Ancient Egyptian conception of the soul

The ancient Egyptians believed that a soul was made up of many parts. In addition to these components of the soul, there was the human body. According to ancient Egyptian creation myths, the god Atum created the world out of chaos, utilizing his own magic; because the earth was created with magic, Egyptians believed that the world was imbued with magic and so was every living thing upon it. When humans were created, that magic took the form of the soul, an eternal force which resided in and with every human being; the concept of the soul and the parts which encompass it has varied from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom, at times changing from one dynasty to another, from five parts to more. Most ancient Egyptian funerary texts reference numerous parts of the soul: the ẖt "physical body", the sꜥḥ "spiritual body", the rn "name, identity", the bꜣ "personality", the kꜣ "double", the jb "heart", the šwt "shadow", the sḫm "power, form", the ꜣḫ, the combined spirits of a dead person that has completed its transition to the afterlife.

Rosalie David, an Egyptologist at the University of Manchester, explains the many facets of the soul as follows: The Egyptians believed that the human personality had many facets—a concept, developed early in the Old Kingdom. In life, the person was a complete entity, but if he had led a virtuous life, he could have access to a multiplicity of forms that could be used in the next world. In some instances, these forms could be employed to help those whom the deceased wished to support or, alternately, to take revenge on his enemies; the ẖt, or physical form, had to exist for the soul to have intelligence or the chance to be judged by the guardians of the underworld. Therefore, it was necessary for the body to be preserved as efficiently and as possible and for the burial chamber to be as personalized as it could be, with paintings and statuary showing scenes and triumphs from the deceased's life. In the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh was granted mummification and, thus, a chance at an eternal and fulfilling afterlife.

However, by the Middle Kingdom, all dead were afforded the opportunity. Herodotus, an ancient Greek scholar, observed that grieving families were given a choice as to the type and or quality of the mummification they preferred: "The best and most expensive kind is said to represent, the next best is somewhat inferior and cheaper, while the third is cheapest of all."Because the state of the body was tied so with the quality of the afterlife, by the time of the Middle Kingdom, not only were the burial chambers painted with depictions of favourite pastimes and great accomplishments of the dead, but there were small figurines of servants and guards included in the tombs, to serve the deceased in the afterlife. However, an eternal existence in the afterlife was, by no means, assured. Before a person could be judged by the gods, they had to be "awakened" through a series of funerary rites designed to reanimate their mummified remains in the afterlife; the main ceremony, the opening of the mouth ceremony, is best depicted within Pharaoh Sety I's tomb.

All along the walls and statuary inside the tomb are reliefs and paintings of priests performing the sacred rituals and, below the painted images, the text of the liturgy for opening of the mouth can be found. This ritual which would have been performed during interment, was meant to reanimate each section of the body: brain, limbs, etc. so that the spiritual body would be able to move in the afterlife. If all the rites and preservation rituals for the ẖt were observed and the deceased was found worthy of passing through into the afterlife, the sꜥḥ forms; this spiritual body was able to interact with the many entities extant in the afterlife. As a part of the larger construct, the ꜣḫ, the sꜥḥ was sometimes seen as an avenging spirit which would return from the underworld to seek revenge on those who had wronged the spirit in life. A well-known example was found in a tomb from the Middle Kingdom in which a man leaves a letter to his late wife who, it can be supposed, is haunting him: What wicked thing have I done to thee that I should have come to this evil pass?

What have I done to thee? But what thou hast done to me is to have laid hands on me although I had nothing wicked to thee. From the time I lived with thee as thy husband down to today, what have I done to thee that I need hide? When thou didst sicken of the illness which thou hadst, I caused a master-physician to be fetched…I spent eight months without eating and drinking like a man. I wept exceedingly together with my household in front of my street-quarter. I left no benefit undone that had to be performed for thee, and now, behold, I have spent three years alone without entering into a house, though it is not right that one like me should have to do it. This have I done for thy sake. But, thou dost not know good from bad. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be heart; the heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the child's mother, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought and intention, evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word jb.

Unlike in English, when ancient Egyptians referenced the jb they meant the physica

Newcastle Emlyn RFC

Newcastle Emlyn RFC is a Welsh rugby union club based on the outskirts of the town in the community of Adpar, Ceredigion on the north bank of the River Teifi. The club plays in the WRU Division One West having spent 4 seasons in the Welsh Championship following the title win in 2015; the club is a feeder club for the Llanelli Scarlets. The club was formed on 5 July 1977 following a public meeting held at the Emlyn Hall, Newcastle Emlyn which agreed that it should be named in Welsh Clwb Rygbi Castell Newydd Emlyn and that the red and white hooped jerseys worn by the football club should be adopted. Mike Heycock of Felingeri Flour Mill, Cwmcou donated a set of jerseys and became the club’s first President; the first games were played at Gelligatti fields next to the town cemetery. Four pine trees were felled in Cwm Morgan and transported by coal lorry to the town where they were stripped and painted in the club's colours for use as goal posts; the Headmaster of Emlyn School helped by allowing the use of the changing facilities and the occasional use of the school’s pitches for second team games.

