Arica is a commune and a port city with a population of 222,619 in the Arica Province of northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region. It is Chile's northernmost city, being located only 18 km south of the border with Peru; the city is the capital of both the Arica and Parinacota Region. Arica has a mild, temperate climate with some of the lowest annual rainfall rates anywhere in the world there are any clouds over Arica. Arica is located at the bend of South America's western coast known as the Arica Bend or Arica Elbow. At the location of the city are two lush valleys that dissect the Atacama Desert converge: Azapa and Lluta; these valleys provide fruit for export. Arica is an important port for a large inland region of South America; the city manages a substantial part of that country's trade. In addition it is the end station of the Bolivian oil pipeline beginning in Oruro; the city's strategic position is enhanced by being next to the Pan-American Highway, being connected to both Tacna in Peru and La Paz in Bolivia by railroad and being served by an international airport.
Its mild weather has made Arica known as the "city of the eternal spring" in Chile while its beaches are frequented by Bolivians. The city was an important port during Spanish colonial rule. Chile seized the city from Peru in 1880 during the War of the Pacific being recognized as Chilean by Peru in 1929. A substantial part of African Chileans trace their origins to Arica. Archaeological findings indicate that Arica was inhabited by different native groups dating back 10,000 years. Spaniards settled the land under captain Lucas Martinez de Begazo in 1541, in 1570, the area was grandly retitled as "La Muy Ilustre y Real Ciudad San Marcos de Arica". By 1545, Arica was the main export entrepot for Bolivian silver coming down from Potosí, which possessed the world's largest silver mine. Arica thus held a crucial role as one of the leading ports of the Spanish Empire; these enviable riches made Arica the target for pirates and privateers, among whom Francis Drake, Thomas Cavendish, Richard Hawkins, Joris van Spilbergen, John Watling, Simon de Cordes, Leandro de Valencia, Bartholomew Sharp, William Dampier, John Clipperton all took part in looting the city.
Following the collapse of Spanish rule, in 1821, Arica was part of the independent Peruvian Republic. The Peruvian Constitution of 1823 regards it as a province of the Department of Arequipa. In 1855, Peru inaugurated one of the first in Latin America; the rail line still functions today. The earthquake of August 13, 1868 struck near the city with an estimated magnitude of 8.0 to 9.0 Estimates on the death toll vary some estimates have the number at 25,000 to 70,000 people. Others estimate that the population of Arica was less than 3,000 people and the death toll was around 300, it triggered a tsunami, measurable across the Pacific in Hawaii and New Zealand. As Arica lies close to the subduction zone known as the Peru–Chile Trench where the Nazca Plate dives beneath the South American Plate, the city is subject to megathrust earthquakes. Chilean forces occupied the region following the War of the Pacific; the Treaty of Ancón in 1883 formally acceded the region to Chilean control. The 1929 Tacna-Arica compromise in the Treaty of Lima subsequently restored Tacna to Peru but Arica remained part of Chile.
In 1958, the Chilean Government established the "Junta de Adelanto de Arica", which promulgated many tax incentives for the establishment of industries, such as vehicle assembly plants, a tax-free zone, a casino, among others. Many car manufacturers opened plants in Arica, such as Citroën, Volvo and General Motors, which produced the Chevrolet LUV pickup until 2008. In 1975, together with Chile's new open economy policies, the "Junta de Adelanto de Arica" was abolished; the Arica and Parinacota Region was created on October 8, 2007 under Law 20.175, promulgated on March 23, 2007 by President Michelle Bachelet in the city of Arica. According to the 2017 census by the National Statistics Institute, Arica spans an area of 4,799.4 km2 and has 222,619 inhabitants. The population grew by 20 % between the 2017 censuses. Arica is home to 97.7% of the total population of the region. The population of Arica is made up of various long-established groups to the region, other more recent arrivals settled at differing times.
