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André Derain

André Derain was a French artist, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse. Derain was born in 1880 in Yvelines, Île-de-France, just outside Paris. In 1895 he began to study on his own, contrary to claims that meeting Vlaminck or Matisse began his efforts to paint, went to the countryside with an old friend of Cézanne's, Father Jacomin along with his two sons. In 1898, while studying to be an engineer at the Académie Camillo, he attended painting classes under Eugène Carrière, there met Matisse. In 1900, he met and shared a studio with Maurice de Vlaminck and together they began to paint scenes in the neighbourhood, but this was interrupted by military service at Commercy from September 1901 to 1904. Following his release from service, Matisse persuaded Derain's parents to allow him to abandon his engineering career and devote himself to painting. Derain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 in the Mediterranean village of Collioure and that year displayed their innovative paintings at the Salon d'Automne.

The vivid, unnatural colors led the critic Louis Vauxcelles to derisively dub their works as les Fauves, or "the wild beasts", marking the start of the Fauvist movement. In March 1906, the noted art dealer Ambroise Vollard sent Derain to London to produce a series of paintings with the city as subject. In 30 paintings, Derain presented a portrait of London, radically different from anything done by previous painters of the city such as Whistler or Monet. With bold colors and compositions, Derain painted multiple pictures of the Thames and Tower Bridge; these London paintings remain among his most popular work. Art critic T. G Rosenthal: "Not since Monet has anyone made London seem so fresh and yet remain quintessentially English; some of his views of the Thames use the Pointillist technique of multiple dots, although by this time, because the dots have become much larger, it is rather more the separation of colours called Divisionism and it is peculiarly effective in conveying the fragmentation of colour in moving water in sunlight."

In 1907 art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler purchased Derain's entire studio, granting Derain financial stability. He experimented with stone sculpture and moved to Montmartre to be near his friend Pablo Picasso and other noted artists. Fernande Olivier, Picasso's mistress at the time, described Derain as: Slim, with a lively colour and enamelled black hair. With an English chic, somewhat striking. Fancy waistcoats, ties in crude colours and green. Always a pipe in his mouth, mocking, cold, an arguer. At Montmartre, Derain began to shift from the brilliant Fauvist palette to more muted tones, showing the influence of Cubism and Paul Cézanne. Derain supplied woodcuts in primitivist style for an edition of Guillaume Apollinaire's first book of prose, L'enchanteur pourrissant, he displayed works at the Neue Künstlervereinigung in Munich in 1910, in 1912 at the secessionist Der Blaue Reiter and in 1913 at the seminal Armory Show in New York. He illustrated a collection of poems by Max Jacob in 1912.

At about this time Derain's work began overtly reflecting his study of the Old Masters. The role of color was reduced and forms became austere. In 1914 he was mobilized for military service in World War I and until his release in 1919 he would have little time for painting, although in 1916 he provided a set of illustrations for André Breton's first book, Mont de Piete. After the war, Derain won new acclaim as a leader of the renewed classicism ascendant. With the wildness of his Fauve years far behind, he was admired as an upholder of tradition. In 1919 he designed the ballet La Boutique fantasque for leader of the Ballets Russes. A major success, it would lead to his creating many ballet designs; the 1920s marked the height of his success, as he was awarded the Carnegie Prize in 1928 for his Still-life with Dead Game and began to exhibit extensively abroad—in London, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, New York City and Cincinnati, Ohio. During the German occupation of France in World War II, Derain lived in Paris and was much courted by the Germans because he represented the prestige of French culture.

