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An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae. Most species are found in marine waters, but several will enter brackish water and some in South America are restricted to fresh water; the more than 140 species are placed in 17 genera. Anchovies are classified as oily fish. Anchovies are small, green fish with blue reflections due to a silver-colored longitudinal stripe that runs from the base of the caudal fin, they range from 2 to 40 cm in adult length, their body shapes are variable with more slender fish in northern populations. The snout is blunt with sharp teeth in both jaws; the snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature, although its exact function is unknown. The mouth is larger than that of herrings and silversides, two fish which anchovies resemble in other respects; the anchovy eats plankton and hatched fish. Anchovies are found in scattered areas throughout the world's oceans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, are rare or absent in cold or warm seas.

They are very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in brackish areas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and bays; the European anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranean in the Alboran Sea, Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. This species is caught along the coasts of Crete, Sicily, France, Northern Iran and Spain, they are found on the coast of northern Africa. The range of the species extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Spawning occurs between October and March, but not in water colder than 12 °C; the anchovy appears to spawn at least 100 km near the surface of the water. The anchovy is a significant food source for every predatory fish in its environment, including the California halibut, rock fish, shark and coho salmon, it is extremely important to marine mammals and birds. Anchovies, like most clupeoids, are filter-feeders; as water passes through the mouth and out the gills, food particles are sieved by gill rakers and transferred into the esophagus.

* Type species On average, the Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around 300,000 tons per year in winter. The largest catch is in December; the Peruvian anchovy fishery is one of the largest in the world, far exceeding catches of the other anchovy species. In 1973 it collapsed catastrophically due to the combined effects of overfishing and El Niño and did not recover for two decades. A traditional method of processing and preserving anchovies is to gut and salt them in brine, allow them to cure, pack them in oil or salt; this results in the flesh turning a deep grey. Pickled in vinegar, as with Spanish boquerones, anchovies are milder and the flesh retains a white color. In Roman times, anchovies were the base for the fermented fish sauce garum. Garum had a sufficiently long shelf life for long-distance commerce, was produced in industrial quantities. Anchovies were eaten raw as an aphrodisiac. Today, they are used in small quantities to flavor many dishes; because of the strong flavor, they are an ingredient in several sauces and condiments, including Worcestershire sauce, Caesar salad dressing, Gentleman's Relish, many fish sauces, in some versions of Café de Paris butter.

For domestic use, anchovy fillets are packed in oil or salt in small tins or jars, sometimes rolled around capers. Anchovy paste is available. Fishermen use anchovies as bait for larger fish, such as tuna and sea bass; the strong taste people associate with anchovies is due to the curing process. Fresh anchovies, known in Italy as alici, have a much milder flavor. In Sweden and Finland, the name anchovies is related to a traditional seasoning, hence the product "anchovies" is made of sprats and herring can be sold as "anchovy-spiced". Fish from the family Engraulidae are instead known as sardell in Sweden and sardelli in Finland, leading to confusion when translating recipes. Sardine Chavez, F. P.. M.. "From Anchovies to Sardines and Back: Multidecadal Change in the Pacific Ocean". Science. 229: 217–221. Doi:10.1126/science.1075880. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Engraulidae" in FishBase. January 2006 version. Miller DJ "Anchovy" CalCOFI Reports, 5: 20–26. Nizinski MS and Munroe TA FAO species catalogue, volume 2: Clupeoid Fishes of the World, Anchovies Pages 764–780, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125, Rome.

ISBN 92-5-102340-9. Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission Northern Anchovy "Fisheries Ebb and Flow in 50-Year Cycle" by Cameron Walker, National Geographic News. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Anchovy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau

The Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau is located in an arc around southeastern Ohio into western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. This area is a dissected plateau, characterized by sandstone and many coal seams; this is the part of the Allegheny Plateau that lies outside the continental glaciation of the ice age. One of the most spectacular and scenic areas in this region is located in southeast Ohio, is known as the Hocking Hills region; this area, similar to but smaller than the Red River Gorge in the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky, features cliffs, rock shelters and waterfalls. The largest city in the Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau is Pennsylvania; the Ohio River bisects the Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau in a north-northeast to south-southwest direction. Other significant rivers in the plateau include the Muskingum River and Tuscarawas River in Ohio, the Youghiogheny River and Allegheny River in Pennsylvania, the Monongahela River and Kanawha River in West Virginia; the Kanawha River is formed by the confluence of the Gauley River.

