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André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère was a French physicist and mathematician, one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics". He is the inventor of numerous applications, such as the solenoid and the electrical telegraph. An autodidact, Ampère was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and professor at the École polytechnique and the Collège de France; the SI unit of measurement of electric current, the ampere, is named after him. His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. André-Marie Ampère was born on 20 January 1775 to Jean-Jacques Ampère a prosperous businessman, Jeanne Antoinette Desutières-Sarcey Ampère, during the height of the French Enlightenment, he spent his adolescence at the family property at Poleymieux-au-Mont-d'Or near Lyon. Jean-Jacques Ampère, a successful merchant, was an admirer of the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose theories of education were the basis of Ampère's education. Rousseau believed that young boys should avoid formal schooling and pursue instead an "education direct from nature."

Ampère's father actualized this ideal by allowing his son to educate himself within the walls of his well-stocked library. French Enlightenment masterpieces such as Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon's Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière and Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert's Encyclopédie thus became Ampère's schoolmasters; the young Ampère, soon resumed his Latin lessons, which enabled him to master the works of Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli. In addition, Ampère used his access to the latest books to begin teaching himself advanced mathematics at age 12. In life Ampère claimed that he knew as much about and science when he was eighteen as he knew, his mother was a devout woman, so Ampère was initiated into the Catholic faith along with Enlightenment science. The French Revolution that began during his youth was influential: Ampère's father was called into public service by the new revolutionary government, becoming a justice of the peace in a small town near Lyon.

When the Jacobin faction seized control of the Revolutionary government in 1792, his father Jean-Jacques Ampère resisted the new political tides, he was guillotined on 24 November 1793, as part of the Jacobin purges of the period. In 1796 Ampère met Julie Carron, in 1799 they were married. André-Marie Ampère took his first regular job in 1799 as a mathematics teacher, which gave him the financial security to marry Carron and father his first child, Jean-Jacques, the next year. Ampère's maturation corresponded with the transition to the Napoleonic regime in France, the young father and teacher found new opportunities for success within the technocratic structures favoured by the new French First Consul. In 1802 Ampère was appointed a professor of physics and chemistry at the École Centrale in Bourg-en-Bresse, leaving his ailing wife and infant son Jean-Jacques Antoine Ampère in Lyon, he used his time in Bourg to research mathematics, producing Considérations sur la théorie mathématique de jeu, a treatise on mathematical probability that he sent to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1803.

After the death of his wife in July 1803, Ampère moved to Paris, where he began a tutoring post at the new École Polytechnique in 1804. Despite his lack of formal qualifications, Ampère was appointed a professor of mathematics at the school in 1809; as well as holding positions at this school until 1828, in 1819 and 1820 Ampère offered courses in philosophy and astronomy at the University of Paris, in 1824 he was elected to the prestigious chair in experimental physics at the Collège de France. In 1814 Ampère was invited to join the class of mathematicians in the new Institut Impérial, the umbrella under which the reformed state Academy of Sciences would sit. Ampère engaged in a diverse array of scientific inquiries during the years leading up to his election to the academy—writing papers and engaging in topics from mathematics and philosophy to chemistry and astronomy, customary among the leading scientific intellectuals of the day. Ampère claimed that "at eighteen years he found three culminating points in his life, his First Communion, the reading of Antoine Leonard Thomas's "Eulogy of Descartes", the Taking of the Bastille.

On the day of his wife's death he wrote two verses from the Psalms, the prayer,'O Lord, God of Mercy, unite me in Heaven with those whom you have permitted me to love on earth.' In times of duress he would take refuge in the reading of the Bible and the Fathers of the Church."For a time he took into his family the young student Frédéric Ozanam, one of the founders of the Conference of Charity known as the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul. Through Ampère, Ozanam had contact with leaders of the neo-Catholic movement, such as François-René de Chateaubriand, Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire, Charles Forbes René de Montalembert. Ozanam was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1998. In September 1820, Ampère's friend and eventual eulogist François Arago showed the members of the French Academy of Sciences the surprising discovery of Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted that a magnetic needle is deflected by an adjacent electric current. Ampère began developing a mathematical and physical theory to understand the relationship between

