Andrew Dickson White was an American historian and educator, the cofounder of Cornell University and served as its first president for nearly two decades. He was known for expanding the scope of college curricula. A politician, he had served as state senator in New York, he was appointed as a US diplomat to Germany and Russia, among other responsibilities. He was born on November 1832, in Homer, New York, to Clara and Horace White. Clara was the daughter of a New York State Assemblyman in 1832 and his wife, their once-successful farm was ruined by a fire when Horace was 13. Despite little formal education and struggles with poverty after his family lost its farm, Horace White became a businessman and wealthy merchant. In 1839 he opened. Horace and Clara White had two children: his brother. Andrew was baptized in 1835 at the Calvary Episcopal Church on the town green in Homer, he married twice. His first marriage, on September 27, 1857, was to Mary Amanda Outwater, daughter of Peter Outwater and Lucia M. Phillips of Syracuse.
Mary's maternal grandmother Amanda Danforth, daughter of Asa Danforth, Jr. and wife of Elijah Phillips, Jr. was the first white child born in what would become Onondaga County, New York. Her great-grandfathers included General Asa Danforth, an early pioneer of upstate New York and leader of the State Militia, as well as Elijah Philips, Sr. who had responded to the alarm to Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775 and served as the High Sheriff of Onondaga County. Andrew and Mary had three children together: Frederick Davies White, who committed suicide in his forties in 1901 after a prolonged series of illnesses. After his wife died in 1887, White went on a lecture tour and traveled in Europe with his close friend, Daniel Willard Fiske, librarian at Cornell. After three years as a widower, in 1890, White married Helen Magill, the daughter of Edward Magill, Swarthmore College's second president, she was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph. D. Like her husband, Helen was a social scientist and educator.
Together and Andrew had three children: Edward Magill White, Hilda White, Karin Andreevna White. One of Andrew's cousins was Edwin White, his nephew was governor of New York. Beginning in the fall of 1849, White enrolled as an undergraduate at Geneva College at the insistence of his father, he was inducted as a member of Sigma Phi. In his autobiography, he recalled that he had felt that his time at Geneva was "wasted" by being at the small Episcopalian school, instead of at "one of the larger New England universities". White dropped out in 1850. After a period of estrangement, White persuaded his father to let him transfer to Yale College. At Yale, White was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would serve as the first president of Johns Hopkins University; the two would remain close friends. They traveled together in Europe after graduation and served together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission, his roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr. who became the third bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan, 1889–1905.
Other members of White's graduating year included the poet and essayist. S. Ambassador to Italy. According to White, he was influenced in his academic career and life by Professor Noah Porter, who instructed him in rhetoric and remained a close personal friend until Porter's death. Alpha Sigma Phi inducted White as a member in 1850 and he served as editor of the fraternity's publication, The Tomahawk. White remained active in the fraternity for the rest of his life, founding the Cornell chapter and serving as the national president from 1913 to 1915, he served as an editor of The Lit. known today as the Yale Literary Magazine. He belonged to a literary and debating society; as a junior, White won the Yale literary prize for the best essay, writing on the topic "The Greater Distinctions in Statesmanship. As a junior, White joined the junior society Psi Upsilon. In his senior year, White won the Clark Prize for English disputation and the De Forest prize for public oratory, speaking on the topic "The Diplomatic History of Modern Times".
Valued at $100, the De Forest prize was the largest prize of its kind at any educational institution, American or otherwise. In addition to academic pursuits, White was on the Yale crew team, competed in the first Harvard–Yale Regatta in 1852. After graduation, White studied in Europe with his classmate Daniel Coit Gilman. Between 1853 and 1854, he studied at the Sorbonne, the Collège de France, the University of Berlin, he served as the translator for Thomas H. Seymour, the U. S. Ambassador to Russia, following Gilman's term as translator, although he had not studied French prior to his studies in Europe. After he returned the United States, White enrolled at Yale to earn an M. A. in History and be inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1856. In October 1858, White accep
Kathleen Jean Munn is recognized today as a pioneer of modern art in Canada, though she remained on the periphery of the Canadian art scene during her lifetime. She imagined conventional subjects in a radically new visual vocabulary as she combined the traditions of European art with modern art studies in New York, she died at age eighty-seven, unaware that her long-held hope for “a possible future for my work” was about to become reality. Kathleen Jean Munn was born to a middle-class family in Toronto in 1887 and was the youngest of six children, her family owned and ran a jewellery store at the intersection of Yonge and Bloor, the family lived in the apartment above. Munn began her formal art education in 1904 when she began attending the Westbourne School in Toronto, studying under Farquhar McGillivray Knowles. Beginning in 1909, she began to show her work in exhibitions with the Ontario Society of Artists, the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, the Canadian National Exhibition. In 1912, Munn left her native Toronto to begin her studies at the Art Students League in New York City.
