Hurricane Andrew was a destructive Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that struck the Bahamas and Louisiana in mid-to-late August 1992. It was the most destructive hurricane to hit Florida until Hurricane Irma surpassed it 25 years later, it was the strongest in decades and the costliest hurricane to make landfall anywhere in the United States until it was surpassed by Katrina in 2005. Andrew caused major damage in the Bahamas and Louisiana, but the greatest impact was felt in South Florida, where the storm made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane, with sustained wind speeds as high as 165 mph. Passing directly through the city of Homestead in Dade County, Andrew stripped many homes of all but their concrete foundations. In total, Andrew destroyed more than 63,500 houses, damaged more than 124,000 others, caused $27.4 billion in damage, left 65 people dead. Andrew began as a tropical depression over the eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 16. After spending a week without strengthening itself in the central Atlantic, it intensified into a powerful Category 5 hurricane while moving westward towards the Bahamas on August 23.
Though it weakened to Category 4 status while traversing the Bahamas, it regained Category 5 intensity before making landfall in Florida on Elliott Key and Homestead on August 24. With a barometric pressure of 922 mbar at the time of landfall in Florida, Andrew is the sixth most-intense hurricane to strike the United States. Several hours the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its dangerous path. After turning northwestward and weakening further, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as a low-end Category 3 storm. After moving inland, the small hurricane curved northeastward and lost its intensity, merging with a frontal system over the southern Appalachian Mountains on August 28. Hurricane Andrew first inflicted structural damage as it moved through the Bahamas in Cat Cays, lashing the islands with storm surge, hurricane-force winds, tornadoes. About 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, there was substantial damage to the transport, sanitation and fishing sectors.
Andrew left $250 million in damage throughout the Bahamas. In parts of southern Florida, Andrew produced severe winds; the cities of Florida City and Cutler Ridge received the brunt of the storm. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm. In the Everglades, 70,000 acres of trees were downed, while invasive Burmese pythons began inhabiting the region after a nearby facility housing them was destroyed. Rainfall in Florida was substantial. In Florida, Andrew left a record $25 billion in damage. Prior to making landfall in Louisiana on August 26, Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, leading to $500 million in losses for oil companies, it produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, damaging large stretches of power lines that left about 230,000 people without electricity. Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River basin were downed, the agriculture there was devastated. Throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche, 187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane.
With 23,000 houses damaged, 985 others destroyed, 1,951 mobile homes demolished, property losses in Louisiana exceeded $1.5 billion. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state. Andrew spawned at least 28 tornadoes along the Gulf Coast in Alabama and Mississippi. In total, Andrew caused $27.3 billion in damage. It is the seventh-costliest Atlantic hurricane to hit the United States, behind only Katrina, Sandy, Harvey and Maria, as well as the eighth-costliest Atlantic hurricane, behind the aforementioned systems and Wilma, it is the third-strongest hurricane to hit the U. S. mainland by wind speed. A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on August 14. A ridge of high pressure to its north caused the wave to move westward. An area of convection developed along the wave axis to the south of the Cape Verde islands, on August 15, meteorologists began classifying the system with the Dvorak technique; the thunderstorm activity became more concentrated, narrow spiral rainbands began to develop around a center of circulation.
It is estimated that Tropical Depression Three developed late on August 16, about 1,630 mi east-southeast of Barbados. Embedded within the deep easterlies, the depression tracked west-northwestward at 20 mph. Moderate wind shear prevented strengthening, until a decrease in shear allowed the depression to intensify into Tropical Storm Andrew at 12:00 UTC on August 17. By early August 18, the storm maintained convection near the center with spiral bands to its west as the winds increased to 50 mph. Shortly thereafter, the storm began weakening because of increased southwesterly wind shear from an upper-level low. On August 19, a Hurricane Hunters flight into the storm failed to locate a well-defined center and on the following day, a flight found that the cyclone had degenerated to the extent that only a diffuse low-level circulation center remained; the flight indicated. After the upper-level low weakened and split into a trough, the wind shear decreased
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.
The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.
The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor
United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy, one of the five United States service academies, is located in Kings Point, New York. It is charged with training officers for the United States Merchant Marine, branches of the military, the transportation industry. Midshipmen are trained in marine engineering, ship's administration, maritime law, personnel management, international law and many other subjects important to the task of running a large ship. Between 1874 and 1936, diverse federal legislation supported maritime training through school ships, internships at sea, other methods. A disastrous fire in 1934 aboard the passenger ship SS Morro Castle, in which 134 lives were lost, convinced the U. S. Congress that direct federal involvement in efficient and standardized training was needed. Originally—and in cooperation with the State of New York —the U. S. government planned to establish a large-scale Merchant Marine Academy at New York. Congress passed the landmark Merchant Marine Act in 1936, two years the U.
S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps was established. In that year, the USTS Nantucket was transferred from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy to Kings Point and renamed the USTS Emory Rice; the first training was given at temporary facilities until the academy's permanent site in Kings Point, New York was acquired in early 1942. The Kings Point campus was Walter Chrysler's twelve-acre waterfront estate, named "Forker House". Construction of the academy began and 15 months the task was completed; the academy was dedicated on 30 September 1943, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who noted "the Academy serves the Merchant Marine as West Point serves the Army and Annapolis the Navy." World War II required the academy to forgo its normal operation and to devote all of its resources toward meeting the emergency need for Merchant Marine officers. Its enrollment rose to 2,700 men, the planned course of instruction was reduced in length from four years to 18 months. To meet the wartime needs for qualified merchant marine officers two additional merchant marine cadet training school sites were established, one located in Pass Christian and the other in San Mateo, California.
