Southeastern Iberian script
The southeastern Iberian script known as Meridional Iberian, was one of the means of written expression of the Iberian language, written in the northeastern Iberian script and residually by the Greco-Iberian alphabet. About the relation between northeastern Iberian and southeastern Iberian scripts, it is necessary to point out that they are two different scripts with different values for the same signs. In fact, the southeastern Iberian script is similar, both considering the shape of the signs or their values, to the Southwestern script used to represent an unknown language named Tartessian; the main difference is that southeastern Iberian script does not show the vocalic redundancy of the syllabic signs. Unlike the northeastern Iberian script the decipherment of the southeastern Iberian script is not yet complete, because there are a significant number of signs on which scholars have not yet reached a consensus. Although it is believed that the southeastern Iberian script does not show any system to differentiate between voiced and unvoiced occlusives, unlike the northeastern Iberian script, a recent paper defends the existence of a dual system in the southeastern Iberian script.
All the paleohispanic scripts, with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet, share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they represent syllabic value for the occlusives, monophonemic value for the rest of the consonants and vowels. From the writing systems point of view they are neither syllabaries. There is no agreement about; the inscriptions that use the southeastern Iberian script had been found in the southeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: eastern Andalusia, Albacete and Valencia. The southeastern Iberian inscriptions were made on different object types, but they number around 50 and represent more or less only 2% of the total found. Between them there are the lead plaque from Gador and the lead plaque from La Bastida de les Alcuses; the inscriptions that use this script always use the right to left direction of writing. The oldest inscriptions in southeastern Iberian script date to the 4th century BCE, the modern ones date from the end of the 2nd century BCE. Greco-Iberian alphabet Iberian scripts Paleohispanic scripts Celtiberian script Northeastern Iberian script Tartessian script Paleohispanic languages Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Correa, José Antonio: «Los semisilabarios ibéricos: algunas cuestiones», ELEA 4, pp. 75-98.
Ferrer i Jané, Joan: «El sistema dual de l'escriptura ibèrica sud-oriental», Veleia 27, pp. 69-113. Hoz, Javier de: «El desarrollo de la escritura y las lenguas de la zona meridional», Tartessos, pp.523-587. Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús: «La escritura ibérica meridional», Zephyrus 55, pp. 231-245. Untermann, Jürgen: Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum. III Die iberischen Inschriften aus Spanien, Wiesbaden. Velaza, Javier: Epigrafía y lengua ibéricas, Barcelona; the meridional Iberian writing - Jesús Rodríguez Ramos
The Paleohispanic scripts are the writing systems created in the Iberian peninsula before the Latin alphabet became the dominant script. Most of them are unusual in that they are semi-syllabic rather than purely alphabetic, despite having developed, in part, from the Phoenician alphabet. Paleohispanic scripts are known to have been used from the 5th century BCE — from the 7th century, in the opinion of some researchers — until the end of the 1st century BCE or the beginning of the 1st century CE, were the main scripts used to write the Paleohispanic languages; some researchers conclude that their origin may lie with the Phoenician alphabet, while others believe the Greek alphabet may have had a role. The Paleoiberian scripts are classified into three major groups: southern and Greco-Iberian, with differences both in the shapes of the glyphs and in their values. Inscriptions in the southern scripts have been found in the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula, they represent only 5% of the inscriptions found, read from right to left.
They are: the Espanca script. Inscriptions in the northern scripts have been found in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, they represent 95% of the inscriptions found, read from left to right. They are: the Northeastern Iberian script known as Levantine; the Greco-Iberian alphabet was a direct adaptation of the Ionic variety of the Greek alphabet, only found in a small region on the Mediterranean coast in the modern provinces of Alicante and Murcia. Excepting the Greco-Iberian alphabet, to a lesser extent the Tartessian script, Paleoiberian scripts shared a distinctive typology: They behaved as a syllabary for the plosives and as an alphabet for the rest of consonants; this unique writing system has been called a semi-syllabary. In the syllabic portions of the scripts, each plosive sign stood for a different combination of consonant and vowel, so that the written form of ga displayed no resemblance to ge, bi looked quite different from bo. In addition, the original format did not distinguish voiced from unvoiced plosives, so that ga stood for both /ga/ and /ka/, da stood for both /da/ and /ta/.
On the other hand, the continuants were written with simple alphabetic letters, as in Phoenician and Greek. Over the past few decades, many researchers have come to believe that one variant of the northeastern Iberian script, the older one according to the archaeological contexts, distinguished voicing in the plosives by adding a stroke to the glyphs for the alveolar and velar syllables, creating distinct glyphs for unvoiced /t/ and /k/, restricting the original glyphs to voiced /d/ and /g/. If correct, this innovation would parallel the creation of the Latin letter G by the addition of a stroke to C, which had stood for both /k/ and /g/; the Tartessian script is typologically intermediate between a pure alphabet and the Paleohispanic semi-syllabaries. Although the letter used to write a plosive was determined by the following vowel, as in a semi-syllabary, the following vowel was written, as in an alphabet; this redundant typology re-emerged in a few late texts of northeastern Iberian and Celtiberian scripts, where vowels were once again written after plosives.