Tune in Tomorrow

Tune in Tomorrow is a 1990 comedy film directed by Jon Amiel. It is based on the Mario Vargas Llosa novel Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, was released under that name in many countries. Relocated from the novel’s setting in 1950s-era Lima, Peru to New Orleans, Louisiana that same decade, it stars Peter Falk, Keanu Reeves and Barbara Hershey in a story surrounding a radio drama and love. Supporting roles were filled by actors including Elizabeth McGovern, Hope Lange, Henry Gibson, John Larroquette, Buck Henry, Dedee Pfeiffer, Joel Fabiani and the Neville Brothers. Featured Extra roles included female actress Michelle Rutherford-Vincent; the soundtrack for the film was composed by Wynton Marsalis, who makes a cameo appearance with various members of his band. Martin Loader works at the local radio station, that just hired a new scriptwriter, Pedro Carmichael. Martin's Aunt Julia, not related by blood, returns home after many years away and Martin falls for her. Once Pedro finds out about this romance, he starts incorporating details of it into the script of his daily drama series.

Soon and Julia are not only hearing about their fictional selves over the radio, but they hear about what they are going to do next. Review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 50% of critics gave the film positive write-ups, based on 12 reviews. Film critic Roger Ebert gave the movie 2 and a half stars out of 4, noting that "sometimes we laugh sometimes uncertainly, sometimes we just look at the screen and wonder why anyone thought, funny." Tune in Tomorrow on IMDb Tune in Tomorrow at Rotten Tomatoes Tune in Tomorrow at Box Office Mojo Amazon Rolling Stone review and samples of soundtrack album

Zygmunt Wojciechowski

Zygmunt Wojciechowski was a Polish historian and nationalist politician. Born in 1900 in then-Austria, he obtained a doctorate from medieval history at Lviv University. In 1925 he moved to Poznań, where he became a full professor in 1929. In 1934-1939 he became politically involved with the nationalist party Endecja. During occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany he worked in Polish underground opposing German genocide of Poles by providing underground teaching, banned by German state and worked on future concept of Polish borders that would provide Poland with safety against any further German aggression, he supported an alliance with Soviet Union and after the war he continued to work as historian in People's Republic of Poland and headed Western Institute that studied former Polish territories recovered from Germany and history of Polish-German relations. He was a recipient of Officer's Cross of Order of Polonia Restituta. Wojciechowski was born in Stryj near Lviv Austro-Hungarian Galicia. In World War I he was not deployed anymore.

In 1921, Wojciechowski began studying at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów, which had just been re-incorporated in the re-created Polish state. In 1924, he obtained a doctorate in medieval history, social sciences, economics, became assistant professor at the Institute for Auxiliary Sciences of History. In 1924 he published his first concept of the "motherland territories" of Poland, his definition of "Polish motherland" was the areas as acquired by 10th-century Piast Poland in the era of Mieszko I and Boleslaw Krzywousty. In 1925, he moved to Poznań, where he first was the deputy holder of the chair for the history of the political system and Ancient Polish law at Adam Mickiewicz University; the same year, he completed his habilitation with a thesis on the territorial administration of medieval settlements. He became extraordinary professor in 1929, full professor in January 1937. From 1939, he was the dean of the university's Department of Economics. Since 1934, Wojciechowski, a friend of Roman Dmowski, had been one of the main ideologists of the Camp of Great Poland.

He was active in the Liga Narodowa. In 1934 he founded the "League of Young Nationalists", whose aim was the foundation of an authoritarian, homogenous Polish state, became its chairman until 1937. From 1937 to 1939 he was the chairman of the "Nation State Movement" In 1937 he called for a strong national state that would be democratic During his political career he opposed Dmowski and the movement he belonged to sought integration with Józef Piłsudski's sanacja faction, hoping that both main political factions in Poland would unite led by interest in well being of Polish nation However, he considered Dmowski one of the most influential persons of his life. Wojciechowski saw "traces of a modern national thought" in the National Socialism, he admired Hitler's anti-Jewish policy as a good example for Poland. He accepted the Anschluss of Austria and the Munich Agreement but became more critical of Hitler's politics in the course of time. According to Tomasz Kenar he was alarmed by Hitler's expansionism but accepted the "Anschluss" of Austria, hoping that it would put Italy against Nazi Germany and into the sphere of Polish alliance.

