Pope Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the most recent French pope. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France, his death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism. He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in Maumont in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, around 1330; the nephew of Pope Clement VI, he succeeded Pope Urban V at the papal conclave of 1370 and was the seventh and last of the Avignon Popes. During his pontificate, vigorous measures were taken against proponents of Lollardy, which had found acceptance in Germany and other parts of Europe. Efforts were made to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders, such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints. Gregory confirmed a treaty between Sicily and Naples at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon on 20 August 1372, which brought about a permanent settlement between the rival kingdoms, which were both papal fiefs.
John Wycliffe's 19 reformation articles on church-related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkok's Decadicon that he wrote against the Sachsenspiegel law-book. The Decadicon was submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s by French canonist and cardinal of the Curia Pierre de la Vergne. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of the Sachsenspiegel in 1374 and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377, his decision to return to Rome is attributed in part to the incessant pleas and threats of Catherine of Siena. A return had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, but the demands of the Hundred Years' War brought him north of the Alps again, Avignon was still the seat of the Bishop of Rome; the project of returning again to Rome was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as the War of the Eight Saints. The pope put Florence under interdict during 1376; the return of the Curia to Rome began on 13 September 1376 and was concluded with the arrival of Gregory XI on 17 January 1377.
Gregory XI did not long survive this trip, dying in Rome on 27 March 1378. He was buried the following day in the church of Santa Maria Nuova. After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian pope into the papacy; the Italians chose Urban VI. Soon after being elected, Urban gained the Cardinals' enmity; the cardinals withdrew from Rome to Fondi, where they annulled their election of Urban and elected a French pope, Clement VII, before returning to Avignon in 1378. Subsequently, the Western Schism created by the selection of rival popes forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance; this schism was not resolved until the Council of Constance was called by a group of cardinals. Boldly, the council, in 1417, elected Martin V as their successor; the chaos of the Western Schism thus brought about reforming councils and gave them the power over, elected, replacing the College of Cardinals. List of popes Ameilh, Pierre.
Le voyage de Grégoire XI ramenant la Papauté d'Avignon à Rome, 1376-1377 suivi du texte latin et de la traduction franç. de l'Itinerarium Gragerii XI de Pierre Ameilh.. Florence: Coppini. Hanawalt, G. Barbara; the Middle Ages: An Illustrated History, 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 143 Cairns, E. Earl. Christianity Throughout the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, 1996, Zondervan, pp. 241 & 248–250. Gherardi, Alessandro. La guerra dei Fiorentini con Papa Gregorio XI detta la guerra degli otto santi memoria compilata sui documenti dell' archivio fiorentino. Firenze: Tipi di Cellini. Jugie, Pierre. La formation intellectuelle du cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, le pape Grégoire XI: nouveau point sur la question. Florence: Sismel. Mirot, Léon. La politique pontificale et le retour du Saint-Siège à Rome en 1376. Paris: É. Bouillon. Ocker, Johannes Klenkok: a friar's life, c. 1310–1374, American Philosophical Society, 1993, ISBN 0-87169-835-8 Thibault, Paul R.. Pope Gregory XI: the failure of tradition.
Lanham MD USA: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-5463-7
Pope Innocent X
Pope Innocent X, born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, was Pope from 15 September 1644 to his death in 1655. Born in Rome of a family from Gubbio in Umbria who had come to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent IX, Pamphili was trained as a lawyer and graduated from the Collegio Romano, he followed a conventional cursus honorum, following his uncle Girolamo Pamphili as auditor of the Rota, like him, attaining the position of Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Eusebio, in 1629. Before becoming Pope, Pamphili served as a papal diplomat to Naples and Spain. Pamphili succeeded Pope Urban VIII on 15 September 1644 as Pope Innocent X, after a contentious papal conclave that featured a rivalry between French and Spanish factions. Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era increasing the temporal power of the Holy See. Major political events in which he was involved included the English Civil War, conflicts with French church officials over financial fraud issues, hostilities with the Duchy of Parma related to the First War of Castro.
