Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Álvaro Uribe Vélez is a Colombian politician who served as the 57th President of Colombia from 7 August 2002 to 7 August 2010. Uribe studied law. Álvaro Uribe focused his political career and became a member of the political party Partido Centro Democrático. In 1993 he attended Harvard University, receiving a Certificate of Special Studies in Administration and Management at Harvard Extension School and Certificate in Negotiation and Dispute Resolution at Harvard Law School. Between 1998 and 1999, he studied at St Antony's College, England, on a Chevening-Simón Bolívar scholarship and was appointed Senior Associate Member at St Antony's College. Uribe started his political career in his home department of Antioquia, he has held office in the Empresas Públicas de Medellín and in the Ministry of Labor and was the director of the Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics. He was named Mayor of Medellín in October 1982 by Belisario Betancur. However, he was discharged of his function in February 1983, five months after his appointment, by Président Betancur for his alleged collaboration with drug traffickers.
He was Senator between 1986 and 1994 and Governor of Antioquia between 1995 and 1997 before he was elected President of Colombia in 2002. Following his 2002 election, Uribe led successful campaigns against the FARC and the ELN. On 13 January 2009 the United States awarded President Uribe the Presidential Medal of Freedom. However, the war was accompanied by large-scale exactions: thousands of civilians were killed by the Colombian army with total impunity, according to the United Nations, and millions of people have been victims of forced displacement. In an official document of the Defense Intelligence Agency, dated 1991, Álvaro Uribe appears at number 82 of a list containing the names of the most important drug dealers in Colombia. Uribe is described there as a collaborator of the Medellín Cartel and intimate friend of Pablo Escobar. Released diplomatic cables show that a Colombian senator told the U. S. Embassy in 1993 that the founders of the Medellín Cartel financed Uribe's senate election campaign.
In August 2010 he was appointed Vice-chairman of the UN panel investigating the Gaza flotilla raid. In 2012 Uribe and a group of political allies founded the Democratic Center movement to contest the 2014 national elections, he was elected senator in the 2014 parliamentary election and took office in July 2014. Uribe was critical of his successor Juan Manuel Santos's peace-talks with the FARC guerillas. Álvaro Uribe was born in the oldest of five children. His father, Alberto Uribe, was a landowner. At the age of 10 his family moved to Medellín, he graduated in 1970 from the Colegio Jorge Robledo. His academic performance exempted him from all final exams during the last two years of school. Uribe studied Law at the University of Antioquia and he graduated in 1977. Uribe's father was killed by a guerrilla group during a 1983 kidnapping attempt.' After his father's death, Álvaro Uribe focused his political career and became a member of the center-left Colombian Liberal Party. He served on the Medellín city council between 1984 and 1986.
In 1993 he attended Harvard Extension School, receiving a Certificate of Special Studies in Administration and Management and Certificate in Negotiation and Dispute Resolution at Harvard Law School. Between 1998 and 1999, after having completed his term in office as the governor of Antioquia, he studied at St Antony's College, England, on a Chevening-Simón Bolívar scholarship and was appointed Senior Associate Member at St Antony's College, he has two sons, Tomás Uribe and Jerónimo Uribe. In 1976 Uribe was Chief of Assets for the Public Enterprises of Medellín, he served as Secretary General of the Ministry of Labor under Alfonso López Michelsen from 1977 to 1978. During this time he married a philosopher from Medellín. President Julio César Turbay named him Director of Civil Aviation from 1980 to 1982, he left this position to become Mayor of Medellín in 1982 serving for five months. Uribe was elected one of Antioquia's senators from 1986 to 1990 and again from 1990 to 1994; as senator, he served as president of the Seventh Commission and he supported laws dealing with reform of pensions and social security, as well as promotion of administrative careers, cooperative banking, black sugar, protection for women.