Derain accepted an invitation to make an official visit to Germany in 1941, traveled with other French artists to Berlin to attend a Nazi exhibition of an endorsed artist, Arno Breker. Derain's presence in Germany was used by Nazi propaganda, after the Liberation he was branded a collaborator and ostracized by many former supporters. A year before his death, he contracted an eye infection from which he never recovered, he died in Garches, Hauts-de-Seine, Île-de-France, France in 1954 when he was struck by a moving vehicle. Derain's London paintings were the subject of a major exhibition at the Courtauld Institute from 27 October 2005 to 22 January 2006. Among the public collections holding works by André Derain are: Museum of Fine Arts, Gent Museum de Fundatie, Netherlands Clement, Russell. Les Fauves: A Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28333-8. Cowling, Elizabeth. On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism 1910–1930. London: Tate Gallery. ISBN 1-85437-043-X Diehl, Gaston.

Derain. Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0517037203. Hamilton, George Heard. Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1880–1940. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300056494. Sotriffer, Kri

Andreas Pavel

Andreas Pavel is a German-Brazilian cultural producer and media designer, credited with patenting the personal stereo, although his claim in the United Kingdom was revoked after Judges ruled his patent "obvious and not inventive". Born in Brandenburg an der Havel, Pavel was the son of a German industrialist and vice-president of the Federation of German in Industries. At six years of age, his family moved to Morumbi, São Paulo where his father took a managing position at Matarazzo Industries. Having studied philosophy and social sciences at the Free University of Berlin, Pavel returned to Brazil in 1967 and started his professional career as head of programming of the newly founded public broadcasting station, TV Cultura. 1970 he took up editorial planning at Abril Cultural, where he edited partwork encyclopaedias for nationwide newsstand distribution, most notably the philosophical source collection "Great Thinkers" and a reference series of "Brazilian Popular Music". In March 1977, Pavel filed the a patent application for his Stereobelt in Italy, followed by further applications in Germany, United States, United Kingdom, Japan.

Pavel subsequently tried to interest companies like Uher, Beyer, B&O, Brionvega in manufacturing his device. In 1989, Pavel started infringement proceedings against Sony in the UK. Four years the British patent was invalidated by a British judge; the exact settlement fee is not known, but European press accounts said that Pavel received a cash settlement in excess of $10,000,000 and is now receiving royalties on some Walkman sales. Percezione senza più limiti – parla il padre di Walkman e iPod Jacques Attali, Une brève Histoire de l’Avenir Jack Challoner, ed, 1001 Inventions that changed the world Revista Veja, Especial “Os Pioneiros” Eric Chaline, 50 Machines that changed the course of History Rainer Schönhammer, Der Walkman: Eine phänomenologische Untersuchung

Hypselodoris

Hypselodoris is a genus of colourful sea slugs or dorid nudibranchs, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Chromodorididae. Modern usage follows a more restricted view of which species belong in this genus so there are numerous genus transfers. Species in the genus Hyselodoris include: Species brought into synonymy Hypselodoris acriba Marcus & Marcus, 1967: synonym of Felimare acriba Hypselodoris aegialia: synonym of Felimare agassizii Hypselodoris agassizii: synonym of Felimare agassizii Hypselodoris alaini Ortea, Espinosa & Buske, 2013: synonym of Felimare alaini Hypselodoris andersoni Bertsch & Gosliner 1989: synonym of Hypselodoris peasei Hypselodoris bayeri: synonym of Felimare bayeri Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1967 Hypselodoris bilineata: synonym of Felimare bilineata Hypselodoris californiensis - California blue doris: synonym of Felimare californiensis Hypselodoris cantabrica Bouchet & Ortea, 1980: synonym of Felimare cantabrica Hypselodoris ciminoi Ortea, Valdes & Garcia-Gomez, 1996: synonym of Felimare ciminoi Hypselodoris coelestis: synonym of Hypselodoris orsinii Hypselodoris cuis Er.

