Backford is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is situated between Chester and Ellesmere Port on the A41 trunk road, to the north of the Shropshire Union Canal. Backford Cross is located about 1.5 miles north of Backford. According to the 2001 Census, it had a population of 109. A township in the Wirral Hundred, it had a population of 138 in 1801, 155 in 1851, 141 in 1901 and 119 in 1951. St Oswald's Church is in the centre of the village, as is Backford Hall, which operated as offices for Cheshire West and Chester Council. Backford Hall Golf Club was in existence from the late 1930s until the early 1950s. Listed buildings in Backford Chorlton Hall, Backford
Beeston is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester, which itself is located in the ceremonial county of Cheshire in the north of England. It is located 10 km south-east of Chester, 3.5 km south-west of Tarporley, close to the Shropshire Union Canal. According to the 2011 census, Beeston had a population of 188. Beeston Castle nearby is a spectacular clifftop. Peckforton Castle is not far away. In the 1870s, the castle at Beeston was described as: Beeston Castle here crowns an isolated sandstone rock, 366 feet high; the castle was built, in 1228, by Ranulph de Blundeville. According to the 1881 Census data, the population of Beeston was 328. Of these, 56 were engaged in agriculture. 30 persons were employed in domestic service in the parish at the time as well indicating the presence of a country estate. There was a schoolmaster, an innkeeper and a shopkeeper, which suggests that there was a school, an inn and a village shop present in 1881; the overall trend for in Beeston has been that the population has reduced since the 1881 census, with 188 people living in the village in 2011.
This is despite the overall number of households in the parish increasing. Beeston is located off the A49; the village was once served by Beeston Castle and Tarporley railway station on the Chester to Crewe main line. The station closed to goods traffic in January 1965, to passengers 15 months in April 1966; the line remains open, sections of the platforms are still in situ. Listed buildings in Beeston, Cheshire
Listed buildings in Anderton with Marbury
Anderton with Marbury is a civil parish in Cheshire West and Chester, which contains the villages of Anderton and Marbury. The Trent and Mersey Canal runs through the parish. In the parish is the Anderton Boat Lift, a scheduled monument, restored to carry boats from the canal down to the Weaver Navigation. In the parish are four buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as designated listed buildings, all of which are at Grade II; this grade is the lowest of the three gradings given to listed buildings and is applied to "buildings of national importance and special interest". The structures consist of a mill and the miller's house, a farmhouse, a milepost on the canal. Citations Sources
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the rivers Weaver and Dane; the town is 15 miles south of Warrington. 19 miles south of Manchester and 12 miles south of Manchester Airport. Northwich has been named as one of the best places to live in the United Kingdom according to The Sunday Times in 2014. Northwich is an area of High Growth, with the Winsford and Northwich Locality having a population of over 108,000 in 2018, this has grown from 100,000 in 2011. With an estimated population of 125,000 by 2030. Northwich itself with the Proposed 6,000 new homes being built will have a population of over 85,000 by 2030; the area around Northwich has been exploited for its salt pans since Roman times, when the settlement was known as Condate. The town has been affected by salt mining, subsidence has been a significant problem. There has been recent investment in mine stabilisation.
During Roman times, Northwich was known as Condate, thought to be a Latinisation of a Brittonic name meaning "Confluence". There are several other sites of the same name in France. Northwich can be identified through two contemporary Roman documents; the first of these is a 3rd-century road map split into 14 sections. Two of these sections, or Itinerary, mention Condate: Route II and Route X; the second document is the 7th-century Ravenna Cosmography. This document refers to Condate between the entries for Salinae and Ratae, at the time the capital of the Corieltauvi tribe; the Romans' interest in the Northwich area is thought to be due to the strategic river crossing and the location of the salt brines. Salt was important in Roman society, it is theorised that this is the basis for the modern word salary. Another theory is. See History of salt for further details. There is archaeological evidence of a Roman auxiliary fort within the area of Northwich now known as "Castle" dated to AD 70; this and other northwestern forts were built as the Romans moved north from their stronghold in Chester.
