Burnt by the Sun 2
Burnt by the Sun 2 is a 2010 Russian drama film directed by and starring Nikita Mikhalkov. The film consists of two parts: Citadel, it is the sequel to Mikhalkov's 1994 film Burnt by the Sun, set in the Eastern Front of World War II. Burnt by the Sun 2 had the largest production budget seen in Russian cinema, but it turned out to be Russia's biggest box office flop, received negative reviews from critics both in Russia and abroad; the film begins in June 1941. Five years have passed since the lives and destinies of Colonel Sergei Petrovich Kotov, his wife Maroussia, their daughter Nadia, as well as those of Mitya and the Sverbitski family, were irrevocably changed: it has meant five years of incarceration for General Kotov, the former Revolutionary hero betrayed by Stalin, he fights on the Eastern Front as a private. It has been five years of terror for his wife Maroussia, without the husband she believes is dead and with a daughter who has rejected her. Nadia has spent five years in hiding, proud of her father whom she refuses to disown and whom she believes is alive, despite all reports to the contrary.
Mitya survived his suicide attempt, reluctantly continues to execute the orders of a regime he holds in contempt. Stalin, with his nation under attack by former ally Adolf Hitler, recalls many of those whom he has had exiled to the GULAG, he tries to mobilize the Soviet population – by any means necessary – to rise against the threat of Nazism. Kotov is now fighting at the front. Nadia, who has survived an attempted rape by German soldiers, is now a nurse risking her own life to save others; the film received negative reviews from both Russian and western critics. It was panned for historical inaccuracies, bad acting and other failures, it was criticized for abruptly breaking with the continuity of the first film, including mysteriously resurrecting characters presumed dead and changing their ages. For example, according to the first film, Nadia would have been 11 in 1941, but she is portrayed as an adult. Critics panned many provocative episodes, such as a German pilot defecating on a Soviet ship, or Kotov's dipping Stalin into a cake.
The Russian media reviews were hostile to the film, because of its revisionist portrayal of Soviet army and Soviet leaders. As web publicist Dmitry Puchkov noted, "like any other nation, Russians don't want to see their fathers portrayed as shit." Western critics were negative as well. The Hollywood Reporter's Kirk Honeycutt criticized the film for "sticking too to the Kremlin's approved version of World War II and for its promotion of Orthodox Christianity." An American film critic likened its portrayal of the madness of World War II to the American Joseph Heller's Catch-22. Burnt by the Sun 2: Prestanding had the highest-ever budget for a Russian film but made a poor box-office showing, despite heavy promotion that included a premiere inside the Moscow Kremlin; the film was screened at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival and was allowed to compete for awards, although it had premiered before the festival. At Cannes it received no awards; the Russian opposition activist Valeria Novodvorskaya said that despite her complete disagreement with the political views of Mikhalkov and despite the film's being "artistically ungifted", she believed it is a good depiction of the first stages of the war against Germany.
According to her, it shows how badly the Red Army was prepared for war because of Stalin's poor strategic skills. In September 2011, the Russian Film Committee selected Burnt by the Sun 2: Citadel as the Russian nominee for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film; this move was followed with protests and disagreement from many filmmakers, including another Academy Awards recipient Vladimir Menshov and Mikhalkov's brother, director Andrey Konchalovsky. The film was not included in the Oscar's short list. List of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Russian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Burnt by the Sun 2: Exodus on IMDb Burnt by the Sun 2: Citadel on IMDb
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Three Sisters (play)
Three Sisters is a play by the Russian author and playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first performed in 1901 at the Moscow Art Theatre; the play is sometimes included on the short list of Chekhov's outstanding plays, along with The Cherry Orchard, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya. Olga Sergeyevna Prozorova – The eldest of the three sisters, she is the matriarchal figure of the Prozorov family though at the beginning of the play she is only 28 years old. Olga is a teacher at the high school, where she fills in for the headmistress whenever the latter is absent. Olga is a spinster and at one point tells Irina that she would have married "any man an old man if he had asked" her. Olga is motherly to the elderly servants, keeping on the elderly nurse/retainer Anfisa, long after she has ceased to be useful; when Olga reluctantly takes the role of headmistress permanently, she takes Anfisa with her to escape the clutches of the heartless Natasha. Maria Sergeyevna Kulygina – The middle sister, she is 23 at the beginning of the play.
