Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
A monopteros is a circular colonnade supporting a roof but without any walls. Unlike a tholos, it not have a cella. In Greek and especially Roman antiquity the term could be used for a tholos, in ancient times monopteroi served inter alia as a form of baldachin for an idol. An example of this is the Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, the Temple of Rome and Augustus on the Athenian Acropolis is a monopteros from Roman times with open spaces between the columns. Cyriacus von Ancona, a 15th-century traveller, handed down his architrave inscription, in baroque and classicist architecture, the monopteros as a muses temple is a popular motif in English and French gardens. The monopteros occurs in German parks, as in the English Garden in Munich, many wells in parks and spa centres have the appearance of a monopteros. Many monopteroi have staffage structures like a porticus, placed in front of the monopteros and these have only a decorative function, because they are not needed in order to provide an entrance to a temple that is open on all sides.
Many monopteroi are described as due to their circular floor plan. The tholos goes by that name, many monopteroi have square or polygonal plans, that would not be described as rotundas. An example is the Muses Temple with the muse, Polyhymnia, in the grounds of Tiefurt House, wolfgang Binder, Der Roma-Augustus Monopteros auf der Akropolis in Athen und sein typologischer Ort. Ingrid Weibezahn, Geschichte und Funktion des Monopteros, untersuchungen zu einem Gebäudetyp des Spätbarock und des Klassizismus. Online, Wiesbaden monopteros - 360° panorama Photographs and historical background to the Leibniz Temple in Hanover
A bouleuterion, translated as council house, assembly house, and senate house, was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens of a democratic city state. These representatives assembled at the bouleteurion to confer and decide about public affairs, there are several extant bouleuteria around Greece and its former colonies. It should not be confused with the Prytaneion, which housed the council of the assembly. The Athenian Boule is better known as the Council of 500, solon was credited with its formation in 594 BC as an assembly of 100 men each from Athenss four original tribes. At the adoption of the new constitution around 507 BC, this was changed to 50 men each from the 10 newly created tribes, the Old Bouleuterion was built on the west side of the Agora below the Kolonos Agoraios around 450 BC. It was almost square and included an antechamber and a main council chamber. The roof was supported by five columns and it is now better known as the Metroon since it was repurposed as her temple after the construction of the New Bouleuterion.
The New Bouleuterion was built west of the old building in the late 5th century BC and it was smaller but more sophisticated, with an amphitheater-like system of 12 levels of semicircular benches. Both the Old and New Bouleuteria used the nearby Tholos, the Olympian Bouleuterion was shaped like an early Greek temple, a kind of square horse-shoe. It had a seating arrangement and was located near the citys agora. Other bouleuteria exist at Anemourion, Argos in Greece, Lemnos in Greece, Messene and Troy
The Roman Agora at Athens is located to the north of the Acropolis and to the east of the Ancient Agora. The original Agora was encroached upon and obstructed by a series of Roman buildings, beginning with the imperial familys gift to the Athenians of a large odeion. The Odeon of Agrippa was built by him in around 15 BC, and measured 51.4 by 43.2 metres, rose several stories in height, and – being sited just north of the Middle Stoa – obstructed the old agora. Tower of the Winds Gate of Athena Archegetis East Propylon Fethiye Mosque Agoranomion Vespasianae North of the odeion was a new temple to Ares, the functions of the old agora were transferred to the Roman Agora, which was built around 100 metres east of the original agora. The Roman Agora has not today been fully excavated, but is known to have been an open space. To its south was a fountain, to its east, behind a marble colonnade, were shops and an Ionic propylaeum. To its west was a Doric propylaeum, hadrians Library The Roman Agora & the Tower of Winds at The Stoa Consortium.
The Roman Agora, the first commercial centre of Athens at National Hellenistic Research Foundation
A metroon was an ancient Greek temple dedicated to a mother goddess. They were often devoted to Cybele, Demeter, or Rhea. Coordinates,37. 975214°N23. 722077°E /37.975214,23.722077 The Athenian Metroon was located on the west side of the citys Agora, in the Old Bouleuterion which formerly housed the city council. At the end of the 5th century BC, the New Bouleuterion was built, the Athenians had killed one of her wandering priests when he attempted to introduce her cult, the plague which visited the city was dealt with by honoring her. The Metroon continued to serve a function, housing the official archives of the city. The Olympian Metroon was erected in the late 4th or early 3rd century BC immediately below the terrace which housed the Treasuries, Greek religion Greek temples Media related to Metroon at Wikimedia Commons
Stoa of Attalos
The Stoa of Attalos was a stoa in the Agora of Athens, Greece. It was built by and named after King Attalos II of Pergamon, the current building was reconstructed from 1952–1956 by American architects. Typical of the Hellenistic age, the stoa was more elaborate, the stoas dimensions are 115 by 20 metres and it is made of Pentelic marble and limestone. The building skillfully makes use of different architectural orders, the Doric order was used for the exterior colonnade on the ground floor with Ionic for the interior colonnade. This combination had been used in stoas since the Classical period and was by Hellenistic times quite common, on the first floor of the building, the exterior colonnade was Ionic and the interior Pergamene. Each story had two aisles and twenty-one rooms lining the western wall, the rooms of both stories were lighted and vented through doorways and small windows located on the back wall. There were stairways leading up to the story at each end of the stoa. The building is similar in its design to the Stoa that Attalos brother.