The association with salt continues in the etymology of Northwich. The "wich" suffix applies to other towns in the area: Middlewich and Leftwich; this is considered to have been derived from the Norse, for bay, is associated with the more traditional method of obtaining salt by evaporating sea water. Therefore, a place for making salt became a wych-house; the existence of Northwich in the early medieval period is shown by its record in the Domesday Book: In the same Mildestuic hundred there was a third wich called Norwich and it was at farm for £8. There were the same laws and customs there as there were in the other wiches and the king and the earl divided the renders.... All the other customs in these wiches are the same; this was waste. The manor of Northwich belonged to the Earls of Chester until 1237. Subsequently, Northwich became a royal manor and was given to a noble family to collect tolls in exchange for a set rent; that salt production continued throughout the centuries and can be seen through John Leland's description of the town in 1540: Northwich is a pratie market town but fowle,and by the Salters houses be great stakes of smaul cloven wood, to seethe the salt water that thei make white salt of.
Between 1642 and 1643, during the English Civil War, Northwich was fortified and garrisoned by Sir William Brereton for the Parliamentarians. The salt beds beneath Northwich were re-discovered in the 1670s by employees of the local Smith-Barry family; the Smith-Barrys were looking for coal, but instead discovered rock salt, in the grounds of the family home, Marbury Hall, to the north of Northwich. During the 19th century it became uneconomical to mine for the salt. Instead hot water was pumped through the mines; the resultant brine was pumped out and the salt extracted from the brine. This technique led to land subsidence as they collapsed. Subsidence affected the surrounding landscape. For example, collapses in 1880 formed Witton Flash as the River Weaver flowed into a huge hole caused by subsidence. Subsidence allegedly accounts for many old timber-framed houses in the town centre, which were better able to withstand the movement of the ground; some houses were built on a base of steel girders that could be jacked up to level the house with each change in the underlying ground.
The town's historical link with the salt industry is celebrated in its museum, today in the old workhouse. In 1874, John Brunner and Ludwig Mond founded Brunner Mond in Winnington and started manufacturing soda ash using the Solvay ammonia-soda process; this process used salt as a main raw material. The chemical industry used the subsided land for the disposal of waste from the manufacture of soda-ash; the waste was transported through a network of rails to the produce limebeds. This caused the landscape to be abandoned as unusable. Brine bathsThe first known swimming baths of Northwich was the Verdin Baths, situated on Verdin Park, it was presented by Robert Verdi
Aston is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 111, reducing to 106 at the 2011 census; the village is just outside the Runcorn urban area. St Peter's Church is a Grade I listed building. Aston was the seat of the Aston baronets of the County of Chester. Listed buildings in Aston-by-Sutton Media related to Aston-by-Sutton at Wikimedia Commons Aston in the Domesday Book
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 118,200 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 332,200 in 2014. Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD. One of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral, the Saxons extended and strengthened the walls to protect the city against the Danes. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain, it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations.
Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are complete. The Industrial Revolution brought railways and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period; the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. It was established in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward, was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, based at Deva. Central Chester's four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the military base originating from trade with the fortress; the fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in the Roman province of Britannia built around the same time at York and Caerleon.
The civilian amphitheatre, built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, is a Scheduled Monument; the Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British civilian settlement continued and its occupants continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea. After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have become part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century. Another, attested in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the "city of the legions" and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester, established the Anglo-Saxon position in the area from on. The Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons used an Old English equivalent of the British name, Legacæstir, current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simple name Chester emerged. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia on what is considered to be an early Christian site: it is known as the Minster of St John the Baptist, Chester which became the first cathedral. Much the body of Æthelred's niece, St Werburgh, was removed from Hanbury in Staffordshire in the 9th century and, to save it from desecration by Danish marauders, was reburied in the Church of SS Peter & Paul - to become the Abbey Church, her name is still remembered in St Werburgh's Street which passes alongside the cathedral, near the city walls. The Saxons extended and strengthened the walls of Chester to protect the city against the Danes, who occupied it for a short time until Alfred seized all the cattle and laid waste the surrounding land to drive them out.
It was Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh. A new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD 907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgar's Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six (the monk Henry Bradshaw records he