The Andalusian known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE, is a horse breed from the Iberian Peninsula, where its ancestors have lived for thousands of years. The Andalusian has been recognized as a distinct breed since the 15th century, its conformation has changed little over the centuries. Throughout its history, it has been known for its prowess as a war horse, was prized by the nobility; the breed was used as a tool of diplomacy by the Spanish government, kings across Europe rode and owned Spanish horses. During the 19th century, warfare and crossbreeding reduced herd numbers and despite some recovery in the late 19th century, the trend continued into the early 20th century. Exports of Andalusians from Spain were restricted until the 1960s, but the breed has since spread throughout the world, despite their low population. In 2010, there were more than 185,000 registered Andalusians worldwide. Built, compact yet elegant, Andalusians have long, thick manes and tails, their most common coat color is gray.
They are known for their intelligence and docility. A sub-strain within the breed known as the Carthusian, is considered by breeders to be the purest strain of Andalusian, though there is no genetic evidence for this claim; the strain is still considered separate from the main breed however, is preferred by breeders because buyers pay more for horses of Carthusian bloodlines. There are several competing registries keeping records of horses designated as Andalusian or PRE, but they differ on their definition of the Andalusian and PRE, the purity of various strains of the breed, the legalities of stud book ownership. At least one lawsuit is in progress as of 2011, to determine the ownership of the Spanish PRE stud book; the Andalusian is related to the Lusitano of Portugal, has been used to develop many other breeds in Europe and the Americas. Breeds with Andalusian ancestry include many of the warmbloods in Europe as well as western hemisphere breeds such as the Azteca. Over its centuries of development, the Andalusian breed has been selected for athleticism and stamina.
The horses were used for classical dressage, bullfighting, as stock horses. Modern Andalusians are used for many equestrian activities, including dressage, show jumping and driving; the breed is used extensively in movies historical pictures and fantasy epics. Andalusians stallions and geldings average 15.1 1⁄2 hands at the withers and 512 kilograms in weight. The Spanish government has set the minimum height for registration in Spain at 15.0 hands for males and 14.3 hands for mares — this standard is followed by the Association of Purebred Spanish Horse Breeders of Spain and the Andalusian Horse Association of Australasia. The Spanish legislation requires that in order for animals to be approved as either "qualified" or "élite" breeding stock, stallions must stand at least 15.1 hands and mares at least 15 1⁄4 hands. Andalusian horses are elegant and built. Members of the breed have heads of medium length, with a straight or convex profile. Ultra convex and concave profiles are discouraged in the breed, are penalized in breed shows.
Necks are broad, running to well-defined withers and a massive chest. They have broad, strong hindquarters with a well-rounded croup; the breed tends to have clean legs, with no propensity for blemishes or injuries, energetic gaits. The mane and tail are thick and long. Andalusians tend to be docile, while remaining sensitive; when treated with respect they are quick to learn and cooperative. There are two additional characteristics unique to the Carthusian strain, believed to trace back to the strain's foundation stallion Esclavo; the first is warts under the tail, a trait which Esclavo passed to his offspring, a trait which some breeders felt was necessary to prove that a horse was a member of the Esclavo bloodline. The second characteristic is the occasional presence of "horns", which are frontal bosses inherited from Asian ancestors; the physical descriptions of the bosses vary, ranging from calcium-like deposits at the temple to small horn-like protuberances near or behind the ear. However, these "horns" are not considered proof of Esclavo descent, unlike the tail warts.