Among the long-established groups, the oldest consists of indigenous Amerindians, such as the Aymara, whose presence in the region is of several millennia. These are followed by the second oldest, the local colonial-era groups, which includes local mestizos, local criollos, local afrodescendants of colonial-era slaves; the third oldest group consists of early post-colonial Chinese Chileans who first arrived as miners and rail workers in the 1890s. These long-established groups of Ariqueños have been augmented by various settlers other criollos and mestizo Chileans from elsewhere around Chile, but numerous Europeans, who arrived in the 1900s, including more Spaniards arriving from Spain, as well as Italians, Greeks and French; these arrived at different times during the last century. Some Ariqueños the indigenous Amerindians, but the afrodescendants, share cultural affinities to counterpart populations in neighbouring border areas of Peru, more distantly, Bolivia; the urban area of Arica has 175,441 inhabitants in an area of 41.89 km²
Huarina is a location in the La Paz Department in Bolivia. It is the seat of one of the four municipalities of the Omasuyos Province. Gobierno Autónomo Municipal de Huarina – Official site
A militia is an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or members of a warrior nobility class. Unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, to serve only for a limited time. With the emergence of professional forces during the Renaissance, Western European militias wilted; the civic humanist ideal of the militia was spread through Europe by the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of some U.
S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their "full-time" counterparts. Militias thus can be paramilitary, depending on the instance; some of the contexts in which the term "militia" is used include: Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, county, or state, available to be called to arms. A subset of these who may be penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation. A private, non-government force, not directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state. An official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, or state defense forces.
The national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in other former CIS countries, where they are known as militsiya. In France the equivalent term "Milice" has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population politicized. Militia derives from Latin roots: miles /miːles/: soldier -itia /iːtia/: a state, quality or condition of being militia /mil:iːtia/: Military serviceThe word militia dates back to ancient Rome, more to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force, it should be noted that the term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin. In the early 1800s Buenos Aires, by the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was attacked during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the criollo peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated; the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the Argentine War of Independence. A decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit; the Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, assembled as leagues depending on political pacts.
This system had declined by the 1870s due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, drafted for the Paraguayan War by President Bartolome Mitre. Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento and Roca. Armenian militia, or fedayi played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including Western Armenia, the First Republic of Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Armenian militia played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993. In the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt. A military volunteer movement attracted wide
Agustín Gamarra Messia was a Peruvian soldier and politician, who served as the 10th and 14th President of Peru. Gamarra was a Mestizo, being of mixed Quechua descent, he had a military life since childhood. He joined the cause of Independence as second in command after Andrés de Santa Cruz, he participated in the Battle of Ayacucho, was named Chief of State. In 1825, he married Francisca Zubiaga y Bernales, who Simon Bolivar crowned when she was about to put the crown on him. After the invasion of Bolivia in 1828, he was named a mariscal, a esteemed military officer. After the defeat of José de la Mar in Gran Colombia, Gamarra urged his overthrow and assumed the presidency for a brief period after Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente; the peace treaty with Gran Colombia was signed during Gamarra's government. The government of Gamarra followed contrary beliefs to those of José de la Mar; this coincided with a great Peruvian constitutionalist movement. Gamarra finished, with his first constitutional government.
He had a active character which allowed him to leave Lima to thwart rebellions in various parts of the country. During such expeditions he would leave the presidency to Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente, who manifested his authoritarian character and started to receive the enmity of other government officials based in Lima. Another idea that obsessed Gamarra was the annexation of Bolivia, he shared this idea with Andrés de Santa Cruz. However, while Bolivia did not think of the creation of one single State, Gamarra believed in the incorporation of the Bolivian territory under a single Peruvian nation. In 1835, when Orbegoso and Andrés Santa Cruz signed the treaty to establish the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, Gamarra opposed it and participated in a campaign to defeat it with the help of Chile; this led to the overthrow of Santa Cruz. Gamarra was officially named President by the Peruvian congress. During his second government, Gamarra confronted the challenge of pacifying the country in middle of various subversions while at the same time the beginning of a war against Bolivia.