In terms of theological events, Innocent X issued a papal bull condemning the beliefs of Jansenism. Giovanni Battista Pamphili was born in Rome on 5 May 1574, the son of Camillo Pamphili, of the Roman Pamphili family; the family from Gubbio, was directly descended from Pope Alexander VI. In 1594 he graduated from the Collegio Romano and followed a conventional path through the ranks of the Catholic Church, he served as a Consistorial lawyer in 1601, in 1604 succeeded his uncle, Cardinal Girolamo Pamphili, as auditor of the Roman Rota, the ecclesiastical appellate tribunal. He was a canonist of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, a second tribunal. In 1623 Pope Gregory XV sent him as apostolic nuncio to the court of the Kingdom of Naples. In 1625 Popo Urban VIII sent him to accompany his nephew, Francesco Barberini, whom he had accredited as nuncio, first to France and Spain. In January 1626, Pamphili was appointed titular Latin Patriarch of Antioch. In reward for his labors, in May 1626 Giovanni Battista was made nuncio to the court of Philip IV of Spain.
The position led to a lifelong association with the Spaniards, of great use during the papal conclave of 1644. He was created Cardinal in pectore in 1627 and published in 1629; the 1644 conclave for the election of a successor to Pope Urban VIII was long and contentious, lasting from 9 August to 15 September. A large French faction led by Urban VIII's nephews objected to the Spanish candidate, as an enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, who guided French policy, they put up their own candidate but could not establish enough support for him and agreed to Cardinal Pamphili as an acceptable compromise, though he had served as legate to Spain. Mazarin, bearing the French veto of Pamphili, arrived too late, the election was accomplished. Pamphili chose to be called Innocent X, soon after his accession he initiated legal action against the Barberini for misappropriation of public funds; the brothers Francesco Barberini, Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini fled to Paris, where they found a powerful protector in Cardinal Mazarin.
Innocent X confiscated their property, on 19 February 1646, issued a papal bull decreeing that all cardinals who might leave the Papal States for six months without express papal permission would be deprived of their benefices and of their cardinalate itself. The French parliament declared the papal ordinance void in France, but Innocent X did not yield until Mazarin prepared to send troops to Italy. Henceforth the papal policy towards France became more friendly, somewhat the Barberini were rehabilitated when the son of Taddeo Barberini, Maffeo Barberini, married Olimpia Giustiniani, a niece of Innocent X. In 1653, Innocent X, with the Cum occasione papal bull, condemned five propositions of Jansenius's Augustinus, inspired by St. Augustine, as heretical and close to Lutheranism; this led to the formulary controversy, Blaise Pascal's writing of the Lettres Provinciales, to the razing of the Jansenist convent of Port-Royal and the subsequent dissolving of its community. The death of Pope Urban VIII is said to have been hastened by his chagrin at the result of the First War of Castro, a war he had undertaken against Odoardo Farnese, the duke of Parma.
Hostilities between the papacy and the Duchy of Parma resumed in 1649, forces loyal to Pope Innocent X destroyed the city of Castro on 2 September 1649. Innocent X objected to the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia, which his nuncio, Fabio Chigi, protested in vain. In 1650 Innocent X issued the brief Zelo Domus Dei against the Peace of Westfalia, backdated it to 1648 in order to preserve potential claims for confiscated land and property; the protests were ignored by the European powers. During the Civil War in England and Ireland, Innocent X supported the independent Confederate Ireland, over the objections of Mazarin and the former English Queen and at that time Queen Mother, Henrietta Maria, exiled in Paris; the pope sent archbishop of Fermo, as a special nuncio to Ireland. He arrived at Kilkenny with a large quantity of arms including 20,000 pounds of gunpowder, a large sum of money. Rinuccini hoped he could discourage the Confederates from allying with Charles I and the Royalists in the English Civil War and instead encourage them towards the foundation of an independent Catholic-ruled Ireland.
At Kilkenny, Rinuccini was received with great honours, asserting in his Latin declaration that the object of his mission was to sustain the king but, above all, to rescue from pains and penalties the Catholic people of Ireland in securing the free and pu
Novempopulania was one of the provinces created by Diocletian out of Gallia Aquitania, called Aquitania Tertia. The area of Novempopulania was the first one to receive the name of Aquitania, as it was here where the original Aquitani dwelt primarily; the territory extended within the triangular area outlined by the River Garonna, the Pyrenees and the ocean, as described by Caesar in De bello gallico for Gallia Aquitania. In his work, Caesar describes the Aquitania as being different in language and body make-up from their northerly neighbours and more similar to the Iberians; the province of Aquitania was enlarged by Augustus, it began to signify a larger and more diverse territory. Novempopulania stands for the nine peoples making up the original territory, it seems clear that at the time of the lower empire, the nine peoples were granted by the emperor the detachment from the proper Gauls by means of the magister pagi Verus Flamen Dumvir, as a result a celebrating altar was erected dedicated to the deity of the pagus.