The main difference is that Attalos stoa had a row of rooms at the rear on the floor that have been interpreted as shops. The stoa is identified as a gift to the city of Athens for the education that Attalos received there, a dedicatory inscription on the architrave is engraved as built by Attalos II, ruler of Pergamon from 159 BC to 138 BC. The stoa was in frequent use until it was destroyed by the Heruli in 267, the ruins became part of a fortification wall, which made it easily seen in modern times. The Stoa of Attalos houses the Museum of the Ancient Agora and its exhibits are mostly connected with the Athenian democracy. Fotopedia. com, Selected photos of the Stoa of Attalus Ministry of Culture, The Museum The Museum Stoa of Attalos photos
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens is one of 17 foreign archaeological institutes in Athens, Greece. The center is a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers, the ASCSA offers graduate students enrolled in member universities an unparalleled immersion into the sites and monuments of Greek civilization. The program for Regular Members is a participatory program over nine months. Regular Members are expected to be in attendance for the full nine-month program, students receive comprehensive training through visits to the principal archaeological sites and museums of Greece as well as in seminars led by resident and visiting scholars. They take part in the program at the Corinth excavations. The School accepts 15 to 20 students in this program, in these sessions, the School condenses its academic year program into an intensive introduction to the sites and monuments of Greece. The Summer programs are open to 20 participants each session, the School welcomes scholars to its libraries year-round for research.
Throughout its existence, the ASCSA has been involved in a number of archaeological projects. It is responsible for two of the most important archaeological sites in Greece, the Athenian Agora and Ancient Corinth, the Corinth Excavations commenced in 1896 and have continued to present day with little interruption, and the Athenian Agora excavations first broke ground in 1932. At both sites, the ASCSA operates important museums and extensive facilities for the study of the archaeological record, excavation records and artifacts are made available to wider audiences via ASCSA. Lykaion and the Palace of Nestor at Pylos, Haghia Irini, as well as Azoria, Gournia and these books range in format from large hardbacks to slim paperback guides. William W. Goodwin, first director Lewis R. Packard Frank B, tarbell Henry S. Robonson Henry R. Immerwahr Stephen V. Tracy Jack L. Davis James C. Wright, current incumbent E. Korka et al, foreign Archaeological Schools in Greece,160 Years, Hellenic Ministry of Culture,2006, p. 18-29. L.
Lord, A History of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, An Intercollegiate Experiment, L. Shoe Meritt, A History of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1939-1980
A Prytaneion was seat of the Prytaneis, and so the seat of government in ancient Greece. The Prytaneion normally stood in centre of the city, in the agora, the building contained the holy fire of Hestia, the goddess of the hearth, and symbol of the life of the city. Coordinates,37. 974853°N23. 721927°E /37.974853,23 and it was this round feature that allowed archaeologists to identify the badly damaged buildings surrounding it. It functioned as a kind of all purpose venue, with both a hall and sleeping quarters for some of the officials. This accommodation was necessary as, after the reforms under Cleisthenes and it was built around 470 BCE by Cimon, to serve as a dining hall for the boule. At Olympia, the Prytaneion was where the priests and magistrates lived and it stands to the north-west of the Temple of Hera and was used for celebrations and feasts by the winners of the games. It housed the Altar of Hestia where the original Olympic flame once burnt, University of California Press,1978
Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens. It was a system of democracy, in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation. The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles, after his death, Athenian democracy was twice briefly interrupted by oligarchic revolutions towards the end of the Peloponnesian War. It was modified somewhat after it was restored under Eucleides, the most detailed accounts of the system are of this fourth-century modification rather than the Periclean system, Democracy was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were revived, but how close they were to a real democracy is debatable. Solon and Ephialtes contributed to the development of Athenian democracy and he broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth. The word democracy combines the elements dêmos and krátos, and thus means literally people power, in the words monarchy and oligarchy, the second element comes from archē, meaning beginning, and hence first place or power, sovereignty.
