, Thomas Bassett Hubbard and William Hustace Hubbard II. Memoirs of a Staff Officer: 1917–1919
General Sir John Garvock was a British Army General who achieved high office in the 1860s. Garvock, the only son of Maj. John Garvock of the Royal Horse Guards and his wife, was born in Kennington, Surrey, in 1817. Garvock was commissioned into the 10th Regiment of Foot in 1835. By 1839 he was serving as an Adjutant in the 10th Regiment of Foot, he went on to command 2nd Infantry Brigade at Shorncliffe in October 1860 and 1st Infantry Brigade at Dover in July 1861. In 1863 he took command of the Eusufzye Field Force, a formation which conducted a foray against Hindustani tribesmen in Umbela in the North West Frontier during what is now known as the Ambela Campaign, he was appointed General Officer Commanding Northern District in England in October 1866 and General Officer Commanding Southern District in July 1877. He was subsequently Colonel of the 89th Foot and the 10th Foot
Margaret Leijonhufvud was Queen of Sweden from 1536 to 1551 by marriage to King Gustav I. Margaret Leijonhuvfud was a member of one of Sweden's most powerful noble families: the early Leijonhufvud clan of Swedish nobility, being the daughter of Erik Abrahamsson Leijonhufvud, a man executed in the Stockholm bloodbath, Ebba Eriksdotter Vasa, the second cousin of king Gustav. There is little known of her life prior to her marriage, her father was executed when she was four years old, during which time she hid with her mother and siblings in the Västerås Monastery. She spent her childhood at Lo Castle in Västergötland and Ekeberg in Närke. At that time, the contemporary educational ideal for a Swedish noblewoman was to be tutored in reading, writing and mathematics, she was expected to learn how to manage a large estate and landholding and perform the duties of her future husband in his absence, as well as to have knowledge at least in the German language except Swedish, to deport herself with humility but dignity by reading religious literature.
It was customary for a girl from the nobility to spent some time in a convent to complete her education, Margaret is to have received this customary education. Though there is no explicit confirmation of this, it is considered likely for Margaret to have served as a maid-of-honour to the queen, Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg: she was fifteen years old in 1531 when the king married Catherine, her sister Brita married the king's favorite courtier Gustav Olofsson Stenbock in the presence of the royal couple shortly after, though no list of Queen Catherine's ladies survives, Margaret's social position, connections and contemporary custom makes it likely that she completed her education by serving the queen, as was the custom for girls of her position at the time. In 1535, the King was widowed by Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg and left with only one legitimate child and heir. A new marriage for the King was deemed necessary, his decision to choose a spouse from among the nobility has been explained by the need to secure inner support and allies among the nobility for his rule, because of the political and religious difficulties, along with the great cost and time, involved in negotiating a marriage with a foreign princess.
Margaret was selected to marry the king as she belonged to one of the leading noble families of the realm, creating an alliance between the king and one of the most powerful factions of the nobility. There is not confirmation about how Margaret felt about the marriage: both church law as well as secular law banned forced marriages, but both religious and secular custom demanded that children should obey their parents. According to the traditional tale, Margaret hid in a box when the king came to her parent's estate to propose. Margaret married King Gustav I October 1536 in Uppsala Cathedral in a ceremony conducted by archbishop Laurentius Petri, was crowned Queen there the next day. At her wedding, her brothers Abraham and Sten were knighted, as well as her brother-in-law were named riksråd, beginning what was referred to as the period of the Kungafränderna, meaning the relatives he acquired through marriage with Margaret, in which her relatives were given prominent positions and influence at court as the king's closest allies, married in with the king's relatives and present at official royal representational ceremonies.
During the first years of their marriage, Margaret's mother Ebba played a dominating role in the royal court, it was said that the king did not dare to oppose his mother-in-law. According to tradition, Margaret was engaged to Svante Sture when the king decided to marry her, but her family broke the engagement and her former fiancé was married to her sister, Martha Leijonhufvud, instead. A story describes. According to tradition, the king caught his new queen and her former fiancé together alone, with the young man, Svante Sture, on his knees before the queen; the king asked in a rage: "What is this?!" Upon which Queen Margaret swiftly answered: "My Lord Sture is asking me for the hand of my sister!" At this, the king just as swiftly answered: "Granted!" And so, Svante Sture hastily married the queen's sister Martha Leijonhufvud. There is not documented confirmation that Margaret and Sture were engaged, but it is considered likely, as their marriage would have been what her family would have arranged for her, had she not married the king.
Queen Margaret has been given a good estimation in contemporary documents as well as in history, referred to as intelligent and beautiful. The marriage has been described as happy, the king was not known to have been unfaithful to her. Margaret was loyally devoted to her birth family her entire life, benefited by her royal marriage, successfully used her as mediator for benefits from the king. Several of her male relatives was given offices by the king, her sisters benefited from favors granted to their spouses: her sister Anna's husband was made the greatest landholder in Östergötland and her sister Brita's husband the equivalent in Västergötland, while her widowed mother and maternal grandmother Anna Karlsdotter was granted personal lands and the right to the income
Paul N. Hehn was an American historian who specialized in the Second World War; the son of a German immigrant father and a French-Canadian mother, Hehn was born in Manhattan and served as a US Navy Seabee in the South Pacific and Japan in 1945 and 1946. He received his BA from the University of Oregon in 1950 and his MA from Columbia University in 1954. Two years he traveled to West Germany for a year of study at the University of Munich. Returning to the United States, he earned his doctorate in history from New York University in 1961. For a number of years afterward, he taught at various institutions of higher education in Ohio and at Temple University. In 1968, Hehn was hired by the State University of New York, College at Brockport, where he was a member of the Department of History for the next 22 years. While at Brockport, he was known as a teacher and mentor who challenged students to think critically and who paid attention to their personal interests and needs. After retiring in 1990 as professor emeritus of history, he intensified his research and writing on World War II and eastern European history.
In 2002, he published his magnum opus titled A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941. As The Independent Review: A Journal of Political Economy wrote, "Hehn contends forthrightly that economic rivalries... formed the essential and primary cause of World War II.... Hehn's vast research apparatus, would be humbling for many historians." Publishers Weekly found that "Hehn's imperialist theme is compelling" and "powerfully argued". The title A Low, Dishonest Decade comes from the poem September 1, 1939 by the British-American poet W. H. Auden: The German Struggle against the Yugoslav Guerillas in World War II, ISBN 0914710486 A Low, Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930-1941, ISBN 0826414494