This fact is accounted for by the remains of the altar unearthed in the current Basque town of Hasparren. The newly acquired status may have affected not only the tax system but the conscription and military order too, since two separate bodies were created within Aquitania, i.e. the "Cohortes Aquitanorum" for old Aquitanians and "Cohortes Aquitanorum Biturigum" for those of proper Gaul origin. The number of peoples went on to be twelve the tribes being identified with a corresponding capital town or civitas, namely Civitas Ausciorum, Civ. Aquensium, Civ. Lactoratium, Civ. Convenarum, Civ. Consorannorum, Civ. Boatium, Civ. Benarnensium, Civ. Aturensium, Civ. Vasatica, Civ. Turba, Civ. Illoronensium, Civ. Elusatium; these civitas are in turn identifiable with present-day towns and cities as follows: Auch, Lectoure, Couserans and Born, Béarn or Lescar, Aire-sur-l'Adour, Tarbes, Eauze. Elusa remained the capital city of Novempopulania throughout most of its existence. Wide evidence of slab engravings have been found scattered all over the area comprising Novempopulania.
These recordings feature names of deities and places with identifiable similarities to present-day Basque, a fact that provides along with current and ancient place-names north of the Pyrenees and traces of Basque in the Gascon the basis for an Aquitanian proto-Basque theory. In 418, in the stir of the crumbling Roman rule and its territories overrun by Germanic tribes, Emperor Honorius allocated Aquitania to the Visigoths as foederati, with their tribes settling on the fringes of Novempopulania at both banks of the River Garonne as far south as Toulouse, where they established their seat. Other than this, their power tenure over Novempopulania may have been more nominal than real. Furthermore, after the 507 Battle of Vouille they were expelled from the area by the Franks. In the early Middle Ages, accounts of events taking place at this time on the territory are confusing and blurred, so are the names of the peoples and their geographical location, who are as of now dubbed Vascones, Guasconia with no clear boundaries.
At this point, Vascones had taken on an extended meaning arguably encompassing all Basque language tribes, different from the more restricted definition provided at the time of Augustus. The crisis at the end of the Ancient Age and outset of the Middle Ages brought about much unrest and turmoil in the Novempopulania, where the bagaudae and Vascon raids are mentioned in different documents; the Novempopulania was to become the core region of the Duchy of Vasconia, established by the Franks at the beginning of the 7th century with a view to holding back the Basques, while conducting a semi-autonomous governance of Basque-Aquitanian background. It split into the Duchy of Gascony and the County of Vasconia. Aquitani Duchy of Vasconia Gascony Northern Basque Country Basque language
Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, was a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions. However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding political and military influence in Europe, he was involved in a controversy with Galileo and his theory on heliocentrism. He was born Maffeo Barberini in April 1568 to Antonio Barberini, a Florentine nobleman, Camilla Barbadoro, his father died when he was only three years old and his mother took him to Rome, where he was put in the charge of his uncle, Francesco Barberini, an apostolic protonotary. At the age of 16 he became his uncle's heir, he was educated by the Society of Jesus, received a doctorate of law from the University of Pisa in 1589. In 1601, through the influence of his uncle, was able to secure from Pope Clement VIII appointment as a papal legate to the court of King Henry IV of France.
In 1604, the same pope appointed him as the Archbishop of Nazareth, an office joined with that of Bishop of the suppressed Dioceses of Canne and Monteverde, with his residence at Barletta. At the death of his uncle, he inherited his riches, with which he bought a palace in Rome which he made into a luxurious Renaissance residence. Pope Paul V later employed Barberini in a similar capacity, afterwards raising him, in 1606, to the order of the Cardinal-Priest, with the titular church of San Pietro in Montorio and appointing him as a papal legate of Bologna. Barberini was considered someone who could be elected as pope, though there were those such as Cardinal Ottavio Bandini who worked to prevent Barberini from being elected as pope. Despite this, throughout 29-30 July, the cardinals began an intense series of negotiations to test the numbers as to who could emerge from the conclave as pope, with Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi dismissing Barberini's chances as long as Barberini remained a close ally of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, whose faction Barberini supported.