One might expect the term demarchy to have adopted, by analogy. However, the word demarchy had already taken and meant mayoralty. We are not certain that the democracy was extant when systems that came to be called democratic were first instituted. The word is attested in Herodotus, who some of the earliest surviving Greek prose. Around 460 BC an individual is known with the name of Democrates, a name possibly coined as a gesture of democratic loyalty, Athens was not the only polis in Ancient Greece that instituted a democratic regime. Aristotle cites many other cities as well, yet, it is only with reference to Athens that we can attempt to trace some of specific sixth century events that led to the institution of democracy at the end of the century. Before the first attempt at government, Athens was ruled by a series of archons or chief magistrates. The members of these institutions were generally aristocrats, who ruled the polis for their own advantage, in 621 BC Draco codified a set of notoriously harsh laws that were a clear expression of the power of the aristocracy over everybody else.
This did not stop the aristocratic families feuding amongst themselves to obtain as much power as possible, the enfranchisement of the local laboring classes was succeeded by the development of chattel slavery, the enslavement of, in large part, foreigners. Solon, the mediator, reshaped the city by absorbing the traditional aristocracy in a definition of citizenship which allotted a political function to every resident of Attica. Athenians were not slaves but citizens, with the right, at the very least, under these reforms, the position of archon was opened to all with certain property qualifications, and a Boule, a rival council of 400, was set up
Odeon of Agrippa
The Odeon of Agrippa was a large concert hall located in the centre of the Ancient Agora of Athens. It was built about 15 BCE, occupying what had previously been open space in the centre of the agora and it was a gift to the people of Athens by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a Roman statesman and general. The two-storey auditorium seated around 1,000 spectators and was equipped with a raised stage, on three sides it was surrounded by a subterranean cryptoporticus with stoae above. The building was decorated externally with Corinthian pilasters, the main entrance for spectators was originally on the south side of the building, with access from the terrace of the Middle Stoa. The north facade only had a portico to give access to the stage. Unfortunately the 25 metres of the auditorium eventually caused the roof to collapse in around 150 CE, the Odeon was rebuilt as a smaller lecture hall, seating only 500 and a more elaborate facade was added to the north side. Its massive pillars were carved in the form of giants and tritons, the Odeon was finally destroyed in 267 CE by the Herulians. A sprawling palace was built on the site in the early 5th century CE with the pillars of the facade being used to create a monumental entrance.
List of Greco-Roman roofs Camp II, John McK, the Athenian Agora, A Short Guide to the Excavations. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens
Temple of Hephaestus
The Temple of Hephaestus or Hephaisteion or earlier as the Theseion, is a well-preserved Greek temple, it remains standing largely as built. It is a Doric peripteral temple, and is located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens, from the 7th century until 1834, it served as the Greek Orthodox church of Saint George Akamates. The buildings condition has been maintained due to its history of varied use, Hephaestus was the patron god of metal working and fire. There were numerous potters workshops and metal-working shops in the vicinity of the temple, archaeological evidence suggests that there was no earlier building on the site except for a small sanctuary that was burned when the Persians occupied Athens in 480 BC. The Athenians directed their funds towards rebuilding their economy and strengthening their influence in the Delian League, when Pericles came to power, he envisioned a grand plan for transforming Athens into the centre of Greek power and culture. Construction started in 449 BCE, and some believe the building not to have been completed for some three decades and workers having been redirected towards the Parthenon.
It was only during the Peace of Nicias that the roof was completed, the temple was officially inaugurated in 416–415 BC. Many architects have been suggested, but without firm evidence one refers simply to The Hephaisteion Master, the temple is built of marble from the nearby Mt. Penteli, excepting the bottom step of the krepis or platform. The architectural sculpture is in both Pentelic and Parian marble. The dimensions of the temple are 13.708 m north to south and 31.776 m east to west, with six columns on the short east and west sides and thirteen columns along the longer north and south sides. The building has a pronaos, a cella housing cult images at the centre of the structure, the alignment of the antae of the pronaos with the third flank columns of the peristyle is a design element unique middle of the 5th century BC. There is an inner Doric colonnade with five columns on the north and south side, the decorative sculptures highlight the extent of mixture of the two styles in the construction of the temple.
Both the pronaos and the opisthodomos are decorated with continuous Ionic friezes (instead of the more typical Doric triglyphs, supplementing the sculptures at the pediments and the metopes. The frieze of the pronaos depicts a scene from the battle of Theseus with the Pallantides in the presence of gods while the frieze of the shows the battle of Centaurs. Reconstructing the themes of the pediments is difficult due to the nature of the surviving remnants. An earlier interpretation identified the birth of Erichthonios in the east pediment, only 18 of the 68 metopes of the temple of Hephaestus were sculptured, concentrated especially on the east side of the temple, the rest were perhaps painted. The ten metopes on the east side depict the Labours of Heracles, the four easternmost metopes on the long north and south sides depict the Labours of Theseus. According to Pausanias, the temple housed the bronze statues of Athena, an inscription records payments between 421 BC and 415 BC for two bronze statues but it does not mention the sculptor