Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy, he was born in Brussels, part of the Habsburg Netherlands. He was professor at the University of Padua and became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V. Andreas Vesalius is the Latinized form of the Dutch Andries van Wesel, it was a common practice among European scholars in his time to Latinize their names. His name is given as Andrea Vesalius, André Vésale, Andrea Vesalio, Andreas Vesal, André Vesalio and Andre Vesale. Vesalius was born as Andries van Wesel to his father Andries van Wesel and mother Isabel Crabbe on 31 December 1514 in Brussels, part of the Habsburg Netherlands, his great grandfather, Jan van Wesel born in Wesel, received a medical degree from the University of Pavia and taught medicine at the University of Leuven. His grandfather, Everard van Wesel, was the Royal Physician of Emperor Maximilian, while his father, Anders van Wesel, served as apothecary to Maximilian, valet de chambre to his successor Charles V. Anders encouraged his son to continue in the family tradition and enrolled him in the Brethren of the Common Life in Brussels to learn Greek and Latin prior to learning medicine, according to standards of the era.

In 1528 Vesalius entered the University of Leuven taking arts, but when his father was appointed as the Valet de Chambre in 1532, he decided instead to pursue a career in the military at the University of Paris, where he relocated in 1533. There he studied the theories of Galen under the auspices of Jean Fernel, it was during this time that he developed an interest in anatomy, he was found examining excavated bones in the charnel houses at the Cemetery of the Innocents. Vesalius was forced to leave Paris in 1536 owing to the opening of hostilities between the Holy Roman Empire and France and returned to Leuven, he graduated the following year. His thesis, Paraphrasis in nonum librum Rhazae medici arabis clariss. Ad regem Almansorum de affectuum singularum corporis partium curatione, was a commentary on the ninth book of Rhazes, he remained at Leuven before leaving after a dispute with his professor. After settling in Venice in 1536, he moved to the University of Padua to study for his medical doctorate, which he received in 1537.

On the day of his graduation he was offered the chair of surgery and anatomy at Padua. He guest-lectured at the University of Bologna and the University of Pisa. Prior to taking up his position in Padua, Vesalius traveled through Italy, assisted the future Pope Paul IV and Ignatius of Loyola to heal those afflicted by leprosy. In Venice, he met a student of Titian, it was with van Calcar that Vesalius published his first anatomical text, Tabulae Anatomicae Sex, in 1538. These topics had been taught from reading classical texts Galen, followed by an animal dissection by a barber–surgeon whose work was directed by the lecturer. No attempt was made to confirm Galen's claims. Vesalius, in contrast, performed dissection as the primary teaching tool, handling the actual work himself and urging students to perform dissection themselves, he considered hands-on direct observation to be the only reliable resource. Vesalius created detailed illustrations of anatomy for students in the form of six large woodcut posters.

When he found that some of them were being copied, he published them all in 1538 under the title Tabulae anatomicae sex. He followed this in 1539 with an updated version of Winter's anatomical handbook, Institutiones anatomicae. In 1539 he published his Venesection letter on bloodletting; this was a popular treatment for any illness, but there was some debate about where to take the blood from. The classical Greek procedure, advocated by Galen, was to collect blood from a site near the location of the illness. However, the Muslim and medieval practice was to draw a smaller amount of blood from a distant location. Vesalius' pamphlet supported Galen's view, but with qualifications that rejected the infiltration of Galen. In 1541 while in Bologna, Vesalius discovered that all of Galen's research had to be restricted to animals. Galen had dissected Barbary macaques instead. Though Galen produced many errors due to the anatomical material available to him, he was a qualified examiner, but his research was weakened by stating his findings philosophically, so his findings were based on religious precepts rather than science.

Vesalius contributed to the new Giunta edition of Galen's collected works and began to write his own anatomical text based on his own research. Until Vesalius pointed out Galen's substitution of animal for human anatomy, it had gone unnoticed and had long been the basis of studying human anatomy. However, some people still chose to follow Galen and resented Vesalius for calling attention to the difference. Galen had assumed that arteries carried the purest blood to higher organs such as the brain and lungs from the left ventricle of the heart, while veins carried blood to the lesser organs such as the stomach from the right ventricle. In order for this theory to be correct, some kind of opening was needed to interconnect the ventricles, Galen claimed to have found them. So paramount w


Mycteria is a genus of large tropical storks with representatives in the Americas, east Africa and southern and southeastern Asia. Two species have "ibis" in their scientific or old common names, but they are not related to these birds and look more similar to an ibis than do other storks; the Mycteria storks are large birds around 90–100 cm in length with a 150 cm wingspan. The body plumage is white in all the species, with black in the flight feathers of the wings; the Old World species have a bright yellow bill, red or yellow bare facial skin and red legs, but these parts are much duller in the wood stork of tropical America. Juvenile birds are a duller version of the adult browner, with a paler bill, they are broad-winged soaring birds that fly with the neck outstretched and legs extended. They are resident breeders in lowland wetlands with trees; these storks walk and in shallow open wetlands seeking their prey, like that of most of their relatives, consists of fish and large insects. Two prehistoric relatives of the wood stork have been described from fossils: Mycteria milleri - Dissourodes Mycteria wetmorei The latter seems to have been a larger sister species of the wood stork, which it replaced in prehistoric North America.

Late Miocene tarsometatarsus fragments are somewhat similar to Mycteria but still distinct enough to be a distinct genus considering their age. A Late Pleistocene distal radius from San Josecito Cavern may belong in Ciconia. A "ciconiiform" fossil fragment from the Touro Passo Formation found at Arroio Touro Passo might be of the living species M. americana. Grimmett, Richard. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J. ISBN 0-691-04910-6 Hilty, Steven L.: Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5

Alpine skiing at the 1992 Winter Paralympics

Alpine skiing at the 1992 Winter Paralympics consisted of 48 events, 30 for men and 18 for women. The competition events were: Downhill: men - women Super-G: men - women Giant slalom: men - women Slalom: men - womenEach event had separate standing, sitting, or visually impaired classifications: LW2 - standing: single leg amputation above the knee LW 3 - standing: double leg amputation below the knee, mild cerebral palsy, or equivalent impairment LW4 - standing: single leg amputation below the knee LW5/7 - standing: double arm amputation LW6/8 - standing: single arm amputation LW9 - standing: amputation or equivalent impairment of one arm and one leg LW 10 - sitting: paraplegia with no or some upper abdominal function and no functional sitting balance LW 11 - sitting: paraplegia with fair functional sitting balance B1 - visually impaired: no functional vision B2 - visually impaired: up to ca 3-5% functional vision B3 - visually impaired: under 10% functional vision Alpine skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics "1992 Tignes-Albertville - Alpine skiing".

International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-25."Medal Standings - Tignes-Albertville 1992 Paralympic Winter Games - Alpine Skiing". International Paralympic Committee. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-09. Winter Sport Classification, Canadian Paralympic Committee