Ludovisi had discussions with Cardinals Farnese and Aldobrandini on 30 July about seeing to Barberini's election. The three supported his candidature and went about securing the support of others, which lead to Barberini's election just over a week later. On 6 August 1623, at the papal conclave following the death of Pope Gregory XV, Barberini was chosen as Gregory XV's successor and took the name Urban VIII. Upon Pope Urban VIII's election, the Venetian envoy, wrote the following description of him: The new Pontiff is 56 years old, his Holiness is tall, with regular features and black hair turning grey. He is exceptionally elegant and refined in all details of his dress, he is an excellent speaker and debater, writes verses and patronises poets and men of letters. Urban VIII's papacy covered 21 years of the Thirty Years' War, was an eventful one by the standards of the day, he canonized Elizabeth of Portugal, Andrew Corsini and Conrad of Piacenza, issued the papal bulls of canonization for Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, canonized by his predecessor, Pope Gregory XV.
Despite an early friendship and encouragement for his teachings, Urban VIII was responsible for summoning the scientist and astronomer Galileo to Rome in 1633 to recant his work. Urban VIII practiced nepotism on a grand scale, he elevated his brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and his nephews Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini to Cardinal. He bestowed upon their brother, Taddeo Barberini, the titles Prince of Palestrina, Gonfalonier of the Church, Prefect of Rome and Commander of Sant'Angelo. Historian Leopold von Ranke estimated that during his reign, Urban VIII's immediate family amassed 105 million scudi in personal wealth. Urban VIII was a skilled writer of Latin verse, a collection of Scriptural paraphrases as well as original hymns of his composition have been reprinted; the 1638 papal bull Commissum Nobis protected the existence of Jesuit missions in South America by forbidding the enslavement of natives who were at the Jesuit Reductions. At the same time, Urban VIII repealed the Jesuit monopoly on missionary work in China and Japan, opening these countries to missionaries of other orders and missionary societies.
Urban VIII issued a 1624 papal bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication. Urban VIII canonized five saints during his pontificate: Stephen Harding, Elizabeth of Portugal and Conrad of Piacenza, Peter Nolasco, Andrea Corsini; the pope beatified 68 individuals including the Martyrs of Nagasaki. The pope created 74 cardinals in eight consistories throughout his pontificate, this included his nephews Francesco and Antonio, cousin Lorenzo Magalotti, the pope's own brother Antonio Marcello, he created Giovanni Battista Pamphili as a cardinal, with Pamphili becoming his immediate successor Pope Innocent X. The pope created eight of those cardinals whom he had reserved in pectore. Urban VIII's military involvement was aimed less at the restoration of Catholicism in Europe than at adjusting the balance of power to favour his own independence in Italy. In 1626, the duchy of Urbino was incorporated into the papal dominions, and, in 1627
Roman Catholic Diocese of Agen
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Agen is a Latin Rite Roman Catholic diocese in France. The diocese comprises the Département of Lot-et-Garonne, in the Region of Aquitaine, it has been successively suffragan to the archdioceses of Bordeaux and Bordeaux again. Legends which do not antedate the ninth century concerning Saint Caprasius, martyred with St. Fides by Dacianus, Prefect of the Gauls, during the persecution of Diocletian, the story of Vincentius, a Christian martyr, furnish no foundation for traditions which make these two saints early bishops of Agen; the cathedral of the diocese of Agen was located in the church of St. Caprasius, outside the walls of the Roman town. In its reconstructed state, it is a splendid specimen of Romanesque architecture, dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. With the restoration of the diocese in 1802, it was again made the cathedral, in place of the Cathedral of St. Étienne, destroyed during the French Revolution. The trend in the medieval period was for the chapter to acquire more and more of a right, an exclusive right, to elect the bishop of the diocese, to the gradual exclusion of the rest of the clergy and the people.