Gamarra was defeated and killed by Bolivian forces during the Battle of Ingavi in 1841. Josephus Nelson Larned; the New Larned History for Ready Reference and Research: The Actual Words of the World's Best Historians and Specialists. C. A. Nichols Publishing Company. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
The Peruvian Army is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding the independence and integrity of national territory on land through military force. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations, it celebrates the anniversary of the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9. Military traditions in Peruvian territory go back to prehispanic times, ranging from small armed bands to the large armies assembled by the Inca Empire. After the Spanish conquest, small garrisons were kept at strategic locations but no standing army existed until the Bourbon reforms of the 18th century; the main purpose of this force was the defense of the Viceroyalty from pirates and corsairs as well as internal rebellions. The Ejército del Perú was established on August 18, 1821 when the government of general José de San Martín established the Legión Peruana de la Guardia, although some militia units had been formed before.
Peruvian troops were key participants in the final campaign against Spanish rule in South America, under the leadership of general Simón Bolívar, which ended victoriously in the battles of Junín and Ayacucho in 1824. After the War of Independence the strong position of the Army and the lack of solid political institutions meant that every Peruvian president until 1872 held some military rank; the Ejército del Perú had a major role in the definition of national borders by participating in several wars against neighbor countries. This included an indecisive conflict against the Gran Colombia, the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, two invasions of Bolivia and a brief occupation of Ecuador. Starting in 1842, increased state revenues from guano exports allowed the expansion and modernization of the Army, as well as the consolidation of its political power; these improvements were an important factor in the defeat of a Spanish naval expedition at the Battle of Callao. However, continuous overspending and a growing public debt led to a chronic fiscal crisis in the 1870s which affected defense budgets.
The consequent lack of military preparedness combined with bad leadership were major causes of Peru's defeat against Chile in the War of the Pacific. The reconstruction of the Army started after the war due to a general lack of funds. A major turning point in this process was the arrival in 1896 of a French Military Mission contracted by president Nicolás de Piérola. By 1900 the peacetime strength of the army was evaluated at six infantry battalions, two regiments and four squadrons and cavalry, one artillery regiment for a total of 3,075 personnel. A military school was operating in the Chorrillos District of Lima and French officers were continuing to assist in the army's reorganization. During the early years of the 20th century the Peruvian Army underwent a series of reforms under the guidance of the French Military Mission which operated in the periods 1896-1914, 1919–1924 and 1932-1939. Changes included the streamlining of the General Staff, the establishment of the Escuela Superior de Guerra in 1904, the creation of four military regions in 1905 and a general professionalization of the military career.
Improvements such as these were instrumental in the good performance of the Army in border skirmishes with Colombia and a major war against Ecuador. Though the Peruvian Army was not involved in World War II, this conflict had a significant effect in its development through the replacement of French military influence by that of the United States. A US military mission started operations in 1945 followed by an influx of surplus American military equipment delivered as military aid or sold at a low cost. Washington established itself as the leader of continental defense through the creation of the Inter-American Defense Board in 1942 and the signing of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 1947. A parallel development was the founding in 1950 of the Centro de Altos Estudios Militares for the formation of officers in the major problems of the nation beyond those related to its military defense; the Peruvian Army was the main protagonist of the Gobierno Revolucionario de las Fuerzas Armadas, an institutionalized military government that ruled the country between 1968 and 1980.
During this period, defense expenditures underwent exponential growth allowing a rapid expansion of the Armed Forces and an unprecedented level of weapon acquisitions. In the early 1970s, US influence over the Army was replaced by a massive influx of Soviet training and equipment, including T-55 tanks, the BM-21 Grad, AK series rifles and the BTR series APCs plus a new Soviet-styled national military strategy of regaining the lost southern provinces which were now part of Chile. Political power returned to the civilians in the 1980s, but the rise of the terrorist insurgent group Sendero Luminoso prompted the deployment of several Army units in a counter-insurgency role. Human rights violations associated with this intervention and a sharp decrease in the defense budget due to a general economic crisis caused serious problems for the Army morale and readiness as well as a strain on civil-military relations; the presidency of Alberto Fujimori saw the Army regain protagonism in the public scene, but its increased political power led to some cases of corruption.
