St. Joseph, Missouri
St. Joseph is a city in and the county seat of Buchanan County, United States. Small parts of St. Joseph extend into Andrew County, United States, it is the principal city of the St. Joseph Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Buchanan, DeKalb counties in Missouri and Doniphan County, Kansas; as of the 2010 census, St. Joseph had a total population of 76,780, making it the eighth largest city in the state, the third largest in Northwest Missouri. St. Joseph is located thirty miles north of the Kansas City, Missouri city limits; the city was named after the both the town's founder the biblical Saint Joseph. The city is located on the Missouri River, it is the birthplace of hip hop star Eminem as well as the death place of Jesse James. St. Joseph is home to Missouri Western State University. St. Joseph was founded on the Missouri River by Joseph Robidoux, a local fur trader, incorporated in 1843. In its early days, it was a bustling outpost and rough frontier town, serving as a last supply point and jumping-off point on the Missouri River toward the "Wild West".
It was the westernmost point in the United States accessible by rail until after the American Civil War. The main east-west downtown streets were named for Robidoux's eight children: Faraon, Francois, Edmond, Charles and Messanie; the street between Sylvanie and Messanie was named for Angelique. St. Joseph, or "St. Joe", as it was called by many, was a "Jumping-Off Point" for those headed to the Oregon Territory in the mid-1800s; these cities, including Independence, St. Joseph, were where pioneers would stay and purchase supplies before they would head out in wagon trains; the town was a bustling place, was the second city in the US to have electric streetcars. Between April 3, 1860, late October 1861, St. Joseph was one of the two endpoints of the Pony Express, which operated for a short period over the land inaccessible by rail, to provide fast mail service; the pony riders carried along with the mail, a small personal Bible. Today the Pony Express Museum hosts visitors in the old stables. On April 3, 1882 outlaw Jesse James was killed at his home located at 1318 Lafayette, now sited next to The Patee House.
In the post-Civil War years, when the economy was down, the hotel had served for a time as the home of the Patee Female College, followed by the St. Joseph Female College up to 1880. James was living under the alias of Mr. Howard. An excerpt from a popular poem of the time is: "...that dirty little coward that shot Mr. Howard has laid poor Jesse in his grave." The Heaton-Bowman-Smith Funeral Home maintains a small museum about Jesse James. Their predecessors conducted the funeral; the museum is open to the public. His home is now known as the Jesse James Home Museum, it has been relocated at least three times, features the bullet hole from that fateful shot. St. Joseph is identified by the slogan, "Where the Pony Express started and Jesse James ended." Among properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are the Patee House, a former hotel now maintained as a museum of transportation, the Missouri Theatre, an ornate movie palace. St. Joseph's population peaked in 1900, with a census population of 102,979.
This population figure is questionable, as civic leaders tried to inflate the numbers for that census. At the time, it was the home to one of the largest wholesale companies in the Midwest, the Nave & McCord Mercantile Company, as well as the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, the C. D. Smith & Company, which would become C. D. Smith Healthcare; the Walnut Park Farm Historic District near St. Joseph was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. In 1997, St. Joseph was named an "All-America City" by the National Civic League. St. Joseph was voted the top true western town of 2007 by True West Magazine, in the January/February 2008 issue. Saint Joseph is located at 39°45′29″N 94°50′12″W, on the Missouri/Kansas border in northwestern Missouri close to Nebraska; the nearest major metropolitan area to St. Joseph is the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, which begins 30 miles to the south; the nearest major airport is Kansas City International Airport, 35 miles to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.77 square miles, of which 43.99 square miles is land and 0.78 square miles is water.