Some of the legislation drew criticism, in particular that which reduced the state's responsibility for social security. During his term he received official and unofficial awards as one of the "best senators" and as the senator with the "best legislative initiatives", he was elected governor of the department of Antioquia for the 1995 to 1997 term. During his term, Uribe has put in practice what he has termed the model for a communitarian state, where in theory citizens would participate in the administration's decision making, it was claimed that this model would help improve employment, administrative transparency and public security. According to statistics provided by the governor's office and contemporary analysts, his governorship would reduce bureaucracy, create places for school students, strengthen the infrastructure, the kidnapping rate fell dramatically, it is claimed. Within his jurisdiction, Governor Uribe supported a national program of licensed private security services that became known as CONVIVIR, which had
The Non-Aligned Movement is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide. Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito; this led to the first Conference of Governments of Non-Aligned Countries. The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement"; the purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, neo-colonialism and all forms of foreign aggression, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."
The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were quite aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War despite several conflicts between members which threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world those within the Global South; the Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers"; the Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations, but it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961.
The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel; the five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence. A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nehru, Tito and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War.
Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held in September 1961 in Belgrade. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries; some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members. In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba established military advisory missions, economic and social reform programs; the 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies."
The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The confere
Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was a Colombian drug lord and narcoterrorist. His cartel supplied an estimated 80% of the cocaine smuggled into the United States at the height of his career, turning over US$21.9 billion a year in personal income. He was called "The King of Cocaine" and was the wealthiest criminal in history, with an estimated known net worth of between US$25 and US$30 billion by the early 1990s, making him one of the richest men in the world in his prime. Escobar was born in Rionegro and grew up in nearby Medellín, studying at Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana of Medellin but left without a degree, he began to engage in criminal activity involving the sale of contraband cigarettes and fake lottery tickets, participated in motor vehicle theft. In the 1970s, he began to work for various contraband smugglers kidnapping and holding people for ransom before beginning to distribute powder cocaine himself, as well as establishing the first smuggling routes into the United States in 1975.
His infiltration to the drug market of the U. S. expanded exponentially due to the rising demand for cocaine. S. monthly. His drug network was known as the Medellín Cartel, which competed with rival cartels domestically and abroad, resulting in massacres and the murders of police officers, judges and prominent politicians. In 1982 parliamentary election, Escobar was elected as an alternate member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia as part of the Liberal Alternative movement. Through this, he was responsible for the construction of houses and football fields in western Colombia, which gained him popularity among the locals of the towns that he frequented. However, Colombia became the "murder capital of the world", Escobar was vilified by the Colombian and American governments. In 1993, Escobar was shot and killed in his hometown by Colombian National Police, one day after his 44th birthday. Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was born on 1 December 1949, in Rionegro, in the Antioquia Department of Colombia.
He was the third of seven children of the farmer Abel de Jesús Dari Escobar Echeverri, with his wife Hemilda de los Dolores Gaviria Berrío, an elementary school teacher. Raised in the nearby city of Medellín, Escobar is thought to have begun his criminal career as a teenager stealing gravestones and sanding them down for resale to local smugglers, his brother, Roberto Escobar, denies this, instead claiming that the gravestones came from cemetery owners whose clients had stopped paying for site care, that he had a relative who had a monuments business. Escobar's son, Sebastián Marroquín, claims his father's foray into crime began with a successful practice of selling counterfeit high school diplomas counterfeiting those awarded by the Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana of Medellín. Escobar left without obtaining a degree. Escobar became involved in many criminal activities with Oscar Benel Aguirre, with the duo running petty street scams, selling contraband cigarettes, fake lottery tickets, stealing cars.
In the early 1970s, prior to entering the drug trade, Escobar acted as a thief and bodyguard earning US$100,000 by kidnapping and holding a Medellín executive for ransom. Escobar began working for Alvaro Prieto, a contraband smuggler who operated around Medellín, aiming to fulfill a childhood ambition to have COL $1 million by the time he was 22. Escobar is known to have had a bank deposit of COL $100 million, when he turned 26. In The Accountant's Story, Roberto Escobar discusses the means by which Pablo rose from middle-class simplicity and obscurity to one of the world's wealthiest men. Beginning in 1975, Pablo started developing his cocaine operation, flying out planes several times between Colombia and Panama, along smuggling routes into the United States; when he bought fifteen bigger airplanes, including a Learjet and six helicopters, according to his son, a dear friend of Pablo's died during the landing of an airplane, the plane was destroyed. Pablo reconstructed the airplane from the scrap parts that were left and hung it above the gate to his ranch at Hacienda Nápoles.