Regarding Munich Agreement he saw Czechoslovakia as too allied Soviet Union. He remained opposed to German annexation of Czechoslovakia, worried that such event would make Polish military situation difficult. Wojciechowski envisioned a Polish-led block in Central Europe composed of Hungary, Finland, Estonia,Latvia and Lithuania and in close relationship with Italy, that would oppose both German expansionism and Soviet pressure on these states. On he focused his attention towards Fascist Italy, due to his interest in a "strong state", "depending on legal norms, in tradition of Roman law". While nation was for Wojciechowski at time the "greatest good" he didn't exhibit racist ideas or anything that would be similar to German "volkisch" elements in his works. During Nazi German occupation of Poland he along with his family sheltered a Jewish woman and in a 1945 publication he condemned the mass murder of Jews by Nazi Germany during the war as "monstrous"Wojciechowski is described as a co-initiator of the Polish "Western thought", a "mirror image of the German Ostforschung with a pinch of pan-Slavic sentiment thrown in".

Unlike Ostforschung this movement was marginal in Poland, limited only to Poznań University, while the Ostforschung was influential and remained in friendly relations with Berlin government. The Polish researchers rejected the state model found in Germany, preferred Francoist Spain or Salazar's Portugal, remaining distrustful of Hitler, they rejected such ideas as biological racism and militarism and neo-pagan movement. While able to escape Germans, he was captured by them in October 1939 and held as hostage along with other Polish intellectuals, craftsmen and students; the group was held as part of German effort to crush Polish resistance, they were threatened with murder in case of armed resistance. Every few days, Wojciechowski was all

Electron heat capacity

In solid state physics the electron heat capacity or electronic specific heat describes the contribution of electrons to the heat capacity. Heat is transported by free electrons in solids. For pure metals, the electronic contributions dominate in the thermal conductivity. In impure metals, the electron mean free path is reduced by collisions with impurities, the phonon contribution may be comparable with the electronic contribution. Although the Drude model was successful in describing the electron motion within metals, it has some erroneous aspects: it predicts the Hall coefficient with the wrong sign compared to experimental measurements, the assumed additional electronic heat capacity to the lattice heat capacity, namely 3 2 k B per electron at elevated temperatures, is inconsistent with experimental values, since measurements of metals show no deviation from the Dulong–Petit law; the observed electronic contribution of electrons to the heat capacity is less than one percent of 3 2 k B. This problem seemed insoluble prior to the development of quantum mechanics.

This paradox was solved by Arnold Sommerfeld after the discovery of the Pauli exclusion principle, who recognised that the replacement of the Boltzmann distribution with the Fermi–Dirac distribution was required and incorporated it in the free electron model. When a metallic system is heated from absolute zero, not every electron gains an energy k B T as equipartition dictates. Only those electrons in atomic orbitals within an energy range of 3 2 k B T of the Fermi level are thermally excited. Electrons, in contrast to a classical gas, can only move into free states in their energetic neighbourhood; the one-electron energy levels are specified by the wave vector k through the relation ϵ = ℏ 2 k 2 / 2 m with m the electron mass. This relation separates the occupied energy states from the unoccupied ones and corresponds to the spherical surface in k-space; as T → 0 the ground state distribution becomes: f = { 1 if ϵ f < μ, 0 if ϵ f > μ. where f is the Fermi–Dirac distribution ϵ f is the energy of the energy level corresponding to the ground state μ is the ground state energy in the limit T → 0, which thus still deviates from the true ground state energy.