The monthly weather averages listed below are taken from National Weather Service 1981-2010 Normals. Snowfall is not recorded at the St Joseph weather station; as of the census of 2010, there were 76,780 people, 29,727 households, 18,492 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,745.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,189 housing units at an average density of 754.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.8% White, 6.0% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population. There were 29,727 households of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.8% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01. In the ci
Kansas City metropolitan area
The Kansas City metropolitan area is a 14 county metropolitan area anchored by Kansas City and straddling the border between the U. S. states of Kansas. With a population of 2,104,509, it ranks as the second largest metropolitan area centered in Missouri. Alongside Kansas City, the area includes a number of other cities and suburbs, the largest being Overland Park, Kansas; the Mid-America Regional Council serves as the Council of Governments and the Metropolitan Planning Organization for the area. The larger Kansas City Metropolitan Area as seen on a map can be visualized as four quadrants: The map's northeast quadrant is locally referred to as "north of the river" or "the Northland", it includes parts of Missouri including North Kansas City, Missouri. North Kansas City is bounded by a bend in the Missouri River that defines a border between Wyandotte County and Clay County, Missouri running North-South and a border between North Kansas City and Kansas City, Missouri running East-West; the river band's sharpest part forms a peninsula containing the Kansas City Downtown Airport.
The southeast quadrant includes Kansas City and surrounding areas in Missouri. It includes the notorious Grandview Triangle; the southwest quadrant includes all of Johnson County, which includes the towns in the area known as Shawnee Mission, Kansas. Interstate 35 runs diagonally through Johnson County, Kansas from the southwest to downtown Kansas City, Missouri; the northwest quadrant contains Wyandotte County and parts of Platte County, Missouri. Wyandotte County, sometimes referred to as just Wyandotte, which contains Kansas City, Bonner Springs and Edwardsville, Kansas is governed by a single unified government; the Wyandotte government is referred to as "The Unified Government". Another bend in the Missouri River forms the county line between Wyandotte County and Platte County, Missouri to the north and northeast. Downtown always refers to downtown Kansas City, Missouri. Downtown is the Kansas City's historic center, located within Kansas City and containing the city's original town site, business districts, residential neighborhoods.
Downtown is bounded by the Missouri River on the north, the Missouri-Kansas state line on the west, 31st Street on the south and Woodland Avenue on the east. The downtown area includes the Central Business District and its buildings, which form the city's skyline; the Downtown Loop is formed by Interstates 670, 70 and 35. Within the downtown loop are many of the tall buildings and skyscrapers that make up the city's skyline. Within the downtown loop are small, distinct neighborhoods such as Quality Hill, the Garment District, the Financial District, the Convention Center District, the Power and Light District. Other neighborhoods within downtown are the River Market and Columbus Park, both located between the downtown loop and the Missouri River. Between the downtown loop and the state line are the Westside neighborhood and the West Bottoms, located at the bottom of the bluff adjacent to Kaw Point. East of the loop are the 18th & Vine District, the North Bottoms, Northeast Kansas City. South of the loop is the Crossroads District, Union Hill, Crown Center, Hospital Hill, Wendell Phillips, Washington Wheatley.
The Kansas City Convention Center, Municipal Auditorium, City Hall, Lyric Theater, Midland Theatre, Ilus Davis Park, Barney Allis Plaza are within the Central Business District inside the downtown loop. The Sprint Center and the College Basketball Experience are within the Power & Light District within the downtown loop; the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts is perched upon a high point south of the downtown loop. South of the loop is the Crossroads District, Union Station, Crown Center, the National World War I Museum, Liberty Memorial, Penn Valley Park, Truman Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, the 18th & Vine District. North of the loop are City Market within Richard L. Berkeley Riverfront Park. West of the loop within the West Bottoms are Hale Arena. Midtown is within Kansas City, just south of downtown, bounded by 31st Street on the north, the state line on the west, West Gregory Boulevard on the south, Troost Avenue on the east. Midtown is the core of the metropolitan area, as it contains numerous cultural attractions and entertainment areas, large hospitals and the metro area's most densely populated neighborhoods.