In May 1976, Escobar and several of his men were arrested and found in possession of 39 pounds of white paste, attempting to return to Medellín with a heavy load from Ecuador. Pablo tried to bribe the Medellín judges who were forming a case against him, was unsuccessful. After many months of legal wrangling, he ordered the murder of the two arresting officers, the case was dropped. Roberto Escobar details this as the point where Pablo began his pattern of dealing with the authorities, by either bribery or murder. Roberto Escobar maintains Pablo fell into the drug business because other types of contraband became too dangerous to traffic; as there were no drug cartels and only a few drug barons, Pablo saw it as untapped territory he wished to make his own. In Peru, Pablo would buy the cocaine paste, which would be refined in a laboratory in a two-story house in Medellín. On his first trip, Pablo bought a paltry 30 pounds of paste in what was noted as the first step towards building his empire.
At first, he smuggled the cocaine in old plane tires, a pilot could return as much as US$500,000 per flight, dependent on the quantity smuggled. Soon, the demand for cocaine was increasing in the United States, Escobar organized more smuggling shipments, and
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017. It was known to employ a variety of military tactics in addition to more unconventional methods, including terrorism; the FARC–EP was formed during the Cold War period as a Marxist–Leninist peasant force promoting a political line of agrarianism and anti-imperialism. The operations of the FARC -- EP were funded by ransom; the United Nations has estimated that 12% of all killings of civilians in the Colombian conflict were committed by FARC and National Liberation Army guerrillas, with 80% committed by right-wing paramilitaries, the remaining 8% committed by Colombian security forces. The strength of the FARC–EP forces were high. In 2013 it was reported that 26,648 FARC and ELN members had decided to demobilize since 2002. According to a report from Human Rights Watch in 2006 20–30% of the recruits were minors, some of whom were forced to join the FARC, while women comprise around 40 percent of the guerilla army.
The greatest concentrations of FARC forces were in the southeastern and southwestern regions of Colombia's 500,000 square kilometers of jungle, in the plains at the base of the Andean mountain chain and in northwestern Colombia. However, the FARC and the ELN lost control of much of the territory in urban areas, forcing them to relocate to remote areas in the jungle and the mountains. In 1964, the FARC–EP was established as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, after the Colombian military attacked rural communist enclaves in the aftermath of The Violence; the FARC were a violent non-state actor whose formal recognition as legitimate belligerent forces is disputed by some organizations. As such, the FARC has been classified as a terrorist organization by the governments of Colombia, the United States, Chile, New Zealand, the European Union. In 2008, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recognized the FARC–EP as a proper army. President Chávez asked the Colombian government and their allies to recognize the FARC as a belligerent force, arguing that such political recognition would oblige the FARC to forgo kidnapping and terrorism as methods of civil war and to abide by the Geneva Convention.
Juan Manuel Santos followed a middle path by recognizing in 2011 that there is an "armed conflict" in Colombia although his predecessor, Álvaro Uribe disagreed. In 2012, FARC announced they would no longer participate in kidnappings for ransom and released the last ten soldiers and police officers they kept as prisoners, but it has kept silent about the status of hundreds of civilians still reported as hostages, continued kidnapping soldiers and civilians. In February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against the FARC. In 2012, the FARC made 239 attacks on the energy infrastructure. However, they showed signs of fatigue; as of 2014, the FARC were not seeking to engage in outright combat with the army, instead concentrating on small-scale ambushes against isolated army units. Meanwhile, from 2008 to 2017, the FARC opted to attack police patrols with home-made mortars, sniper rifles, explosives, as they were not considered strong enough to engage police units directly; this followed the trend of the 1990s during the strengthening of Colombian government forces.