She married her husband, when she was 18 and just out of school. When the play opens she has been disappointed in the marriage and falls in love with the idealistic Lieutenant-Colonel Vershinin, they begin a clandestine affair. When he is transferred away, she is crushed, but returns to life with her husband, who accepts her back despite knowing what she has done, she has a short temper, seen throughout the play, is the sister who disapproves the most of Natasha. Onstage, her directness serves as a tonic to the melodrama, her wit comes across as heroic, her vitality provides most of the play's plentiful humour. She was trained as a concert pianist. Irina Sergeyevna Prozorova – The youngest sister, she is 20 at the beginning of the play, it is her "name day" at the beginning of the play and though she insists she is grown-up she is still enchanted by things such as a spinning top brought to her by Fedotik. Her only desire is to go back to Moscow, she believes she will find her true love in Moscow, but when it becomes clear that they are not going to Moscow, she agrees to marry the Baron Tuzenbach, whom she admires but does not love.
She gets her teaching degree and plans to leave with the Baron, but he is shot and killed by Solyony in a pointless duel. She decides to dedicate her life to work and service. Andrei Sergeyevich Prozorov – The brother of the three sisters. In Act I, he is a young man on the fast track to being a Professor in Moscow. In Act II, Andrei still longs for his old days as a bachelor dreaming of life in Moscow, but is now, due to his ill-conceived wedding to Natasha, stuck in a provincial town with a baby and a job as secretary to the County Council. In Act III, his debts have grown to 35,000 rubles and he is forced to mortgage the house, but does not tell his sisters or give them any shares in the family home. Act IV finds Andrei a pathetic shell of his former self, now the father of two, he acknowledges he is a failure and laughed at in town for being a member of the village council whose president, Protopopov, is cuckolding him. Natalia Ivanovna – Andrei's love interest at the start of the play his wife.
She begins the play as an awkward young woman who hides her true nature. Much fun is made of her ill-becoming green sash by the sisters, she bursts into tears, she has no family of her own and the reader never learns her maiden name. Act II finds a different Natasha, she has grown bossy and uses her relationship with Andrei as a way of manipulating the sisters into doing what she wants. She has begun an affair with Protopopov, the head of the local council, cuckolds Andrei flagrantly. In Act III, she has become more controlling, confronting Olga head on about keeping on Anfisa, the elderly, loyal retainer, whom she orders to stand in her presence, throwing temper tantrums when she doesn't get her way. Act IV finds that she has inherited control of the house from her weak, vacillating husband, leaving the sisters dependent on her, and, as the châtelaine, planning to radically change the grounds to her liking, it is arguable that the vicious, self-absorbed Natasha, who cares for no one besides her own children and Sofia, upon whom she dotes fatuously, is the complete victor by the end of the play.
Fyodor Ilyich Kulygin – Masha's older husband and the Latin teacher at the high school. Kulygin is a jovial, kindly man, who loves his wife, her sisters, although he is much aware of her infidelity. In the first act he seems foolish, giving Irina a gift he has given her, joking around with the doctor to make fun of Natasha, but begins to grow more and more sympathetic as Masha's affair progresses. During the fire in Act 3, he confesses to Olga that he might have married her – the fact that the two would be happy together is hinted at many times throughout the show. Throughout the show at the most serious moments, he tries to make the other characters laugh in order to relieve tension, while that doesn't always work, he is able to give his wife comfort through humor in her darkest hour at the show's climax. At the end of the play, although knowing what Masha had been doing, he takes her back and accepts her failings. Aleksandr Ignatyevich Vershinin – Lieutenant colonel commanding the artillery battery, Vershinin is a true philosopher.