The club’s H. Q. was established at the ‘Red Cow’ in Adpar and the old disused stables, ‘Y Stabal’, became the committee room, tea room, changing room. Clive Griffiths of Llanelli RFC was the team’s first coach who went on to become the Wales defence coach under Graham Henry and subsequently Mike Ruddock. On Saturday 4 September 1977 Clwb Rygbi Castell Newydd Emlyn played its first game of rugby union football; the first team played at Laugharne against their 2nd XV and the Emlyn 2nd XV played a Cardigan 3rd team at the Secondary School field in Cardigan. Although affiliated to the Llanelli and District Junior Rugby Union the club did not play in the league in its first year of existence but during the season, 1977/78, the 1st XV had played 37 games achieving ten wins and two draws with the first victory on 1 October against Fishguard, 7-0; the Second XV played. At the beginning of the 1978/79 season the club moved to a field on Cwrcoed Meadows, large enough for two pitches and training lights were installed.

The First XV played in the newly formed Section E of Llanelli and District and were promoted as runners-up behind Carmarthen Athletic Druids, in addition they reached the semi-finals of the Llanelli and District Cup. The Geraint Howells Knockout Cup for local teams was won by Emlyn in the 1987/88 season; the 1980s saw a period of consolidation. The First XV were promoted to Section C of Llanelli and District, in 1979/80 and remained there for the next few seasons. By the 1987/88 season the club was playing in Section A of Llanelli and District and finished as Runners-up in the Championship. At the end of the season 1988/89 the club was admitted as probationary members of the Welsh Rugby Union. In November 2011, a new clubhouse at Dol Wiber was opened by the WRU President, Mr. Dennis Gethin, it is a purpose built building capable of hosting formal dinners for 180, fund raisers etc. and is available for community use. The dragon on the club badge represents Gwiber Emlyn, a banner with a large red dragon emblazoned on it, the banner of Owain Glyndŵr.

The legend of Gwiber Castell Newydd Emlyn is a local tradition. It tells how on one of the fair days when the town was full of people a fierce winged viper called a wyvern breathing fire and smoke, alighted on the castle walls and having cast threatening glances around settled down to sleep, its appearance on the castle at first brought terror to all but after the fear had died down a few brave townsfolk sought to destroy the fearsome monster. A soldier devised the plan of wading the river Teifi to a point of vantage on the castle side and letting a red cloak float in the river and shooting the gwiber in a vulnerable under part of the body; the creature, so violently startled from its slumber, caught sight of the cloak and fell upon it with horrible shrieks and tore it to shreds. The assailant meanwhile, escaped to a place of safety; the wyvern in its death throes floated down the river. From its wound gushed forth a most loathsome venom which polluted the water and killed all the fish; the legend tells of the great joy of the townsfolk.

Age grade rugby has always been played at the club. In the season 1980/81 the junior team won the Pembrokeshire Mini Cup Competition and went on to play the final rounds at the National Stadium in Cardiff; the Minis or Junior section has continued to grow with the club now fielding teams at all ages from 7 to 16. In 1983/84 the Youth XV was formed under the coaching of the former Llanelli prop Huw Jones; the Youth team has produced players not only feeding into the senior sides but winning county and district caps. The club has had two players who have gained Welsh Youth Caps, namely Huw Morris and Rhys Jones; the former was selected to play second row for the Welsh Youth against the England Colts, at Leicester, on 3 April 1987. Rhys Jones played for the Welsh Youth in 1990/91, against France and England, went on the Welsh Under 19 Tour to Canada and played in a test match. Josh Turnbull was part of the 2006 Wales Under 19 Grand Slam winning team and captained the side against Ireland and France in February 2007.

In January 2011 he was named the Wales national rugby union team squad for the 2011 Six Nations Championship and made his international debut 12 February 2011 in the 24-6 win against Scotland as a second-half replacement. During 1991 it became apparent that in order to develop its playing facilities to the standard required the club needed to purchase playing fields. An agreement was reach

Viking, Alberta

Viking is a town in central Alberta, Canada. It is located at the intersection of Highway 14 and Highway 36 121 km east of Edmonton; the town lends its name to the Viking Formation, an oil bearing stratigraphical unit. Viking was settled in 1909 by Scandinavian settlers. On 7 July 2005, the community ice arena was damaged by fire. Construction began on a new arena, called the "Viking Carena Complex" and was completed on 17 August 2007. Viking celebrated its centennial in 2009. Viking experiences a humid continental climate. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Viking recorded a population of 1,083 living in 460 of its 505 total private dwellings, a 4% change from its 2011 population of 1,041. With a land area of 3.7 km2, it had a population density of 292.7/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Viking had a population of 1,041 living in 445 of its 473 total dwellings, a -4.1% change from its 2006 population of 1,085. With a land area of 3.76 km2, it had a population density of 276.9/km2 in 2011.

The majority of economic activity is in the agriculture and gas, manufacturing industries. Viking won the national Communities in Bloom contest in 2000. Many parks and flower gardens are maintained throughout the town. One of the most notable parks is Troll Park, which celebrates Vikings's rich Scandinavian history with native plants, trolls hidden throughout the park, a giant troll mountain; the Viking Airport is a small airport owned by the Town of Viking 3 miles west of the townsite, with the Transport Canada airport identifier of CEE8. As a flag stop, Via Rail's The Canadian calls at the Viking railway station three times per week in each direction. Cory Clouston, former hockey coach Don Mazankowski, former politician Donald Sanderlin, Olympian Glen Sather, president of the New York Rangers, former coach and general manager of the Edmonton Oilers, former professional hockey player Sutter family, a hockey family that includes Brent, Duane, Rich and Darryl, all of whom played professional hockey in the NHL List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta Official website