This development, was retarded or impeded by other considerations. In the Agennais in the early medieval period, it was the duke of Aquitaine rather than the canons who had the decisive voice in the choosing of a bishop; this can be inferred from the charter granted in 1135 by King Louis VII, the husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine, which restored to the canons of the chapter of Saint-Étienne the freedom to elect a bishop of their choice. When the popes took up residence in Avignon, Clement V reserved to himself the right to appoint bishops for all the dioceses in France. During the Great Schism, both the Pope in Rome and the Pope in Avignon appointed bishops of Agen, but since Agen and France supported the Popes in Avignon, it was their appointees who received the temporal rights from the king and were installed in the diocese. In 1516 King Francis I signed at treaty with Pope Leo X, which has come to be called the Concordat of Bologna, in which the King and his successors acquired the right to nominate each and every one of the bishops in France, except those of the dioceses of Metz and Verdun.
The Popes reserved the right to approve the selection of the king, sometimes they declined the nominee. This arrangement lasted, except for the decade of the French Revolution, down until the Law of the Separation of the Churches and the State of 1905. Thereafter, the popes assumed the sole right to appoint bishops, though the official terminology is still "elect"; the cathedral chapter was composed of several dignities. The major dignities were the precentor; the minor dignitaries included the other two archdeacons, the sacristan, the porter, the cantor. The office of cantor was suppressed by Cardinal Leonardo Grosso della Rovere, but was restored by Bishop Antonio della Rovere; the cathedral chapter, the chapters of all cathedrals and Collegiate churches in France, were abolished by the National Assembly in 1790. The cathedral chapter of Agen was reestablished in the Church of Saint-Caprais by Bishop Jean Jacoupy in 1802, by virtue of an apostolic brief of 10 November 1802, it was composed of the first two of whom were vicars-general of the diocese.
The last occasion on which the chapter attempted to assert its traditional right to elect the bishop occurred after the death of Bishop Pierre de Bérard on 21 July 1477. The chapter proceeded to the election, chose Pierre Dubois and cantor of the cathedral chapter of Saint-André in Bordeaux, he was presented to the archbishop for confirmation, but on 29 September 1477, King Louis XI wrote to the chapter, announcing that he had named Jean de Monchenu to the bishopric of Agen, relying no doubt on the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. Pope Sixtus IV, however, in a bull dated 4 October 1477, appointed his nephew Galeotto Grosso della Rovere as Bishop of Agen. On 29 December 1477 he issued another bull, confirming the resignation of Bishop-elect Pierre Dubois, at the end of the year documents in the diocese were being issued sede episcopali vacante. On 3 July 1478 Monchenu was transferred, while still bishop-elect of Agen, to the diocese of Viviers, thereby extinguishing his claim on Agen, on 5 July 1478 Sixtus IV issued yet another bull again naming Galeotto Grosso della Rovere to the diocese of Agen.
The matter seemed to be settled. But on 14 November 1478, Pierre Dubois retracted his resignation, on 9 April 1479, King Louis referred the entire matter, first to the Parlement of Bordeaux, to the Royal Council. On 9 September 1480 Pierre Dubois again submitted his resignation, which, on 17 March 1483 he again retracted; the result was a ten-year-long schism in the diocese of Agen, ended by the final resignation of all his rights by Pierre Dubois on 25 January 1487, the death of Galeatto Grosso. Tradition has it that the chapter of Saint-Caprais came into a separate existence when the remains of Saint-Caprais were moved inside the city to the new Cathedral of Saint-Étienne. There is no documentary evidence whatever to sustain this hypothe
Saintes is a commune and historic town in southwestern France, in the Charente-Maritime department of which it is a sub-prefecture, in Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Its inhabitants are called Saintais. Saintes is the second-largest city in Charente-Maritime, with 26,470 inhabitants in 2008, its immediate surrounds form the second-most populous metropolitan area in the department, with 56,598 inhabitants, the majority of, fertile, productive fields. In Roman times, Saintes was known as Mediolanum Santonum, during much of its history, the name of the city was spelled Xaintes and Xainctes. Built on the left bank of the Charente, Saintes became the first Roman capital of Aquitaine, the capital of the province of Saintonge under the Ancien Régime. Following the French Revolution it became the prefecture of the department during the territorial reorganization of 1790, until La Rochelle took its place in 1810. Though it was but a subprefecture, Saintes was allowed to remain the judicial center of the department.