Munn's family was supportive of her career and paid for her art education in both New York and Philadelphia. She developed a devotion to international modernism and by 1920 "her style had evolved from the loose colourful brushwork of Impressionism to the more hard-edge geometric fragmentation of natural form"; this resulted from her study of the French artist Paul Cézanne. Munn kept extensive notebooks of her studies at the Art Students League, which continued on and off until the late 1920s, she read and kept extensive notes on art theory, philosophy and music, including Synchromism and Theosophy, embracing an intellectual and spiritual approach to art. She was influenced by the writings of Jay Hambidge and his theory of dynamic symmetry, instrumental in the development of her Passion Series. Munn sought to convey spiritual truths within a formal order "like her colleague and admirer Lawren Harris", she was invited to contribute to the 1928 Group of Seven exhibition and submitted her work Composition.
The painting was purchased on by Bertram Brooker who praised it for its "musicality". In her day, most Toronto art critics were not sure of her pioneering innovations; however she was noted as "one of the ablest...of women painters and one of the most advanced". Frederick Housser wrote that Munn was "probably the only painter in Canada whose canvases show an interest in cubism", which did not suit the popular styles of painting in Toronto at the time she was practicing and exhibiting, he said "More attention might be paid to her if she exhibited in New York or Paris, instead of Canada, where public appreciation of this kind of painting is as yet undeveloped..."Munn died on in Toronto, Ontario at 87 years of age. In 2011 the Art Gallery of Ontario staged a posthumous retrospective of Munn's work. Munn's work is included in the collections of the Art Gallery of Ontario and the National Gallery of Canada. Uhlyarik, Georgiana. Kathleen Munn: Life & Work. Toronto: Art Canada Institute, 2014. ISBN 978-0-9921483-6-2
Zhou Zhenhe is a Chinese historical geographer and a distinguished senior professor at the Institute of Historical Geography of Fudan University in Shanghai. His main research interests are cultural and administrative geography and history of Sino-foreign cultural relations, he is the chief editor of the 13-volume General History of Chinese Administrative Divisions, published between 2007 and 2016. Zhou was born in Fujian Province. From 1958 to 1963 he studied at the Department of Mining and Metallurgy of Xiamen University and Fuzhou University. After graduation he worked for many years as an engineer at a coal mine in Hunan Province; when the National Higher Education Entrance Examination was restored after the end of the Cultural Revolution, Zhou took and excelled in the graduate examination and was admitted to the graduate school of Fudan University to study historical geography under the famous scholar, academician Tan Qixiang. In 1983, Zhou and his classmate Ge Jianxiong became the first two recipients of the doctoral degree in humanities in the People's Republic of China.
His Ph. D. dissertation was Administrative Geography during the Western Han Dynasty. Zhou has been a faculty member of the Institute of Historical Geography of Fudan University since 1983, became a Distinguished Senior Professor in 2008, his main research interests are cultural and administrative geography and history of Sino-foreign cultural relations. He has taught as a visiting professor at many universities, including the University of Göttingen, Waseda University, City University of Hong Kong, Erlangen University, Kansai University. Zhou Zhenhe is the chief editor of General History of Chinese Administrative Divisions, a 13-volume series covering the history of Chinese administrative divisions from the earliest dynasties to the Republic of China, it was published by Fudan University Press between 2007 and 2016. It is China's first comprehensive academic history of the country's administrative divisions and was one of the national key publishing projects supported by the General Administration of Press and Publication.
His other books include: with You Rujie, Chinese Dialects and Culture 方言与中国文化, Shanghai 1986, 2005. English translation 2017. Administrative Geography during the Western Han Dynasty 西汉政区地理, Beijing 1987; the Way of Administrative Divisions 体国经野之道, Hong Kong 1990. Studies On Historical Cultural Divisions in China 中国历史文化区域研究, Shanghai 1997. Essays on the Relationship between Language and Culture 逸言殊语, Hangzhou 1998. History on Local Administrative System in China 中国地方行政制度, Shanghai 1998, 2005. Historical Atlas of Shanghai 上海历史地图集, Shanghai 1999. Selected Works of Zhou Zhenhe 周振鹤自选集, Guilin 1999. Profession Diverted for Nineteen Years 学腊一十九, Jinan 2000; the Sacred Edict and Amplified: Collections of Explaining and Research 圣谕广训—集解与研究, Shanghai 2004. Collections of Business Booklist in Late Qing Times 晚清营业书目, Shanghai 2005. Changshui Shengwen 长水声闻, Shanghai 2010. In addition, he has published more than 100 academic papers