He knew the girls' father in Moscow and they talk about how when they were little they called him the "Lovesick Major". In the course of the play, despite being married, he enters into an affair with
Pavel Semyonovich Lungin is a Russian film director. He is sometimes credited as Pavel Loungine. Lungin was awarded the distinction People's Artist of Russia in 2008. Born on 12 July 1949 in Moscow, Lungin is the son of linguist Lilianna Lungina, he attended Moscow State University at the Mathematics and Applied Linguistics of the Philological Faculty, from which he graduated in 1971. In 1980 he completed the High Courses for Film Directors. Lungin worked as a scriptwriter until given the opportunity to direct Taxi Blues at age 40; the film starred well-known musician Pyotr Mamonov. For the film he received the Best Director Prize at 1990 Cannes Film Festival; that same year he took up residence in France, while making films in and about Russia with French producers. Two years his next film Luna Park would compete at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. In 1993 he was a member of the jury at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival, he was the librettist for Nikolai Karetnikov's opera Till Eulenspiegel and Karetnikov's oratorio The Mystery of St. Paul.
At the 2000 Cannes Film Festival, Pavel Lungin's film The Wedding was awarded the Special Jury Prize for the best ensemble cast. In 2001 Pavel Lungin began shooting his new film Tycoon based on Julia Dubova's novel The Big Ration; the picture was a drama set during the Mikhail Gorbachev years about five students who jump on the private capitalism movement. The film was released in Russia in October 2002. Lungin made the black comedy Poor Relatives in 2005, winner of the main prize of the Kinotavr 2005 Festival, a television miniseries based on Nikolai Gogol's works, titled The Case of "Dead Souls", which premiered on NTV in September 2005. Both Poor Relatives and The Case of "Dead Souls" starred Konstantin Khabensky. In 2006 he directed the religious film The Island which had Mamonov in the lead role; the film closed the 63rd Venice International Film Festival and was praised by the Russian Orthodox Church leader Alexis II. He was the President of the Jury at the 31st Moscow International Film Festival in 2009.
In the same year he made the film Tsar with Oleg Yankovskiy. The film competed in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. In March 2014 he signed a letter in support of the position of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin on Russia's military intervention in Ukraine and Crimea. For this he was banned from entering Ukraine. Crimea is since March 2014 under dispute by Ukraine. Lungin directed the thriller The Queen of Spades in 2016; the picture is about opera singers preparing for a performance in the Queen of Spades. From 2015 he is the director of political thriller television series Homeland, a localized adaptation of Prisoners of War. Taxi Blues Luna Park Lifeline The Wedding Tycoon Poor Relatives The Island Branch of Lilacs Tsar The Conductor The Queen of Spades Leaving Afghanistan The Case of "Dead Souls" Homeland Pavel Lungin on IMDb Islander Pavel Lungin
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Generation P (film)
Generation P is an award-winning independent Russian film and directed by Victor Ginzburg and based on Victor Pelevin’s iconic 1999 novel of the same name. "Generation P" follows the strange adventures of Babylen Tatarsky as he evolves from a disillusioned young man in the drab days of post-communist Moscow to the chief “creative” behind the virtual world of Russian politics. When Babylen was a Young Pioneer, his generation received a gift from the decaying Soviet state in the form of a bottle of Pepsi, of Russian manufacture. Not just a beverage, it was a symbol of hope that some day a new, magical life would arrive from the other side of the ocean; the arrival of this life, the way it transformed these ex-Pioneers, is what the film is about. In the early Nineties, Tatarsky, a frustrated poet, takes a job as an advertising copywriter, discovers a knack for putting a distinctively Russian twist on Western-style ads, but the deeper Tatarsky sinks into the advertising world, the more he wonders if he has sacrificed too much for money.