This implies that the ground state is the only occupied state for electrons in the limit T → 0, the f = 1 takes the Pauli exclusion principle into account. The internal energy U of a system within the free electron model is given by the sum over one-electron levels times the mean number of electrons in that level: U = 2 ∑ k ϵ f where the factor of 2 accounts for the spin up and spin down states of the electron. Using the approximation that for a sum over a smooth function F over all allowed values of k for finite large system is given by: F = V 8 π 3 ∑ k F Δ k where V is the volume of the systemFor the reduced internal energy u = U / V the expression for U can be rewritten as: u = ∫ d k 4 π 3 ϵ f and the expression for the electron density n = N V can be written as: n = ∫ d k 4 π 3 f The integ

Servando Teresa de Mier

Fray José Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega y Guerra was a Roman Catholic priest and politician in New Spain. He was imprisoned several times for his controversial beliefs, lived in exile in Spain and England, his sermons and writings presented revisionist theological and historical opinions that supported republicanism. Mier worked with Francisco Javier Mina during the Mexican War of Independence and, as a deputy in independent Mexico's constituent Congress, opposed Agustín de Iturbide's claim to imperial rule, he is honored for his role in Mexican independence. Mier was born in Nuevo León, in the colony of New Spain, he was a descendant of conquistadors of Nuevo León. At the age of 16, he entered the Dominican Order in Mexico City, he studied philosophy and theology in the College of Porta Coeli, was ordained a priest. By the age of 27, he was a noted preacher. On December 12, 1794, during the commemorations of the Virgin of Guadalupe apparition, in the presence of Viceroy Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, Archbishop Manuel Omaña y Sotomayor and the members of the Audiencia of New Spain, Mier preached a sermon affirming that the apparitions of the Virgin of Guadalupe had happened 1750 years before, not in 1531.

He argued that the original painting of Our Lady of Guadalupe was on the cloak of Saint Thomas the Apostle, who had preached in the Americas long before Spanish conquest, this had been re-discovered by Juan Diego. This sermon, with its bold revision of Mexican history and identity, was seen as a provocation. Our Lady of Guadalupe represented an intense and localized religious sensibility that Creole leaders, such as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, would use in their opposition to Spanish rule as a symbol of Mexico; the sermon drew no attention but one week Archbishop Nuñez de Haro condemned Mier to 10 years' exile in the convent of Las Caldas del Besaya in Cantabria, Spain. In 1796, he was granted permission to present his case to the Council of the Indies. However, on his return from the Council, he was arrested again; this time, he was confined to the Franciscan convent in Burgos. In 1801, he took refuge in Bayonne, France. From Bayonne, he passed to Bordeaux and to Paris. There he was interpreter for the rich Peruvian José Count of Gijón.

Together with Simón Rodríguez, Simón Bolívar's former teacher, he opened an academy in Paris to teach Spanish and to translate the Atala of François-René de Chateaubriand. Mier wrote a dissertation against Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf, comte de Volney. In Paris, he came to know Chateaubriand. In 1802, he became a secular priest in Rome; when he returned to Madrid, he was again apprehended, this time for a satire he had written supporting Mexican independence. He was sent to the reformatory in Seville, from which he escaped in 1804. However, he was again returned to prison, where he spent three years; the Pope named him his domestic prelate, because he had converted two rabbis to Catholicism. In the war between France and Spain, he returned to Spain as military chaplain of the Volunteers of Valencia, he was present at many battles. In Belchite, he was taken prisoner by the French, he presented himself to General Blake. The Regency in Cádiz granted him an annual pension of 3,000 pesos, he moved to London, where he collaborated with José María Blanco on El Español, a newspaper that supported the independence movements in Latin America.

In London, he met the Spanish revolutionary Francisco Javier Mina. Mina convinced him to join an expedition to New Spain to fight for its independence, they sailed for the United States on May 1816, arriving in Norfolk, Virginia. Mier became friends with New Granadan exile Manuel Torres while Torres and other Spanish American agents helped organize Mina's expedition; the expedition left with disastrous results. With the capture of the insurgents' fort at Soto la Marina on June 13, 1817, Mier was taken prisoner again, this time by the royalists, he was sent to the castle of San Carlos de Perote, thence to the dungeons of the Inquisition, in 1820, to Havana—where he escaped for a sixth time. After this escape Mier returned to the United States again in June 1821, where lived in Manuel Torres' home in Philadelphia for three months along with Vicente Rocafuerte. Torres was now acting as the Colombian representative in the U. S. Though opposites in demeanor and Torres shared a fanatical anti-monarchism and had a close friendship.