The internal con
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, known as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina and Peru, was a Spanish-Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern-day Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. In 1808, after taking part in the Peninsular War against France, San Martín contacted South American supporters of independence from Spain. In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires and offered his services to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina. After the Battle of San Lorenzo and time commanding the Army of the North during 1814, he organized a plan to defeat the Spanish forces that menaced the United Provinces from the north, using an alternative path to the Viceroyalty of Peru; this objective first involved the establishment of a new army, the Army of the Andes, in Cuyo Province, Argentina.
From there, he led the Crossing of the Andes to Chile, triumphed at the Battle of Chacabuco and the Battle of Maipú, thus liberating Chile from royalist rule. He sailed to attack the Spanish stronghold of Lima, Peru. On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was appointed Protector of Peru, Peruvian independence was declared on 28 July. On 22 July 1822, after a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Bolívar took over the task of liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left the country and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, moved to France in 1824; the details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by historians. San Martín is regarded as a national hero of Argentina and Peru, one of the Liberators of Spanish South America; the Order of the Liberator General San Martín, created in his honor, is the highest decoration conferred by the Argentine government. José de San Martín was the fifth and last son of Juan de San Martín, an unsuccessful Spanish soldier, Gregoria Matorras del Ser.
He was born in an Indian reduction of Guaraní people. The exact year of his birth is disputed. Documents formulated during his life, such as passports, military career records and wedding documentation, gave him varying ages. Most of these documents point to his year of birth as either 1777 or 1778; the family moved to Buenos Aires in 1781, when San Martín was four years old. Juan requested to be transferred to Spain, leaving the Americas in 1783; the family settled in Madrid. Once in the city, San Martín enrolled in Málaga's school of temporalities, beginning his studies in 1785, it is unlikely that he finished the six-year-long elementary education, before he enrolled in the Regiment of Murcia in 1789, when he reached the required age of 11. He began his military career as a cadet in the Murcian Infantry Unit. San Martín took part in several Spanish campaigns in North Africa, fighting in Melilla and in Oran against the Moors in 1791, among others, his rank was raised to Sub-Lieutenant in 1793, at the age of 15.
He began a naval career during the War of the Second Coalition, when Spain was allied with France against Great Britain, during the time of the French Revolution. His ship "Santa Dorotea" was captured by British forces. Soon afterward, he continued to fight in southern Spain in Cadiz and Gibraltar with the rank of Second Captain of light infantry, he continued to fight Portugal on the side of Spain in the War of the Oranges in 1801. He was promoted to captain in 1804. During his stay in Cádiz he was influenced by the ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment. At the outbreak of the Peninsular War in 1808, San Martín was named adjutant of Francisco María Solano Ortiz de Rosas. Rosas, suspected of being an afrancesado, was killed by a popular uprising which overran the barracks and dragged his corpse in the streets. San Martín was appointed to the armies of Andalucía, led a battalion of volunteers. In June 1808 his unit became incorporated into a guerrilla force led by Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón, he was saved by Sergeant Juan de Dios.
On 19 July 1808, Spanish and French forces engaged in the battle of Bailén, a Spanish victory that allowed the Army of Andalusia to attack and seize Madrid. For his actions during this battle, San Martín was awarded a gold medal, his rank raised to lieutenant colonel. On 16 May 1811, he fought in the battle of Albuera under the command of general William Carr Beresford. By this time, the French armies held most of the Iberian Peninsula under their control, except for Cádiz. San Martín resigned from the Spanish army, for controversial reasons, moved to South America, where he joined the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians propose several explanations for this action: the common ones are that he missed his native country, that he was a British agent and the congruence of the goals of both wars; the first explanation suggests that when the wars of independence began San Martín thought that his duty was to return to his country and serve in the military conflict. The second explanation suggests that Britain, which would benefit from the independence of the South American countries, sent San Martín to achieve it.
The third suggests that both wars were caused by the conflicts b