Marcus, 1965: a synonym of Hypselodoris maculosa Hypselodoris daniellae Kay & Young, 1969: synonym of Thorunna daniellae Hypselodoris decorata: synonym of Hypselodoris maculosa Hypselodoris edenticulata: synonym of Felimare picta Hypselodoris elegans: synonym of Hypselodoris picta Hypselodoris epicuria Basedow & Hedley, 1905: synonym of Chromodoris epicuria Hypselodoris espinosai Ortea & Valdes in Ortea, Valdes & Garcia-Gomez, 1996: synonym of Felimare espinosai Hypselodoris festiva: synonym of Mexichromis festiva Hypselodoris fontandraui: synonym of Felimare fontandraui Hypselodoris fortunensis Ortea, Espinosa & Buske, 2013: synonym of Felimare fortunensis Hypselodoris fregona Ortea & Caballer, 2013: synonym of Felimare fregona Hypselodoris gasconi Ortea in Ortea, Valdés & García-Gómez, 1996: synonym of Felimare gasconi Hypselodoris ghiselini Bertsch, 1978: synonym of Felimare ghiselini Hypselodoris gofasi Ortea & Valdés, 1996: synonym of Felimare gofasi Hypselodoris juliae Dacosta, Padula & Schroedl, 2010 Felimare juliae Hypselodoris katerythros Yonow, 2001: synonym of Hypselodoris emma Rudman, 1997 Hypselodoris kayae Young, 1967: synonym of Verconia simplex Hypselodoris koumacensis Rudman, 1995: synonym of Hypselodoris kaname Baba, 1994 Hypselodoris kulonba Burn, 1966: synonym of Digidentis kulonba Hypselodoris lajensis Troncoso, Garcia & Urgorri, 1998: synonym of Hypselodoris picta lajensis Troncoso, Garcia & Urgorri, 1998 Hypselodoris lalique Ortea & Caballer, 2013: synonym of Felimare lalique Hypselodoris lapislazuli: synonym of Felimare lapislazuli Hypselodoris lilyeveae Alejandrino & Valdes, 2006: synonym of Felimare lilyeveae Hypselodoris lineata: synonym of Hypselodoris maridadilus Rudman, 1977 Hypselodoris malacitana Luque, 1986: synonym of Felimare malacitana Hypselodoris marci Marcus, 1970: synonym of Felimare marci Hypselodoris midatlantica Gosliner, 1990: synonym of Felimare villafranca Hypselodoris mouaci: synonym of Hypselodoris whitei Hypselodoris muniainae Ortea & Valdés, 1996: synonym of Felimare muniainae Hypselodoris muniani Ortea & Valdes in Ortea, Valdes & Garcia-Gomez, 1996: synonym of Felimare muniainae Hypselodoris nyalya: synonym of Risbecia nyalya Hypselodoris olgae Ortea & Bacallado, 2007: synonym of Felimare olgae Hypselodoris orsinii: synonym of Felimare orsinii Hypselodoris picta: synonym of Felimare picta Hypselodoris pinna Ortea, 1988: synonym of Felimare pinna Hypselodoris porterae: synonym of Mexichromis porterae Hypselodoris punicea Rudman, 1995: synonym of Thorunna punicea Rudman, 1995 Hypselodoris ruthae Marcus & Hughes, 1974: synonym of Felimare ruthae Hypselodoris saintvincentius Burn, 1962: synonym of Hypselodoris saintvincentia Burn, 1962 Hypselodoris samueli Caballer & Ortea, 2012: synonym of Felimare samueli Hypselodoris sycilla: synonym of Felimare sycilla Hypselodoris tema Edmunds, 1981: synonym of Felimare tema Hypselodoris tricolor: synonym of Felimare tricolor Hypselodoris tryoni: synonym of Risbecia tryoni Hypselodoris valenciennesi: synonym of Felimare picta Hypselodoris vibrata: synonym of Goniobranchus vibratus Hypselodoris villafranca: synonym of Felimare villafranca Hypselodoris webbi: synonym of Hypselodoris picta Hypselodoris xicoi Ortea, Valdes & Garcia-Gomez, 1996: synonym of Felimare xicoi Hypselodoris zebra (H