Some scholars treat Tartessian as a redundant semi-syllabary, with syllabic glyphs followed by the letter for the corresponding vowel. This is analogous to the Old Persian cuneiform script, where vowels were most written overtly but where consonants/syllables were decided by the vowel about half the time, and, to a limited extent, to the Etruscan alphabet, where most syllables based the consonant /k/ shared neither consonant nor vowel letter: Only the combinations CE, CI, KA, QU were permitted; the paleoiberian semi-syllabaries derive from an alphabet or alphabets circulating in the Mediterranean, but it is not known whether, the Phoenician alphabet alone, or if archaic varieties of the Greek alphabet played a role. The only known full Paleoiberian signary, on the undated Espanca tablet, follows the Phoenician/Greek order for the first 13 of its 27 letters: Α Β Γ Δ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Π? Ϻ Τ. The fact that southern paleohispanic /e/ appears to derive from the Phoenician letter ‘ayin, which gave rise to Greek Ο, while southern iberian /o/ derives from another letter or was invented, suggests that the development of vowels in paleoiberian semi-syllabaries was independent of the Greek innovation.
However, the order of what appears to be /u/ directly after Τ, rather than at the place of Ϝ, has suggested to some researchers a Greek influence. The two sibilants, S and S', are attested, but there is one sign too few to account for a full 15-sign syllabary and all four of the letters M
The classical or traditional Mongolian script known as the Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created for the Mongolian language, was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels; the Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian and experimentally, Evenki. Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties; the Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language. From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern and western dialects; the principal documents of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc..
The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script. Minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with and and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial. Zain was dropped. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity. Mongolian is written vertically; the Uyghur script and its descendants — Mongolian, Oirat Clear and Buryat — are the only vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters; the reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.
Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels. The Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Due to its shape like Uighur script, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script. During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script, in contrast to the New script, referring to Cyrillic; the name Old Mongol script stuck, it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script. See also: SASM/GNC romanization § Mongolian and Sino–Mongolian TransliterationsThe traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script, is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language, it does not distinguish several vowels and consonants that were not required for Uyghur, the source of the Mongol script.
The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography. Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character; the below rules for writing apply for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise. Traditional: n q/k, /g, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, č... Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ү/g, m, l, s, š, t, d, č... Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries exist. Final letterforms with a right-pointing tail may have the notch preceding it in printed form, handwritten in a span between more or less tapered to a rounded curve.
For a visual comparison of how letterforms may differ between styles see § Comparison of writing styles. Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral: The back, hard, or yang vowels a, o, u; the front, soft, or yin vowels e, ö, ü. The neutral vowel i. Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups; the vowel quality of visually separated vowels and suffixes are affected by those of the preceding wor
The Nabataean alphabet is an abjad, used by the Nabataeans in the second century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra, the Sinai Peninsula, other archaeological sites including Avdat; the alphabet is descended from the Aramaic alphabet. In turn, a cursive form of Nabataean developed into the Arabic alphabet from the 4th century, why Nabataean's letterforms are intermediate between the more northerly Semitic scripts and those of Arabic; as compared to other Aramaic-derived scripts, Nabataean developed more loops and ligatures to increase speed of writing. The ligatures vary across time and space. There were no spaces between words. Numerals in Nabataean script were built from characters of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 100. Note that the Syriac and Arabic alphabets are always cursive and that some of their letters look different in medial or initial position. See Aramaic alphabet § Letters for a more detailed comparison of letterforms; the Nabataean alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.
Ancient South Arabian script
The ʼPhags-pa script is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan. The actual use of this script was limited to about a hundred years during the Mongol Yuan dynasty, it fell out of use with the advent of the Ming dynasty; the documentation of its use provides clues about the changes in the varieties of Chinese, the Tibetic languages and other neighboring languages during the Yuan era. The Uyghur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Middle Mongol language, it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a different phonology like Chinese. Therefore, during the Yuan dynasty, Kublai Khan asked ʼPhags-pa to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. ʼPhags-pa extended his native Tibetan alphabet, one of the Brahmic scripts, to encompass Mongol and Chinese, evidently Central Plains Mandarin. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are known as the ʼPhags-pa alphabet.
Despite its origin, the script was written vertically like the previous Mongolian scripts. It did not receive wide acceptance, was not a popular script among the elite Mongols themselves, although it was used as an official script of the Yuan dynasty until the early 1350s when the Red Turban Rebellion started. After this it was used as a phonetic gloss for Mongolians learning Chinese characters, it was used as one of the scripts on Tibetan currency in the twentieth century, as script for Tibetan seal inscriptions from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century and for inscriptions on the entrance doors of Tibetan monasteries. Unlike the ancestral Tibetan script, all ʼPhags-pa letters are written in temporal order and in-line. However, vowel letters retain distinct initial forms, short /a/ is not written except making ʼPhags-pa transitional between an abugida and a full alphabet; the letters of a ʼPhags-pa syllable are linked together so that they form syllabic blocks. ʼPhags-pa was written in a variety of graphic forms.