His soaring success leads him into a surreal world of spin doctors, drug trips, the spirit of Che Guevara who, via a Ouija Board, imparts to him the dazzling theory of WOWism, about how television destroys the individual spirit. Though named in honor of Lenin, Babylen opts instead to believe in his “Babylonian” destiny, secretly searches for the beautiful goddess Ishtar, who becomes for him a symbol of fortune. Meanwhile, the people around Babylen - clients, colleagues - perish in the violent dog-eat-dog world of new Russian capitalism. In Nineties Moscow, this is taken as the ordinary course of daily affairs. Tatarsky is invited to join an all-powerful PR firm run by a cynically ruthless advertising genius, Leonid Azadovsky, who invites Tatarsky to participate in a secret process of rigged elections and false political advertising, and as a result of his brilliance, Tatarsky achieves the ultimate, as he creates and gets elected a "virtual" president. But like Faust selling his soul to the devil, this ex-humanist descends to the level of a reprobate, finding that he no longer belongs to himself, but is trapped in a virtual world of his own creation.
Babylen returns to his Buddhist friend Gireyev and takes hallucinogenic mushrooms, in attempt to re-create his previous experience. In a ritualistic Sumerian initiation, Babylen replaces Azadovsky as head of the Agency and becomes the earthly husband of Goddess Ishtar, the object of his obsession. There, he is offered control of the mechanism that produces “simple human happiness” - and can control the world. Generation P explores the philosophical theme of man’s identity in the modern branded world, that’s the substance of the film - but not its tone. Babylen Tatarsky's story is a hallucinatory fun ride, a quest for gold, of how to make it in today¹s world, of the head-spinning rise to power, of the fall from grace. Ginzburg said, "I was interested in seeing the border between real and virtual in Babylen's world disappear bringing the viewer to a place I hope they will recognize as the world we all live in today." The film makes no compromises with the political absurdities of modern Russia and how the Nineties set the stage for the Putin era and the emergence of the Russian corporate state, with its control of mass media, virtual politicians that get elected.
In 2006 Ginzburg dedicated himself to the writing and directing of Generation P and soon discovered the reluctance on the part of the Russian film industry to finance such an expensive non-genre film. Applications for government subsidy, that the majority of Russian films receive, were rejected. Television networks were skeptical. Although the movie was completed and released under the auspices of the Gorky Film Studio, Ginzburg was forced to finance the film independently and raise $7 million, which accounts for it taking five years to reach theaters. In the process, the production ran out of money three times, including the financial crisis of 2008, it was at the "rough cut" stage that the film was seen by Konstantin Ernst from Channel One, who made decision to buy the TV premiere. A surprise hit of the spring and summer of 2011, Victor Ginzburg’s Generation P has proven wrong those who thought Pelevin’s 1999 seminal novel about the rise of the advertising industry in Post-Soviet Russia was unfilmable.
Ginzburg chose Aleksei Rodionov as cinematographer, whose work ranges from the classic war epic Come and See to the adaptation of Virginia Woolf's famous novel Orlando. Rodionov was nominated for a number of prestigious Russian awards for his work on Generation P Ginzburg chose composers Kaveh Cohen, Michael Nielson and composer/musician Alexander Hacke to write original music for the movie. Sergey Shnurov a legendary Russian punk rock musician who played Buddhist monk Gireev contributed to the film's soundtrack; the Russian film industry avoids provocative political and social issues because it's financed by the government and state-owned TV networks. Generation P poked sharp satire at the current Russian political system and the virtuality of its leaders. There was real fear on the part of the distributor "Karo", that Generation P will not be granted the "distribution license" due to foul language and politics, including scenes with "banned" oligarch Berezovsky and scenes of Putin-like virtual president.
But after 4 years in stop and go independent production, over a million views of the film's trailers on YouTube and lots of press, the buzz was so strong - the Facebook group alone generated over 40 thousand followers progressive Russians - that nobody could stop the release. Generation P was released in Russia and Kazakhstan on April 14, 2011, it was #3 in the Russian Box Office after the f