In June 2016, the FARC signed a ceasefire accord with the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos in Havana. This accord was seen as a historic step to ending the war. On 25 August 2016, the Colombian president, Juan Manuel Santos, announced that four years of negotiation had secured a peace deal with FARC and that a national referendum would take place on 2 October; the referendum failed with 50.24% voting against. The Colombian government and the FARC on 12 November 24 signed a revised peace deal, which the Colombian Congress approved on November 30. On 27 June 2017, FARC ceased to be an armed group, disarming itself and handing over its weapons to the United Nations. One month FARC announced its reformation as a legal political party, the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force, in accordance with the terms of the peace deal. However, thousands of FARC dissidents still take on FARC's original doctrine and continue with drug trafficking. In 1948, in the aftermath of the assassination of the populist politician Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, there occurred a decade of large-scale political violence throughout Colombia, a Conservative – Liberal civil war that killed more than 200,000 people.
In Colombian history and culture, the killings are known as La Violencia. In 1957–1958, the political leadership of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party agreed to establish a bipartisan political system known as the National Front; the Liberal and the Conservative parties agreed to alternate in the exercise of government power by presenting a joint National
Del Rosario University
Universidad del Rosario is a Colombian university founded on Roman Catholic principles, in 1653 by Fray Cristobal de Torres. Located in Bogotá, due to its important place in Colombian history, it is known as "the Cradle of the Republic". Most faculties reside at the Cloister, the main campus located in the historic-geographical centre of Bogotá, it included a private all-male traditional primary and secondary school until 2008. Nowadays the institution is based on secular ideas and remains influential in Colombian culture and public life. At least 28 of Colombia's Presidents have been students of this university, it has influenced and participated in important transitional processes like the revolution for the independence from Spain and the drafting of the Political National Constitution of 1991. One of the most important 1886 Constitution's Supreme Court, the so-called golden court, was composed in its majority by lawyers from the Faculty of Jurisprudence. Under the authorization of King Philip IV of Spain, the Archbishop of Santa Fe, Cristóbal de Torres founded the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario in 1653.
By the Royal Decree of 1768 Charles III recognized the institution as a'College' among with the six halls of Spain, which continued the tradition of the University of Salamanca. Original constitutions of the University, were written by its founder Fray Cristobal de Torres and published by Crístobal de Araque Ponce de León Chancellor; the founder established the Calatrava Cross as the symbol of the university and issued the Constitutions, which remain the governing documents of the school. The University of El Rosario has always been "from" and "for" the students, established on the basis of "Universitas Scholarium", it is Colombia's oldest higher education institution, never having interrupted instruction during its 360 years of existence, except for a couple of years in 1819 when General Morillo of Spain pursued reconquest of Colombian territory. During those years it served as a prison, many of the republic's most notable characters were held imprisoned at the University. Jose Celestino Mutis taught astronomy and mathematics at the university beginning on March 13, 1762.
He is buried at the University's chapel. For over five years, from 1762 to 1767, Jose Celestino Mutis was a professor of El Rosario, he taught Natural Sciences, both in Latin. In 1790 after several attempts to consolidate the Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Vincent Cancino Román was appointed responsible of the Medicine Program. Of his initial disciples only one, the young Juan Bautista Vargas, graduated in 1974, shortly before the death of his preceptor, it became the first medical school in Colombia. It is the only Colombian university that made an accreditation process, supported by the European Association of Universities, it is ranked as "Very Superior" by the ICFES. The "Consiliatura" is composed by the Rector, who chairs the "Consiliatura", five members, who are called "Consiliarios". It's the supreme governing body of the University of El Rosario. Besides from acting as advisory board to the Rector, takes care of the university's assets and approves the annual budget of revenues and expenses, among other functions conferred by the Old and New constitutions.