In spite of the war, shipboard training continued to be an integral part of the academy curriculum, midshipmen served at sea in combat zones the world over. One hundred and forty-two midshipmen gave their lives in service to their country, many others survived torpedo and aerial attacks. From 1942 to 1945, the academy graduated 6,895 officers; as the war drew to a close, plans were made to convert the academy's wartime curriculum to a four-year, college-level program to meet the peacetime requirements of the merchant marine. In 1948, such a course was instituted. Authorization for awarding the degree of bachelor of science to graduates was granted by Congress in 1949; the academy became accredited as a degree-granting institution in the same year. It was made a permanent institution by an Act of Congress in 1956; the academy accelerated graduating classes during the Vietnam War. It was involved in such programs as training U. S. officers for the nuclear-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah. Admission requirements were amended in 1974, this Academy became the first federal service academy to enroll female students, two years before the Military, Air Force, Coast Guard Academies.
During the Persian Gulf War in early 1991, for many months prior to the war, both Academy graduates and midshipmen played important roles in the large sealift of military supplies to the Middle East. Midshipmen training at sea participated in the humanitarian sealift to Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. In 1992, the academy acquired the T/V Kings Pointer. After 20 years at the academy, MARAD transferred the ship to the Texas Maritime Academy in Galveston to serve as its new primary training vessel; this was followed by an announcement on 21 August 2012, that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration agreed to transfer the MV Liberty Star to the U. S. Department of Transportation for use as the new training vessel at the academy. Before being redesigned to serve as a training vessel for students, the former MV Liberty Star served as a solid rocket booster recovery vessel for NASA retrieving solid rocket boosters following space shuttle launches. In June 2014, the vessel was rechristened the T/V Kings Pointer, the fifth vessel of the academy to carry that name.
The rechristening followed the earlier dedication of the academy's newly replaced Mallory Pier. In the 1990s, the academy's future came into question when it was included in the National Performance Review, chaired by Vice President Albert Gore, Jr; the report recommended halving the federal subsidy and requiring students to pay half of tuition to reduce costs. Congress, soundly rejected the recommendation and voted to continue the prohibitions on charging tuition to students. Between 2009 and 2014, the Obama Administration invested more than $450 million at the academy, including $100 million for capital improvements—the most funding secured for physical improvements at the academy. During the attacks of 11 September 2001, the Merchant Marine Academy assisted in the evacuation of civilians from Lower Manhattan as well as the transportation of first responders and supplies to and from Ground Zero. Midshipman, facu
United States Secretary of Transportation
The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation, a member of the President's Cabinet, fourteenth in the Presidential Line of Succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Transportation Act; the department's mission is "to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, the national defense." The Secretary of Transportation oversees eleven agencies, including the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. In April 2008, Mary Peters launched the official blog of the Secretary of Transportation called The Fast Lane; the first Secretary of Transportation was Alan Stephenson Boyd, nominated to the post by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Ronald Reagan's second Secretary of Transportation, Elizabeth Dole, was the first female holder, Mary Peters was the second. Gerald Ford's nominee William Thaddeus Coleman, Jr. was the first African American to serve as Transportation Secretary, Federico Peña, serving under Bill Clinton, was the first Hispanic to hold the position, subsequently becoming Secretary of Energy. Japanese-American Norman Mineta, Secretary of Commerce, is the longest-serving Secretary, holding the post for over five and a half years, Andrew Card is the shortest-serving Secretary, serving only eleven months. Neil Goldschmidt was the youngest secretary, taking office at age thirty nine, while Norman Mineta was the oldest, retiring at age seventy four. On January 23, 2009, the sixteenth secretary Ray LaHood took office, serving under the administration of Democrat Barack Obama; the salary of the Secretary of Transportation is $199,700. Anthony Foxx was the 17th US Secretary of Transportation from 2013-2017, when Barack Obama was President.
Elaine Chao, who served as Secretary of Labor under President George W. Bush, was nominated by Donald Trump on November 29, 2016. On January 31, 2017, the Senate confirmed her appointment by a vote of 93-6. Parties Democratic Republican The line of succession regarding who would act as Secretary of Transportation in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Transportation Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy Assistant Secretary for Governmental Affairs Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs Assistant Secretary for Administration Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration Administrator of the Maritime Administration Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration Administrator of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation Regional Administrator, Southern Region, Federal Aviation Administration Director, Resource Center, Colorado, Federal Highway Administration Regional Administrator, Northwest Mountain Region, Federal Aviation Administration As of April 2019, there are twelve living, former Secretaries of Transportation, the oldest being Alan S. Boyd.
The most recent Secretary of Transportation to die was William T. Coleman, Jr. on March 31, 2017. The most serving Secretary of Transportation to die was Andrew L. Lewis, who died on February 10, 2016. General"Biographical Sketches of the Secretaries of Transportation". U. S. Department of Transportation. August 14, 2009. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2010. Specific Official website The Department of Transportation Act
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC and Chrysler Group LLC before merging in 2014 with Fiat S.p. A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge and Ram nameplates. Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, SRT, its performance automobile division. After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.
Facing postwar declines in market share and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs. Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; the company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U. S. import competition, safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U. S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.
As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010; the company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, participating in a bailout from the U. S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p. A. and the U. S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years, Fiat acquired the other parties' shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period.
On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust; the deal was completed on January 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.. A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger; the Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations. In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile; the 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price.
Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype, under development at Willys during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. Chrysler developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel; this wheel was adopted by the auto industry worldwide. The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells; the advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U. S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949.
In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market. At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. In 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and