Midtown consists of numerous distinct and historic neighborhoods such as Westport, Hyde Park, Southmoreland. Shopping is centered on the Country Club Plaza, which contains numerous luxury retailers and restaurants. Brookside and Westport contain smaller-scale, neighborhood-oriented, niche-market retailers. Midtown is home to Research Medical Center. Cultural attractions include the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Uptown Theater, Starlight Theater, the Kansas City Zoo, Loose Park, Swope Park; the last of these contains a soccer complex, home to FC Kansas City of the National Women's Soccer League and the Swope Park Rangers, a United Soccer League team, the official reserve side for the area's Major League Soccer club, Sporting Kansas City. Major educational institutions include the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Rockhurst University, Kansas City Art Institute, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Midwest Research I
The Platte Purchase was a land acquisition in 1836 by the United States government from American Indian tribes. It comprised lands along the east bank of the Missouri River and added 3,149 square miles to the northwest corner of the state of Missouri; this expansion of the slave state of Missouri was in violation of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which prohibited the extension of slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the state of Missouri as defined at the time of the adoption of the Missouri Compromise. The area acquired was as large as the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined, extended Missouri westward along the river. St. Joseph, one of the main ports of departure for the westward migration of American pioneers, was located in the new acquisition; the region of the Platte Purchase includes the following modern counties within its bounds: Andrew, Buchanan, Holt and Platte. It includes the northwest suburbs of Kansas City, a small area of Kansas City proper, the cities of St. Joseph and Maryville, Missouri, as well as Kansas City International Airport and all of Missouri's portion of Interstate 29, save the small portion which runs concurrently with Interstate 35 in Clay County.
When Missouri entered the Union, its western border was established on the left bank of the Missouri River at the mouth of the Kaw River in Kansas City. The purchase extended the Missouri border in the northwest to 95 degrees, 46 minutes west longitude; this addition increased the land area of what was the largest state in the Union at the time. The acquisition challenged the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by expanding slavery into free territory north of the southern Missouri border with Arkansas as well as the Indian Removal Act of 1830 in which tribes had just been moved west of the Missouri border "in perpetuity" as part of the painful Trail of Tears process. In less than a year after the Indian Removal Act, the Missouri General Assembly was petitioning Congress to more define the border on the northwest corner of the state; the Legislature noted the boundary was not clear, that the land was not surveyed, thus leading to settlers encroaching on the lands. The most spectacular example of encroachment was Joseph Robidoux, operating an American Fur Company trading post at St. Joseph, Missouri since 1826.
On January 27, 1835, Senator Lewis F. Linn wrote John Dougherty, an Indian agent, to inquire about acquiring the land. Dougherty agreed, noting that the territory was preventing access to Missouri River shipping by Missouri residents east of the purchase line. Dougherty's reputation among the Native Americans was that he "controller of Fire-water" from the Missouri River to the Columbia River."The first tribes to give up their land were the Potawatomi, who gave up their land in the Treaty of Chicago, agreed to in 1833 but wasn't finalized until 1835. The Potawatomi moved north to a reservation in Iowa, they moved again 1837 -- 1838 in the Potawatomi Trail of Death to Kansas. The formal application came in the summer of 1835 when at a meeting on the Dawes farm near Liberty, where the Indian agent for the Sac and Fox tribes, Andrew S. Hughes, presided over a meeting of Missouri residents who formally asked Congress to acquire the land. Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton introduced a bill to acquire the land and it was approved with little opposition in June 1836.
An agreement was reached in 1836 with the chiefs Mahaska and No Heart of the Ioway tribe and leaders of the combined Sac and Fox tribes in a ceremony at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, presided by William Clark the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and based in St. Louis; the Senate approved the Treaty on February 15, 1837. On March 28, 1837, President Martin Van Buren issued a proclamation supporting the annexation. In October 1837, the Missouri General Assembly accepted the land and placed it all in the newly created Platte County; the tribes were paid $7,500 for their land. The U. S. government was "to provide agricultural implements, furnish livestock", a host of other small items. The tribes agreed to move to reservations west of the Missouri River in what was to become Kansas and Nebraska. Furthermore, the U. S. government was to "build five comfortable houses for each tribe, break up 200 acres of land, fence 200 acres of land, furnish a farmer, teacher, interpreter". The reservations are today known as the Sac and Fox Reservation.
The tribes gave up 3.1 thousand square miles of land for a combined reservation of 29 square miles. Michigan entered the union in January 1837 and so by the time the purchase was finalized Missouri remained the second biggest state; the U. S. Government set up a General Land Office in Missouri to handle the settlement. Much of the land was dispensed as military land warrants to veterans of the War of 1812. Under the terms of the program, expanded in 1855, the 160-acre land grants could be given to military descendants and those grants could be sold. Initial settlement was concent
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Doniphan County, Kansas
Doniphan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 7,945, its county seat is Troy, its most populous city is Wathena. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. Doniphan County was established on August 25, 1855 organized on September 18, 1855, it is named for the U. S. cavalry commander Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan of Liberty, who played an important part in the Mexican–American War.