The "Consiliarios" are chosen by an electoral body composed by the Rector and the fifteen "Colegiales", for a period of four years with the possibility of an indefinite re-election. The "Consiliatura" has the responsibility to call the election and elect the president among with "Colegiales". Current "Consiliarios" are Andrés Cadena Venegas, Alberto Fergusson Bermúdez, Andrés López Valderrama, Víctor Hugo Malagón Basto and Ann Mason; the current Rector of the Universidad del Rosario is Jose Manuel Restrepo Abondano, elected on September 22, 2014. He graduated from the Economics Program of the Rosary, where he completed the Specialization in Finance, he has a Masters in Economics from London School of Economics, Specialist in Management of Inalde and PhD candidate in Management of Institutions of Higher Education at the University of Bath. The Vice Rector is Stéphanie Lavaux. Political scientist at the Institute of Political Studies in Toulouse, France. DEA Political Science with an emphasis in International Relations at the University of Social Sciences of Toulouse, where he is pursuing a Doctorate in Political Science.
She was Director of the Center for Political and International Studies, a research group of the Faculty of Political Science and Government and International Relations between 2002 and 2011. The "Consiliatura" appoints the Síndico' for the same period of the Rector and may hold office indefinitely; the Trustee is responsible for the management of the resources and assets of the university and must submit an annual report to the Consiliatura. Miguel Francisco Diago Arbeláez is the current'Síndico'; the mission of the'Secretaría General' is to certify the institutional acts of the University, acting as Notary and guaranteeing the legality of the decisions adopted by the University's authorities. The'Secretaria General' ensures the conservation and restoration of the historical heritage of the University and supports the Rector and the Consiliatura in the fulfillment of their responsibilities; the current'Secretaria General' is Catalina Lleras Figueroa. The university has six faculties and two schools, which offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.
A male primary/secondary school, which shared its name was founded as part of the university. The symbols of the University of El Rosario are: The Virgin of "La Bordadita": "the Bordadita" Virgin is the
Misael Pastrana Borrero
Misael Eduardo Pastrana Borrero is a Colombian politician and lawyer served the 23rd President of Colombia from 1970 to 1974. Pastrana was born in Huila, he died in Bogotá, on August 21, 1997. Pastrana was a Colombian conservative politician, President of Colombia in the period 1970-1974. Born in the home of Misael Pastrana Pastrana and Elisa Borrero Perdomo, studied Law in Javeriana University of Bogotá and in the Ferri Institute of Rome, he had been affiliated to the Conservative Party. He was the private secretary of the President Mariano Ospina Pérez and three times a minister during the second liberal presidency of Alberto Lleras Camargo. During the Presidency of Carlos Lleras Restrepo, he was Minister of Government 1966-1968, led in Congress a constitutional reform and was Colombian ambassador in Washington from 1968-1969, when he returned to campaign for the Presidency. President of the Sasakawa United Nations Environment Prize in recognition of his enacting of the world's first Environmental Code for Natural Resources, after his death the UN instituted the yearly Pastrana Borrero Conference in New York during the prize's award ceremony.
Vice-president of Worldwide Prize for Peace of UNESCO. Founder of World Center of Computer Science with Jean-Jacques Serban-Schreiber in the seventies, before the personal computer existed; the Center brought in young minds such as Nicholas Negroponte. Founder member of Interaction, group of former heads of state and government to deal with contemporary issues and conflicts and to present recommendations to governments. During his four years in office, Pastrana was cautiously progressive, he sought to increase employment opportunities with a famous four-point strategy. He attempted to boost national savings as a way of moving away from dependency on foreign investment and credit, he extended pensions rights for many people. At the same time, he was a champion of "a car for every Colombian family", was instrumental in bringing the French car-makers Renault to Colombia, he promoted the first national environmental legislation in Latin America. The end of his four year-term in office came in 1974, which saw the end of the National Front governments.
Pastrana took on the mantle of the "natural leader" of the Conservative party. He proved unable to hold the different factions of the party together, in consequence there has only been two Conservative presidents since his own term in office, he died in Bogotá at the age of 73. Married to María Cristina Arango Vega, with whom he had three sons and one daughter, his second son, Andrés Pastrana Arango became president of Colombia 1998 to 2002