Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage although its earliest form resembles Attic Greek and its latest form approaches Medieval Greek. There were several regional dialects of Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions. Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BC, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BC.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people – Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West Group Northwest Greek Doric Aeolic Group Aegean/Asiatic Aeolic Thessalian Boeotian Ionic-Attic Group Attic Ionic Euboean and colonies in Italy Cycladic Asiatic Ionic Arcadocypriot Greek Arcadian CypriotWest vs. non-West Greek is the strongest-marked and earliest division, with non-West in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic.
Non-West is called'East Greek'. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects.
The dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric. After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BC, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects; this dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although the Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosed into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language; because of no surviving sample texts, it is impossible to ascertain whether it was a Greek dialect or related to the Greek language at all. Its
O' Parvardigar is a 2001 EP by Pete Townshend devoted to his song O' Parvardigar which in turn is based on Meher Baba's Parvardigar Prayer. The EP, released on Townshend's own label Eel Pie, contains three versions of the song—a 1972 studio version, a live version recorded in India, a German language version recorded for the opening of a European Baba Centre. In the early 1970s Townshend, a follower of Meher Baba since 1967, composed O' Parvardigar to the words of Meher's Parvardigar Prayer, it first appeared in 1972 on both his debut solo album Who Came First and on I Am, a tribute album to Meher with music composed and performed by Townshend and a group of other Meher followers. Townshend said in a Rolling Stone interview "I don't say this prayer, I just happened to put it to music Preposterous as it may sound, I thought that by putting it to music, a lot people would just be saying it without thinking about it." Townsend's biographer Geoffrey Giuliano described the song as a "spiritual bullet right between the eyes, a masterpiece of poetics and the musical art."
The song was included as the final track on Townshend's 2001 album The Oceanic Concerts. A German language version of O' Parvardigar using a translation by an Austrian follower of Meher was recorded for the opening of a European Baba Centre but was never released; the song was used as the soundtrack to a short montage film on Meher's life produced by Townshend and entitled O' Parvardigar. It was first screened in 1976 at the opening of the Meher Baba Oceanic Centre in Twickenham and was screened again there in 1994 on the 100th anniversary of Meher's birth. O' Parvardigar appears on the soundtrack of Delia, another film produced by Townshend and screened at the 1976 Oceanic Centre opening; that film was a documentary on the actress Delia de Leon, an early and fervent follower of Meher and an admirer of Townshend's song
Wall Street Kid is a video game released by Nintendo for the NES. It was released in Japan as The Money Game II: Kabutochou no Kiseki, the sequel to The Money Game; the storylines of the two versions are different but the layout and the scheme of the office are exactly the same. Only cosmetic changes were made to make it relevant with the North American audiences. Both of these games expect the player to go out on dates; the player must prove himself worthy by taking $500,000 in seed money and growing it to $1,000,000 in order to gain a six-hundred-billion-dollar inheritance from the wealthy Benedict family. Investing it in the American stock market results in rewards like going shopping on the weekend and being able to acquire expensive items such as a house; the names of the companies listed in the stock market are slight variants on actual U. S. companies in operation at the time of the game's release. The player is encouraged to spoil his girlfriend; the game terminates if the player is unable to raise the money needed for a key item such as a boat or the house, causing the stockbroker to be disowned by the family.
In the "Nintendo Player" section, Electronic Gaming Monthly described it as "one of the most unique RPGs" that they saw at the Consumer Electronics Show. In a retrospective review, Game Informer wrote that the game featured "funny dialogue and addicting nature of money-making." Meanwhile, Jeff Irwin of AllGame referred to the game as "smooth and enjoyable" and compared the game to Brewster's Millions. Wall Street Kid at MobyGames