In the past, most coat colors were found, including spotted patterns. Today most Andalusians are bay. Of the remaining horses 15 percent are bay and 5 percent are black, dun or palomino or chestnut. Other colors, such as buckskin and cremello, are rare, but are recognized as allowed colors by registries for the breed. In the early history of the breed, certain white markings and whorls were considered to be indicators of character and good or bad luck. Horses with white socks on their feet were considered to have good or bad luck, depending on the leg or legs marked. A horse with no white markings at all was considered to be ill-tempered and vice-ridden, while certain facial markings were considered representative of honesty and endurance. Hair whorls in various places were considered to show good or bad luck, with the most unlucky being in places where the horse could not see them – for example the temples, shoulder or heart. Two whorls near the root of the tail were considered a sign of courage
The Bavarian Class D X engines were saturated steam locomotives of the Royal Bavarian State Railways. The locomotives, which were built by Krauss were similar to the Class D VIII, but were smaller and lighter. Like the D VIII they had a trailing axle, connected to the final coupled axle by a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie. In 1890 the first six were built, followed in 1893 by three more with somewhat larger wheels; the first engine was only 8,880 mm long due to the lack of a coal bunker on the driver's cab. All the vehicles were taken over by the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft in 1925 as DRG Class 98.77 and remained in service until 1931. Only numbers 98 7706 and 98 7707 were retired shortly after the renumbering. Royal Bavarian State Railways List of Bavarian locomotives and railbuses
Tanichthys is a genus of freshwater fish in the carp family of order Cypriniformes. They streams in China and Vietnam; until the type species, T. albonubes, was the only one known. In 2001, however and Herder described a new and similar species, T. micagemmae, from the Ben Hai River in Vietnam and V. H. Nguyen & S. V. Ngô described a third species from Vietnam; the name Tanichthys comes from the name of the Chinese Boy Scout leader, who discovered the first specimen. Tanichthys albonubes S. Y. Lin, 1932 Tanichthys kuehnei Bohlen, Dvorák, Ha & Šlechtová, 2019 Tanichthys micagemmae Freyhof & Herder, 2001 Tanichthys thacbaensis V. H. Nguyễn & S. V. Ngô, 2001 Froese and Pauly, eds.. Species of Tanichthys in FishBase. October 2011 version. "Tanichthys". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 12 December 2004
Silver Range is a 1946 American Western film directed by Lambert Hillyer and written by J. Benton Cheney; the film stars Johnny Mack Brown, Raymond Hatton, Jan Bryant, I. Stanford Jolley, Terry Frost and Eddie Parker; the film was released on November 1946, by Monogram Pictures. Johnny Mack Brown as Johnny Bronton Raymond Hatton as Tucson Smith Jan Bryant as Jeanne Willoughby I. Stanford Jolley as Sheriff Bill Armstrong Terry Frost as Red Cameron Eddie Parker as Bart Nelson Ted Adams as Jason Turner Frank LaRue as Steve Ferguson Cactus Mack as Larry Lane Bradford as Browning Dee Cooper as Faro Billy Dix as Chuck Bill Willmering as Jim Willoughby Silver Range on IMDb
Oroantral fistula is an epithelialised oroantral communication. OAC refers to an abnormal connection between the oral antrum; the creation of an OAC is most due to the extraction of a maxillary tooth related to the antral floor. A small OAC may heal spontaneously but a larger OAC would require surgical closure to prevent the development of persistent OAF and chronic sinusitis; when looking in the mouth, a communication in the upper jaw can be seen connecting the mouth to the maxillary sinus. Sometimes this can be the only sign. · Same side nose blockage. When an OAC or OAF is present, the passage to the maxillary sinus can results in infection and inflammation in the maxillary sinus; this subsequently results in mucus build up presenting as a unilateral nasal blockage · Sinusitis can progress – this can present as a pain in the midface. Pain can be referred to the upper teeth and be mistaken for toothache· Fluid can flow from the mouth through the communication and into the maxillary sinus; the maxillary sinus is connected to the nose and therefore fluid can come out of the nostrils when drinking· Change in sounds produced from the nose and the voice – a whistling sound whilst speaking· Taste can be affected · Visible hole between mouth and sinus · Fracture of the floor of the maxillary sinus creating a communication to the oral cavity.· Air bubbles, blood or mucoid secretion around the orifice can be seen as air passes from the sinus into the oral cavity through the communication.
- Patient history - Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and reported symptoms. Therefore, a good history and understanding of the patient’s symptoms is key. - Undertake a complete extraoral and intraoral examination using a dental mirror alongside good lightening. When assessing the socket following an extraction look for granulation tissue in the socket which may represent normal healing. Assess for the presence of visible an opening/hole between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. - Imaging can be useful. However, radiographs only show. If there is a breach in the bony floor the Schneiderian membrane may still be intact. Depending on the size of the potential communication and in what context, a small radiograph inside the mouth may be sufficient to assess for any break in the bone of the sinus floor which may indicate an OAC. - Panoramic radiographs can be used to confirm the presence of an OAC. If simple radiographs are deemed not to give enough information, cone beam computed tomography may be used.
