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Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was a Russian nuclear physicist, Nobel laureate, activist for disarmament and human rights. He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's RDS-37, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Sakharov became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; the Sakharov Prize, awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, is named in his honor. Sakharov was born in Moscow on May 21, 1921, his father was a private school physics teacher and an amateur pianist. His father taught at the Second Moscow State University. Andrei's grandfather Ivan had been a prominent lawyer in the Russian Empire who had displayed respect for social awareness and humanitarian principles that would influence his grandson. Sakharov's mother was Yekaterina Alekseyevna Sakharova, a great-granddaughter of the prominent military commander Alexey Semenovich Sofiano.

Sakharov's parents and paternal grandmother, Maria Petrovna shaped his personality. His mother and grandmother were churchgoers; when Andrei was about thirteen, he realized. However, despite being an atheist, he did believe in a "guiding principle" that transcends the physical laws. Sakharov entered Moscow State University in 1938. Following evacuation in 1941 during the Great Patriotic War, he graduated in Aşgabat, in today's Turkmenistan, he was assigned to laboratory work in Ulyanovsk. In 1943, he married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he raised a son. Klavdia would die in 1969, he returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN. He received his Ph. D. in 1947. After World War II, he researched cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Tamm. Sakharov's study group at FIAN in 1948 came up with a second concept in August–September 1948. Adding a shell of natural, unenriched uranium around the deuterium would increase the deuterium concentration at the uranium-deuterium boundary and the overall yield of the device, because the natural uranium would capture neutrons and itself fission as part of the thermonuclear reaction.

This idea of a layered fission-fusion-fission bomb led Sakharov to call it the sloika, or layered cake. The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the development of the first megaton-range Soviet hydrogen bomb using a design known as Sakharov's Third Idea in Russia and the Teller–Ulam design in the United States. Before his Third Idea, Sakharov tried a "layer cake" of alternating layers of fission and fusion fuel; the results were disappointing. However the design was seen to be worth pursuing because deuterium is abundant and uranium is scarce, he had no idea how powerful the US design was. Sakharov realised that in order to cause the explosion of one side of the fuel to symmetrically compress the fusion fuel, a mirror could be used to reflect the radiation; the details had not been declassified in Russia when Sakharov was writing his memoirs, but in the Teller–Ulam design, soft X-rays emitted by the fission bomb were focused onto a cylinder of lithium deuteride to compress it symmetrically.

This is called radiation implosion. The Teller–Ulam design had a secondary fission device inside the fusion cylinder to assist with the compression of the fusion fuel and generate neutrons to convert some of the lithium to tritium, producing a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Sakharov's idea was first tested as RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variation of the same design which Sakharov worked on was the 50 Mt Tsar Bomba of October 1961, the most powerful nuclear device detonated. Sakharov saw "striking parallels" between his fate and those of J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller in the US. Sakharov believed that in this "tragic confrontation of two outstanding people", both deserved respect, because "each of them was certain he had right on his side and was morally obligated to go to the end in the name of truth." While Sakharov disagreed with Teller over nuclear testing in the atmosphere and the Strategic Defense Initiative, he believed that American academics had been unfair to Teller's resolve to get the H-bomb for the United States since "all steps by the Americans of a temporary or permanent rejection of developing thermonuclear weapons would have been seen either as a clever feint, or as the manifestation of stupidity.

In both cases, the reaction would have been the same – avoid the trap and take advantage of the enemy's stupidity." Sakharov never felt that by creating nuclear weapons he had "known sin", in Oppenheimer's expression. He wrote: After more than forty years, we have had no third world war, the balance of nuclear terror... may have helped to prevent one. But I am not at all sure of this. What most troubles me now is the instability of the balance, the extreme peril of the current situation, the appalling waste of the arms race... Each of us has a responsibility to think about this in global terms, with tolerance and candor, free from ideological dogmatism, parochial interests, or national egotism." In 1950 he proposed an idea for a controlled nuclear

Mobile Launcher Platform 1

Mobile Launcher Platform 1 Mobile Launcher 3, is one of three Mobile Launcher Platforms used at Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39. Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches were conducted from MLP-1 between 1969 and 2009, it was modified for use in the Constellation program but ended up being used only once for the Ares I-X launch before the cancellation of the program. MLP-1 was constructed as Mobile Launcher 3 for the Saturn V rocket, was designated ML-3, or LUT-3, it was built by Ingalls Iron Works. Construction began in 1964, was completed with the installation of the Launch Umbilical Tower hammerhead crane on 1 March 1965; the swing arms, which were constructed by Hayes International were added at a date. Following completion, ML-3 was used for five manned Apollo launches. Following the launch of Apollo 17, ML-3 was the first of the Mobile Launchers to be converted for use by the Space Shuttle; the Launch Umbilical Tower was dismantled and partially reassembled on LC-39A as that pad's Fixed Service Structure, the base of the launch platform was modified to accommodate the locations of engines on the Shuttle.

The platform was redesignated MLP-1. In total, MLP-1 was used for 52 Shuttle launches, between 1981 and 2009, it was used for the first Space Shuttle launch, STS-1, in April 1981. Following the launch of STS-119 in March 2009, it was transferred to Project Constellation; the platform was going to be disassembled after the launch. The Project Constellation was though cancelled and the ML was left unused. Following the shuttle program, usable parts from MLP-1 were removed and stored in the Vehicle Assembly Building, with no plans to use the platform again. Mobile Launcher Platform 2 Mobile Launcher Platform 3 McDowell, Jonathan. "Saturn V". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 25 March 2009. McDowell, Jonathan. "STS". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 25 March 2009

Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire

This is an incomplete list of Sheriffs of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in England from 1154 until the abolition of the office in 1965. Exceptionally, the two counties shared a single sheriff. Sheriffs had a one-year term of office, being appointed at a meeting of the privy council held in February or March and holding office until the similar meeting in the next year. In 1648 it became the practice to rotate the office between inhabitants of Cambridgeshire proper, the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire; this was done with an inhabitant of each area occupying the office in turn. Note: the years shown are the date of commencement of the sheriff's year of office. For example, the high sheriff appointed in March 1892 "for the year 1892" held office until March 1893. Before 1154 – See High Sheriff of Cambridgeshire 1154: Richard Basset and Aubrey de Vere 1155–1161: Payn and Robert Grimball 1162: Nicholai de Chenet Michaelmas 1163: Hamo Petom or Pecc'm 1165: Hamo Petom and Philip de Daventry Easter 1166: Philip de Daventry 1166–1168: Philip de Daventry Easter 1170: Everard de Beach and Warin de Basingborn 1171–1176: Ebrar. de Beach Easter 1177: Walter son of Hugonis 1180: Walter son of Hugonis and William, son of Stephen Michaelmas 1182: Radulph or Ralph de Bardulf 1183: Walter son of Hugonis Michaelmas 1185: Nicholas, son of Robert 1189: Nicholas son of Robert Michaelmas 1189: William Muschet Michaelmas 1191: Richard Anglicus Michaelmas 1192: Richard de Argenton 1196: Thomas de Huntsdon Michaelmas 1195: Werricus de Marignes 1197: Merric de Marignes Michaelmas 1197: Robert de Lisle 1965 onwards: See High Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and High Sheriff of Huntingdon and Peterborough Carter, Edmund.

Upcott, William. The history of the county of Cambridge, from the earliest account to the present time. London: S. & R. Bentley. P. 353. Hughes, A.. List of Sheriffs for England and Wales from the Earliest Times to A. D. 1831. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode; the History of the Worthies of England Volume 1