The standard form was blocky, but a "Tibetan" form was more so, consisting entirely of straight orthogonal lines and right angles. A "seal script" form, used for imperial seals and the like, was more elaborate, with squared sinusoidal lines and spirals. Korean records state that hangul was based on an "Old Seal Script", which Gary Ledyard believes to be ʼPhags-pa and a reference to its Chinese name "蒙古篆字". However, it is the simpler standard form of ʼPhags-pa, the closer graphic match to hangul. Following are the initials of the ʼPhags-pa script as presented in the Menggu Ziyun, they are ordered according to the Chinese philological tradition of the 36 initials. ʼPhags-pa script was added to the Unicode Standard in July 2006 with the release of version 5.0. The Unicode block for ʼPhags-pa is U+A840–U+A877: U+A856 ꡖ PHAGS-PA LETTER SMALL A is transliterated using U+A78F ꞏ LATIN LETTER SINOLOGICAL DOT from the Latin Extended-D Unicode block. Brahmic scripts Mongolian alphabets Origin of hangul Mongol elements in Western medieval art Menggu Ziyun Stephen Wootton Bushell Coblin, W. South.
A Handbook of ʼPhags-pa Chinese. ABC Dictionary Series. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3000-7. Everding, Karl-Heinz. Herrscherurkunden aus der Zeit des mongolischen Großreiches für tibetische Adelshäuser, Geistliche und Klöster. Teil 1: Diplomata Mongolica. Mittelmongolische Urkunden in ʼPhags-pa-Schrift. Eidtion, Übersetzung, Analyse. Halle: International Institute for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies. ISBN 978-3-88280-074-6. Poppe, Nicholas; the Mongolian Monuments in hP´ags-pa Script. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Schuh, Dieter. Grundlagen tibetischer Siegelkunde. Eine Untersuchung über tibetische Siegelaufschriften in ʼPhags-pa-Schrift. Sankt Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag. ISBN 978-3-88280-011-1. Sampson, Geoffrey. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction. Great Britain: Anchor Brenton Ltd. ISBN 978-0-09-156980-8. Coblin, W. South. A Handbook of ʼPhags-Pa Chinese. ABC Chinese dictionary series. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824830008. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Denlinger, Paul. B. Chinese in Hp'ags-pa Script.
Retrieved 24 April 2014. Andrew West, BabelStone: ʼPhags-pa Script Omniglot: ʼPhags-pa script Ancientscripts: hPhags-pa Mongolian characters after Kublai Khan
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew and the traditional Mongolian scripts. Syriac is written from right to left in horizontal lines, it is a cursive script where not all, letters connect within a word. Spaces separate individual words. All 22 letters are consonants, although there are optional diacritic marks to indicate vowels and other features. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals. Apart from Classical Syriac Aramaic, the alphabet has been used to write other dialects and languages. Several Christian Neo-Aramaic languages from Turoyo to the Northeastern Neo-Aramaic dialects of Assyrian and Chaldean, once vernaculars began to be written in the 19th century; the Serṭā variant has been adapted to write Western Neo-Aramaic, traditionally written in a square Aramaic script related to the Hebrew alphabet.
Besides Aramaic, when Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent after the Islamic conquest, texts were written in Arabic using the Syriac script as knowledge of the Arabic alphabet was not yet widespread. Such writings are called Karshuni or Garshuni. In addition to Semitic languages, Malayalam was written with Syriac script and was called Suriyani Malayalam, as well as Sogdian. There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā and Serṭā; the oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā. Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century, it is used in scholarly publications, in titles, in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, older Aramaic letter forms are found. Vowel marks are not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā; the East Syriac dialect is written in the Maḏnḥāyā form of the alphabet. Other names for the script include Swāḏāyā, ʾĀṯūrāyā, Kaldāyā, inaccurately, "Nestorian".
The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more than the Western script. The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script: A dot above and a dot below a letter represent, transliterated as a or ă, Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent, transliterated as ā or â or å, Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent, transliterated as e or ĕ, Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent, transliterated as ē, The letter Waw with a dot below it represents, transliterated as ū or u, The letter Waw with a dot above it represents, transliterated as ō or o, The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents, transliterated as ī or i, A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā followed by a letter Yōḏ represents, transliterated as ē or ê, it is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew. In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, e̊ or superscript e to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost on at some point in the development of Syriac.
Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is predictable or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa; the West Syriac dialect is written in the Serṭā or Serṭo form of the alphabet known as the Pšīṭā,'Maronite' or the'Jacobite' script. Most of the letters are derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion because of its more economical use of parchment; the Western script is vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow: Capital Alpha represents, transliterated as a or ă, Lowercase Alpha represents, transliterated as