All three rivers are known for their spectacular deep gorges. Geography of Appalachia

50th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 50th Infantry Division was a German division in World War II. It was formed on 26 August 1939 from the Grenzkommandantur Küstrin. Infanterie-Regiment 121 Infanterie-Regiment 122 Infanterie-Regiment 123 Artillerie-Abteilung 150 Pionier-Battalion 71 Nachrichten-Abteilung 71 Versorgungseinheiten 354 Infanterie-Regiment 121 Infanterie-Regiment 122 Infanterie-Regiment 123 Artillerie-Regiment 150 Pionier-Battalion 71 Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 150 Radfahr-Schwadron 150 Nachrichten-Abteilung 71 Infanterie-Divisions-Nachschubführer 150 Grenadier-Regiment 121 Grenadier-Regiment 122 Grenadier-Regiment 123 Füsilier-Battalion 50 Artillerie-Regiment 150 Panzerjäger-Abteilung 150 Feldersatz-Battalion 150 Versorgungsregiment 150 Infanterie-Divisions-Nachrichten-Abteilung 150 The unit was destroyed in the Heiligenbeil Pocket. Generalleutnant Konrad Sorsche, 1 September 1939 – 25 October 1940 Generaloberst Karl-Adolf Hollidt, 25 October 1940 – 23 January 1942 Generalleutnant August Schmidt, 31 January 1942 – 1 March 1942 Generalleutnant Friedrich Schmidt, 1 Mar 1942 – 26 June 1943 Generalleutnant Friedrich Sixt, 26 June 1943 – 30 April 1944 Generalleutnant Paul Betz, 30 Apr 1944 – 9 May 1944 Generalmajor Georg Haus, 5 June 1944 – 18 April 1945 Generalmajor Kurt Domansky, 18 April 1945 – 28 April 1945 Oberst Ribbert, 28 April 1945 – May 1945 "50.

Infanterie-Division". Lexikon der Wehrmacht. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011

Liuguanghe Xiqian Expressway Bridge

The Liuguanghe Xiqian Expressway Bridge is a 375 metres high cable-stay bridge crossing the Yachi River between Xiuwen and Qianxi, Bijie in Guizhou, China. The Liuguanghe Bridge will carry traffic on the Xifeng to Qianxi Expressway; the bridge will have a total length of 1280 metres. The highest tower is 245 metres high making it one of the tallest bridges in the world. Although the bridge is 375 metres high, that measurement is taken from the original river level. Construction of the Wujiangdu Dam down stream from the bridge has created a reservoir that extents under the bridge reducing the viable height above the water to 300 metres. Transport portal Engineering portal China portal List of bridges in China List of bridges in Guizhou List of highest bridges "Liuguanghe Bridge Xiqian". 7 January 2017. Retrieved 2011-01-07.


Theopaschism is the belief that a god can suffer. In Christian theology this involves questions like "was the crucifixion of Jesus a crucifixion of God?". The question is central to the schism between those churches which accepted the First Council of Ephesus and the Assyrian Church of the East. While not Nestorian, the Assyrian Church of the East, along with their greatest teacher, Babai the Great, deny the possibility of a suffering God; some theologians of the Byzantine period held similar views, although they were never held to be orthodox. Classical Augustinian theology, on the contrary, maintains that the man Jesus suffered to a much greater extent, in order to avoid charges of modalism and patripassianism. A number of modern philosophers and theologians have been called theopaschists, such as G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Nietzsche and Simone Weil. Kitamori's Theology of the Pain of God and Moltmann's The Crucified God are two 1900s books that have taken up the ancient theological idea that at least unus de Trinitate passus est.

In the words of Hans Urs von Balthasar: "At this point, where the subject undergoing the'hour' is the Son speaking with the Father, the controversial'Theopaschist formula' has its proper place:'One of the Trinity has suffered.' The formula can be found in Gregory Nazianzen:'We needed a...crucified God'."Some proponents of liberation theology have extended the theopaschist debate to the hypostasis of the Holy Spirit, questioning whether the Spirit may or may not have felt pain during the incarnation. This debate has had implications per Leonardo Boff's Church: Charism and Power. John Henry Blunt. Dictionary of Sects, Ecclesiastical Parties, Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons, 1903. P. 594 Brock, Sebastian P.. Fire from Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy. Aldershot: Ashgate


Katthammarsvik is a harbour settlement in Östergarn socken on the island of Gotland, Sweden. As of 2005, it was in statistical terms defined as a småort and has very held the status of a tätort. Katthammarsvik had a limestone industry consisting of several kilns that flourished after Gotland came under Swedish rule in 1645. Burnt lime and wood products were shipped from the harbour at Katthammarsvik. Katthamra Manor not far from the harbor, is of medieval origin but flourished and was expanded during the time of the limestone industry in the 18th and 19th century. With 196 inhabitants, Katthammarsvik was defined as a småort in 1990. After a rise in population to 220 in 1995, Statistics Sweden redefined it as a locality. In 2000, the population was down to 182 people and it was again defined as a small locality In 2005, the population had sunk to 176. Katthamra Gård Official site