SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Andalusia

Andalusia region is the southern autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in southwestern Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.

To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Arab Umayyads, Muslim Moors. During the Islamic Golden Age, Cordoba surpassed Constantinople to be Europe's biggest city, became the capital of the Al Andalus and a prominent center of education and learning in the world, producing numerous philosophers and scientists.

The Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been an agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone; the region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in some other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight and daytime highs of over 40 °C are common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería.

Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries; the Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today.

The term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley until that date; this was the most common significance in the Late Middle Ages and Early modern

Radio Aire

Radio Aire is an Independent Local Radio station serving Leeds and West Yorkshire. It is owned & forms part of the Hits Radio network; the station was launched on 1 September 1981 by presenter Graham Thornton and the first song played was Pilot of the Airwaves by Charlie Dore. Radio Aire broadcast on 362 metres medium wave and 94.6 VHF but was moved to 96.3 FM in 1986. Radio Aire is situated on Burley Road, overlooking Kirkstall Road next to ITV Yorkshire's studios and was the first Independent Local Radio station to have studios built for the purpose of radio transmission. In the late 1980s, the studios were used for The James Whale Radio Show, a late night TV show, broadcast on ITV, Radio Aire and Red Rose Radio. On 17 July 1990, Radio Aire split frequencies, forming Aire FM and Magic 828. In 1992, the name was changed to Radio Aire FM and 96.3 Aire FM in 1995. A change of format in 1996 saw another station name change to The New 96.3 Aire FM before The New was dropped in 1998. By March 2001, Radio Aire had reverted to its original name.

The station together with Magic 828 was bought by EMAP in 1995 and it became part of their Big City Network of stations and has maintained a generic branding with sister stations across Northern England since about 2000. Following the acquisition of EMAP Radio, the station is now part of Bauer Radio; the station's FM transmission is located at the Tingley site in Morley, close to the A653 and junction 28 of the M62. The adjacent mast, known as Morley, is former home of the station's FM transmissions, it continues to broadcast sister station Greatest Hits Radio on 828 KHz medium wave and the Leeds DAB multiplex. Local programming consists of weekday breakfast from 6-10am, produced and broadcast from Radio Aire's Leeds studios. All networked programming originates from Hits Radio's Manchester headquarters. Radio Aire broadcasts local news bulletins hourly from 6am to 7pm on weekdays, from 7am to 1pm on Saturdays and from 9am to 12pm on Sundays. Headlines are broadcast on the half-hour during weekday breakfast and drivetime shows, alongside sport and traffic bulletins.

National bulletins from Sky News Radio are carried overnight with bespoke networked bulletins on weekend afternoons produced in the Leeds newsroom for the Hits Radio Network in northern England and the West Midlands. Official website Radio Aire Archive History of local radio in Yorkshire. Tingley transmitter information Morley transmitter information

Chicoreus banksii

Chicoreus banksii, common name the Banks' murex, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails. The size of an adult shell varies between 107 mm, it is similar in physical appearance to Chicoreus palmarosae, the Rose Branch Murex. This species occurs in the Pacific Ocean along the Philippines, the Solomons, New Caledonia and Australia. Merle D. Garrigues B. & Pointier J.-P. Fossil and Recent Muricidae of the world. Part Muricinae. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 648 pp. page: 103 "Chicoreus banksii". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 25 June 2011