In the late 19th century, Saintes was chosen as the seat of the VIIIth arrondissement of the Chemins de Fer de l'État, which enabled an era of economic and demographic growth. Today, Saintes remains the economic heart of the center of the department and it is an important transportation hub. A few major industrial business operate; the city's commerce and service sector is large with the headquarters of Coop Atlantique, administrative functions of state, legal services, schools and a hospital. Beyond this, property maintenance and tourism sectors provide large numbers of jobs; because of its noteworthy Gallo-Roman and classical heritage, Saintes is a tourist destination and a member of the French Towns and Lands of Art and History since 1990. It has several museums, a theater and organizes numerous festivals. A European center of musical research and practice is in its Abbaye aux Dames. Saintes is in the center-eastern part of the department; the city is centred 60 km southeast of La Rochelle, 33 kilometers northeast of Royan and about 100 km north of Bordeaux.
A chronostratigraphic stage of sedimentary rock has been named after the former name for inhabitants, the Santones, the Santonian. Saintes is built on its eponymous subset of limestone that consists of particular flint nodules of quartz geodes and nodules of iron. Ancient stone quarries in its'Colline de la Capitole' and Bellevue filled or converted to permit fungiculture, are evidence for Santonian stone's use in the construction of various buildings, where unimproved quite vulnerable to frost. Nearer to the river, the Cretaceous plateau gives way to more or less recent alluvial grasslands composed of bri, a type of clay; the uplifting of Alps and Pyrenees began during the Maastrichtian, 65 Ma ago, continued for a part of the Paleogene. The town is divided into 14 administrative areas: Les Boiffiers, Les Tourneurs, L'Ormeau de Pied, Recouvrance, La Fenêtre, Saint-Rémy, Saint-Vivien, Saint-Eutrope, Saint-Pierre, Saint-Pallais, Saint-Sébastien de Bouard, La Récluse, Le Maine-Saint-Sorlin and Bellevue.
The neighborhood of Saint-Pierre lies between the hill of the river Charente. It possesses a significant number of historic monuments justifying its forming of the core of a conservation area that spans over 65 hectares. Built around the cathedral Saint-Pierre, the place du marché and the place du Synode, it is crossed by pedestrian alleys around which can be found numerous medieval and classic buildings. West lies the neighbourhood of Saint-Eutrope, that has developed over the centuries around a rocky elevation bounded by two small valleys at right angles to the river. Dominated by the Saint-Eutrope basilica, it contains the remains of a Clunian priory and several hillside houses. Little valleys lead to the vallon des Arènes below, where a Roman amphiteatre survives, in a park named "Parc des Arènes"; the cours Reverseaux and cours des Apôtres de la liberté separate Saint-Eutrope in the west from the faubourg Berthonnière. These separate the hill of the Capitole to the north. Once outside-of-the-walls, the faubourg included some inns for pilgrims.
The streets of the faubourg converge toward the place Saint-Louis, the place de l'Aubarrée and the place Blair, dominated by a column of Liberty erected during the Revolution. The square Goulebenéze stands between the river; the neighbourhoods of les Boiffiers and Bellevue are separated from the rest of the city by the avenue de Saintonge. Bellevue has 1,560 spans 17 hectares. La Recouvrance, in a triangle formed by the cours du maréchal Leclerc, the cours Genet and the rocade ouest, contains a lycée, the former seminary, the Yvon Chevalier stadium and a shopping mall; the water tower of Recouvrance is decorated with frescoes by contemporary artist Michel Genty. The north of the urban area, the Saint-Vivien neighborhood has an old faubourg inhabited since antiquity where the thermes de Saint-Saloine, ancient Roman baths are found; the neighborhood of Saint-Pallais was u
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze, was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon Pope, elected by the Conclave of Cardinals, assembled in Lyon through the work of King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers King Philip V of France. Like his predecessor, Clement V, Pope John centralized power and income in the Papacy and lived a princely life in Avignon, he opposed the political policies of Louis IV of Bavaria as Holy Roman Emperor, which prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope, Nicholas V. Pope John XXII faced controversy in theology involving his views on the Beatific Vision, he opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, famously leading William of Ockham to write against unlimited papal power, he canonized St. Thomas Aquinas; the son of a shoemaker in Cahors, Jacques Duèze studied medicine in Montpellier and law in Paris, yet could not read a regal letter written to him in French.