Imaging can help locate the communication, determine the size of it and can give an indication as to whether there is any sinusitis and foreign bodies in the sinus. - Normally clinicians should be cautioned against probing or irrigating the site a newly formed OAC as this may reduce the chance of spontaneous healing. - Valsalva test The patient is asked to pinch their nostrils together and open their mouth and blow through the nose. The clinician must observe if there is passage of air or bubbling of blood in the post extraction alveolus as the trapped air from closed nostrils is forced into the mouth through any oroantral communication. Gentle suction applied to the socket produces a characteristic hollow sound. However, there are differing opinions about the appropriateness of carrying out this test, it can be argued that by performing this test, a small OAC may be made bigger thus preventing spontaneous healing. Extraction of maxillary teeth The maxillary sinus is known for its thin floor and close proximity to the posterior maxillary teeth.
The extraction of a maxillary tooth is the most common cause of an OAC. Extraction of primary teeth are not considered a risk of OAC due to the presence of developing permanent teeth and the small size of the developing maxillary sinus. Other causes Other causes of an OAC are: maxillary fractures across the antral floor Le Fort I, displacement of posterior maxillary molar roots into antrum and direct trauma. An OAC can happen for many other more unusual reasons, such as acute or chronic inflammatory lesions around the tip of a tooth root, in close proximity with the maxillary antrum, destructive lesions/tumours of the maxilla, failure of surgical incisions to heal, osteomyelitis of the maxilla, careless use of instruments during surgical procedures, implants and as a results of complex surgery (for example removal of a large cysts or resections of large tumours involving the maxilla. Clinical examination and x rays can help diagnose the condition. For examples: Valsalva test: Ask the patient to pinch the nostrils together and open the mouth blow through the nose.
Observe if there is passage of air or bubbling of blood in the post extraction alveolus as the trapped air from closed nostrils is forced into the mouth through any oroantral communication. Gentle suction applied to the socket produces a characteristic hollow sound. Perform a complete extra- and intra-oral examination using a dental mirror under good lighting, look for granulation tissue in the socket and openings into the antrum. Panoramic radiograph or paranasal computed tomography can help to locate the fistula, the size of
Fritz Wilhelm Faiss was a German-American abstract expressionist artist. Faiss was born on March 6, 1905 in the town of Furtwangen, a town in the Black Forest section of Germany, he studied at the Bauhaus, where he was influenced by various artists including Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky, as well as the Stuttgart Academy of Fine Arts. He had training as a medical doctor. Faiss flourished in his art and teaching until the Nazis took power, thereafter he was viewed by the German government as a degenerate artist, he was harassed by the Gestapo and forbidden to work as an artist, much of his artwork was destroyed. He was sent by the Nazis to a forced labor camp, where he spent about a year and became sick. After the war, he returned to his teaching. In 1951, he emigrated to the United States, where he settled in California, he became renowned for his hot wax artwork known as encaustic painting, but he became an expert painter using many other methods including monotypes, water colors, lithography, stained glass, line drawings.
Much of his art has biblical and mystical themes. He taught at UCLA and Otis Art Institute, became a tenured professor of art at California State University, where he retired as professor emeritus in 1973, his artwork has been installed and exhibited throughout the world, including France, Germany and the United States. Faiss was married to Janet Wullner until his death in 1981 at the age of 76. Faiss, Fritz. Lenticle: two interviews with Fritz Faiss. Valencia Hills: Green Hut Press, 1972. Faiss, Fritz. Hackney jade and the war-horse. Valencia Hills, Calif.: Green Hut Press, 1977. Faiss, Fritz; the blue glass Napoleon. Northridge, Calif.: Art Dept. Gallery, San Fernando Valley State College, 1964. Faiss, Fritz. Concerning the way of color: an artist's approach. Valencia Hills, Calif.: Green Hut Press, 1977. Faiss, Fritz. Out of loneliness. Saugus, Calif.: Green Hut Press, 1972. Faiss, Fritz. Fritz Wilhelm Faiss: artist file: study photographs and reproductions of works of art with accompanying documentation 1920-2000.
Frick Art Reference Library, 2000. Faiss, Fritz. Modern art and man's search for the self. Saugus, Calif.: Green Hut Press, 1974. Faiss, Fritz. Fritz Faiss, retrospective exhibition featuring the Big Sur and Cambria Pines Series: Palm Springs Desert Museum: 23 March 1963. Palm Springs, Calf.: Palm Springs Desert Museum, 1963. Faiss and Hilldebrandt, Hans. Fritz Faiss, Gesamtschau 1947: Pforzheim, vom 3. Juni-2. Juli, in den Räumen der Militärregierung. Pforzheim: 1947. 1935: Prix de Rome 1952: Huntington Hartford Foundation Fellowship