Through Torres, Mier contacted Colombian secretary of foreign relations Pedro José Gual to encourage him to send a diplomat to Mexico to counter the monarchist movement there, which he did the next year. Mier published several works while in Philadelphia, including a new edition of A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies and the anti-monarchical tract Memoria politico-instructiva enviada a los gefes de Anáhuac. Historian Charles Bowman suggested one pamphlet bearing Mier's name, La América Española dividida en dos grande departamentos, Norte y Sur o sea Septentrional y Meridional, was uncharacteristically moderate for Mier—and was Torres' work; the priest involved himself in a cont


Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins, principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are striated muscle, obliquely striated muscle, smooth muscle. Various arrangements of myofilaments create different muscles. Striated muscle has transverse bands of filaments. In obliquely striated muscle, the filaments are staggered. Smooth muscle has irregular arrangements of filaments. There are three different types of myofilaments: thick and elastic filaments. Thick filaments consist of the protein myosin; each thick filament is 15 nm in diameter, each is made of several hundred molecules of myosin. A myosin molecule is shaped like a golf club, with a tail formed of two intertwined chains and a double globular head projecting from it at an angle. Half of the myosin heads angle to the left and half of them angle to the right, creating an area in the middle of the filament known as the bare zone. Thin filaments, 7 nm in diameter, consist of the protein actin fibrous actin; each F actin strand is composed of a string of subunits called globular actin.

Each G actin has an active site. Each thin filament has 40 to 60 molecules of tropomyosin, the protein that blocks the active sites of the thin filaments when the muscle is relaxed; each tropomyosin molecule has a smaller calcium-binding protein called troponin bound to it. All thin filaments are attached to the Z-line. Elastic filaments, 1 nm in diameter, are made of a large springy protein, they run through the core of each thick filament and anchor it to the Z-line, the end point of a sarcomere. Titin stabilizes the thick filament, while centering it between the thin filaments, it aids in preventing overstretching of the thick filament, recoiling like a spring whenever a muscle is stretched. The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length in the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell.

The filaments are organized into repeated subunits along the length of the myofibril. These subunits are called sarcomeres; the contractile nature of this protein complex is based on the structure of the thick and thin filaments. The thick filament, has a double-headed structure, with the heads positioned at opposite ends of the molecule. During muscle contraction, the heads of the myosin filaments attach to oppositely oriented thin filaments and pull them past one another; the action of myosin attachment and actin movement results in sarcomere shortening. Muscle contraction consists of the simultaneous shortening of multiple sarcomeres; the axon terminal of a motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the muscle fiber membrane. This depolarizes the muscle fiber membrane, the impulse travels to the muscle's sarcoplasmic reticulum via the transverse tubules. Calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and subsequently bind to troponin.

Troponin and the associated tropomyosin undergo a conformational change after calcium binding and expose the myosin binding sites on actin, the thin filament. The filaments of actin and myosin form linkages. After binding, myosin inward, thus muscle contraction occurs, the sarcomere shortens as this process takes place. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down this ceases muscle fiber stimulation. Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. ATP causes the binding between myosin filaments to break. Troponin and tropomyosin revert to their original conformation and thereby block binding sites on the actin filament; the muscle fiber relaxes and the entire sarcomere lengthens. The muscle fiber is now prepared for the next contraction; the changes that occur to the myofilament in response to exercise have long been a subject of interest to exercise physiologists and the athletes who depend on their research for the most advanced training techniques.

Athletes across a spectrum of sporting events are interested to know what type of training protocol will result in maximal force generation from a muscle or set of muscles, so much attention has been given to changes in the myofilament under bouts of chronic and acute forms of exercise. While the exact mechanism of myofilament alteration in response to exercise is still being studied in mammals, some interesting clues have been revealed in Thoroughbred race horses. Researchers studied the presence of mRNA in skeletal muscle of horses at three distinct times, they reported statistically significant differences in mRNA for genes specific to production of actin. This study provides evidence of the mechanisms for both immediate and delayed myofilament response to exercise at the molecular level. More myofilament protein changes have been studied in humans in response to resistance training. Again, researchers are not clear about the molecular mechanisms of change, an alteration of fiber-type composition in the myofilament may not be the answer many athletes have long assumed.

This study looked at the muscle specific tension in the quadriceps femoris and vastus lateralis of forty-two young men. Researchers report a 17% increase in specific muscle tension after a peri