Duèze taught civil law at Toulouse and Cahors. On the recommendation of Charles II of Naples he was made Bishop of Fréjus in 1300. In 1309 he was appointed chancellor of Charles II, in 1310 he was transferred to Avignon, he delivered legal opinions favorable to the suppression of the Templars, but he defended Boniface VIII and the Bull Unam Sanctam. On 23 December 1312, Clement V made him Cardinal-Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina; the death of Pope Clement V in 1314 was followed by an interregnum of two years due to disagreements between the cardinals, who were split into two factions. After two years, Philip, in 1316 managed to arrange a papal conclave of twenty-three cardinals in Lyon; this conclave elected Duèze, crowned in Lyon. He set up his residence in Avignon rather than Rome, continuing the Avignon Papacy of his predecessor. John XXII involved himself in the politics and religious movements of many European countries in order to advance the interests of the Church, his close links with the French crown created widespread distrust of the papacy.
Pope John XXII was an excellent administrator and efficient at reorganizing the Church. He had sent a letter of thanks to the Muslim ruler Uzbeg Khan, tolerant of Christians and treated Christians kindly. John XXII has traditionally been credited with having composed the prayer "Anima Christi", which has become the English "Soul of Christ, sanctify me..." and the basis for the hymn Soul of Christ, Sanctify My Breast". On 27 March 1329, John XXII condemned many writings of Meister Eckhart as heretical in his papal bull In Agro Dominico. Prior to John XXII's election, a contest had begun for the Holy Roman Empire's crown between Louis IV of Bavaria and Frederick I of Austria. John XXII was neutral at first, but in 1323, when Louis IV became Holy Roman Emperor, the Guelph party and the Ghibelline party quarreled, provoked by John XXII's extreme claims of authority over the empire and by Louis IV's support of the spiritual Franciscans, whom John XXII condemned in the Papal bull Quorumdam exigit.
Louis IV was assisted in his doctrinal dispute with the papacy by Marsilius of Padua and by the English Franciscan friar and scholar William of Ockham. Louis IV invaded Italy, entered Rome and set up Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V in 1328; the project was a fiasco. Guelphic predominance at Rome was restored, Pope John excommunicated William of Ockham. However, Louis IV had silenced the papal claims and John XXII stayed the rest of his life in Avignon. Pope John XXII was determined to suppress what he considered to be the excesses of the Spirituals, who contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed nothing, citing Exiit qui seminat in support of their view. In 1317, John XXII formally condemned the group of them known as the Fraticelli. On 26 March 1322, with Quia nonnunquam, he removed the ban on discussion of Pope Nicholas III's bull and commissioned experts to examine the idea of poverty based on belief that Christ and the apostles owned nothing; the experts disagreed among themselves, but the majority condemned the idea on the grounds that it would condemn the Church's right to have possessions.
The Franciscan chapter held in Perugia in May 1322 declared on the contrary: "To say or assert that Christ, in showing the way of perfection, the Apostles, in following that way and setting an example to others who wished to lead the perfect life, possessed nothing either severally or in common, either by right of ownership and dominium or by personal right, we corporately and unanimously declare to be not heretical, but true and catholic." By the bull Ad conditorem canonum of 8 December 1322, John XXII declared it ridiculous to pretend that every scrap of food given to the friars and eaten by them belonged to the pope, refused to accept ownership over the goods of the Franciscans in future and granted them exemption from the rule that forbade ownership of anything in common, thus forcing them to accept ownership. On 12 November 1323, he issued the bull Quum inter nonnullos, which declared "erroneous and heretical" the doctrine that Christ and his apostles had no possessions whatever. Influential members of the order protested, such as the minister general Michael of Cesena, the English provincial William of Ockham, Bonagratia of Bergamo.
In 1324, Louis the Bavarian accused the Pope of heresy. In reply to the argument of his opponents that Nicholas III's bull Exiit qui seminat was fixed and irrevocable, John XXII issued the bull Quia quorundam on 10 November 1324, in which he declared that it cannot be inferred from the words of the 1279 bull that Christ a