He was a zealous partisan in the failed effort made to extend slavery into Kansas. Doniphan County is located in the northeastern corner of the state—it is bordered by Nebraska to the north and Missouri to the east. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 398 square miles, of which 393 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. It is the third-smallest county in Kansas by land second-smallest by total area; the Missouri River defines the border in the east. Eight barge lines travel the river, a Port Authority is located across the river in Saint Joseph, Missouri; the river provides much of the water for the eastern part of the county. Interior cities, such as Troy and Highland, receive their water from underground wells; the Wolf River flows through western portions of the north into the Missouri River. The only major highway serving the county is U. S. Highway 36, an east/west route traveling through St. Joseph. Troy and Wathena lie along this route. Kansas state highways K-7, K-20, K-120, K-136, K-137, K-238 serve other areas of the county.
K-7 has been designated a scenic byway. Holt County, Missouri Andrew County, Missouri Buchanan County, Missouri Atchison County Brown County Richardson County, Nebraska Doniphan County is included in the St. Joseph, MO-KS Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Kansas City-Overland Park-Kansas City, MO-KS Combined Statistical Area; as of the 2000 census, there were 8,249 people, 3,173 households, 2,183 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 3,489 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.85% White, 2.00% Black or African American, 1.21% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.40% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.16% of the population. There were 3,173 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families.
27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 11.80% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,537, the median income for a family was $39,357. Males had a median income of $28,096 versus $19,721 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,849. About 9.00% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.30% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. Doniphan County is served by a Board of County Commissioners composed of one elected official from each of three districts.
The commissioners serve four-year terms with the 2nd and 3rd district elections following two years after the 1st district election. The board is responsible for setting the county's policies and budgets as well as overseeing functions of their respective road and bridge shops. In addition, the board acts as the Board of County Canvassers and canvasses votes cast at each election; the county has adopted zoning codes. The cities are governed by mayors and city councils. Government services are paid for through a sales tax, property tax, an ad valorem tax mill levy. Owing to its history of settlement by anti-slavery Yankees from Iowa and New England, Doniphan County became a Republican stronghold and has remained so since; the county has voted for the Republican nominee in every presidential election since Kansas became a state, beginning in 1864. Only on three occasions has the Democratic nominee reached forty percent of Doniphan County’s vote, all of these in national landslides, on only seven occasions have the Democrats managed 35 percent of county ballots.
Although the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 to allow the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with the approval of voters, Doniphan County remained a prohibition, or "dry", county until 2012. Doniphan West USD 111 Riverside USD 114 Troy USD 429 Highland Community College was the first college estab
W. Price Hunt
William or Wilson Price Hunt was an early pioneer of the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest of North America. An American and an employee of John Jacob Astor, Hunt used information supplied by the Lewis and Clark Expedition to lead the portion of the Astor Expedition that traveled to Oregon by land; the party reached the mouth of the Columbia River in February 1812, joining the portion of the expedition that had traveled by sea at Fort Astoria, which the latter party had just completed. Hunt had difficulty finding quality men at Mackinaw and St. Louis, finding most to be "drinking in the morning, drunk at noon and dead drunk at night." Having assembled a party, Hunt arrived at Nodaway, Missouri, on November 16, 1810, settled into winter quarters. They departed April 22, 1811; when the party encountered the Snake River, they abandoned their horses and attempted to travel downstream. After nine days of successful travel they lost a man and two canoes in the rapids, reconsidered their plan.
They divided into four parties, took different routes to approach the mouth of the Columbia. The trip from Missouri to the future site of Astoria, Oregon took 340 days. According to his own account, Hunt traveled 2,073 miles from a village of the Aricaras, in present-day South Dakota, to the end of the journey. A return expedition was led by Robert Stuart, who discovered the South Pass, a key feature of the soon-to-be-established Oregon Trail. Hunt's expedition is one of many scenes depicted on the Astoria Column, his name is inscribed in a frieze in the Oregon State Senate chamber of the Oregon State Capitol. Historical records refer to Hunt both as "William" and as "Wilson." David Thompson, a Canadian explorer who arrived at Astoria shortly before the Hunt party. Pacific Fur Company Wilson Price Hunt notes, Vault MSS 534, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806 known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States. It began in Pittsburgh, Pa, made its way westward, passed through the Continental Divide of the Americas to reach the Pacific coast; the Corps of Discovery was a selected group of US Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it; the campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, geography, to establish trade with local American Indian tribes. The expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson, with maps and journals in hand.
One of Thomas Jefferson's goals was to find "the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce." He placed special importance on declaring US sovereignty over the land occupied by the many different Indian tribes along the Missouri River, getting an accurate sense of the resources in the completed Louisiana Purchase. The expedition made notable contributions to science, but scientific research was not the main goal of the mission. During the 19th century, references to Lewis and Clark "scarcely appeared" in history books during the United States Centennial in 1876, the expedition was forgotten. Lewis and Clark began to gain attention around the start of the 20th century. Both the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis and the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon showcased them as American pioneers. However, the story remained shallow until mid-century as a celebration of US conquest and personal adventures, but more the expedition has been more researched.
In 2004, a complete and reliable set of the expedition's journals was compiled by Gary E. Moulton. In the 2000s, the bicentennial of the expedition further elevated popular interest in Lewis and Clark; as of 1984, no US exploration party was more famous, no American expedition leaders are more recognizable by name. Jefferson met John Ledyard in Paris in the 1780s, they discussed a possible trip to the Pacific Northwest. Jefferson had read Captain James Cook's A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, an account of Cook's third voyage, Le Page du Pratz's The History of Louisiana, all of which influenced his decision to send an expedition. Like Captain Cook, he wished to discover a practical route through the Northwest to the Pacific coast. Alexander Mackenzie had charted a route in his quest for the Pacific, following the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Ocean in 1789. Mackenzie and his party were the first to cross America north of Mexico to the Pacific when he arrived near Bella Coola, British Columbia in 1793—a dozen years before Lewis and Clark.
Mackenzie's accounts in Voyages from Montreal informed Jefferson of Britain's intent to control the lucrative fur trade of the Columbia River and convinced him of the importance of securing the territory as soon as possible. Two years into his presidency, Jefferson asked Congress to fund an expedition through the Louisiana territory to the Pacific Ocean, he did not attempt to make a secret of the Lewis and Clark expedition from Spanish and British officials, but rather claimed different reasons for the venture. He used a secret message to ask for funding due to poor relations with the opposition Federalist Party in Congress. In 1803, Jefferson commissioned the Corps of Discovery and named Army Captain Meriwether Lewis its leader, who selected William Clark as second in command. Lewis demonstrated remarkable skills and potential as a frontiersman, Jefferson made efforts to prepare him for the long journey ahead as the expedition was gaining approval and funding. Jefferson explained his choice of Lewis: It was impossible to find a character who to a complete science in botany, natural history, mineralogy & astronomy, joined the firmness of constitution & character, habits adapted to the woods & a familiarity with the Indian manners and character, requisite for this undertaking.
All the latter qualifications Capt. Lewis has. In 1803, Jefferson sent Lewis to Philadelphia to study medicinal cures under Benjamin Rush, a physician and humanitarian, he arranged for Lewis to be further educated by Andrew Ellicott, an astronomer who instructed him in the use of the sextant and other navigational instruments. Lewis, was not ignorant of science and had demonstrated a marked capacity to learn with Jefferson as his teacher. At Monticello, Jefferson possessed the largest library in the world on the subject of the geography of the North American continent, Lewis had full access to it, he spent time conferring with Jefferson. Lewis and Clark met near Louisville, Kentucky in October 1803 at the Falls of the Ohio and the core "Nine Young Men" were enlisted into the Corps of Discovery, their goals were to explore the vast territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase and to establish trade and US sovereignty over the Indians along the Missouri River. Jefferson wanted to establish a US claim of "discovery" to the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory by documenting an American presence there before European nations could claim the land.
According to some historians, Jefferson understood that he would have