Pearl River (China)
The Pearl River, known by its Chinese name Zhujiang and formerly often known as the Canton River, is an extensive river system in southern China. The name Pearl River is used as a catch-all for the watersheds of the Xi, Bei. These rivers are all considered tributaries of the Pearl River because they share a common delta, as well as referring to the system as a whole, the Pearl River name is applied to a specific branch within the system. This Pearl River is the widest distributary within the delta, although considerably short, the waters that converge east of the Bei Jiang are first referred to as the Pearl River just north of Guangzhou. The Pearl River is famed as the river flows through Guangzhou. The Pearl Rivers estuary, Bocca Tigris, is dredged so as to keep it open for ocean vessels. This bay separates Macau and Zhuhai from Hong Kong and Shenzhen, the Pearl River is so named because of the pearl-colored shells that lie at the bottom of the river in the section that flows through the city of Guangzhou.
A500 kV-power line, suspended from three of the tallest pylons in the world, the Pylons of Pearl River Crossing, crosses the river near its mouth. Zhujiang Brewery, one of the three largest domestic breweries in China, is located on the Pearl River Delta within the city of Guangzhou
African Slave Trade Patrol
African Slave Trade Patrol was part of the suppression of the Atlantic slave trade between 1819 and the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861. Due to the abolitionist movement in the United States, a squadron of American navy warships were assigned to slave traders in. The operations were ineffective and after forty-two years only about 100 suspected slave ships were captured. The first American squadron was sent to Africa in 1819 and for years after the ships were rotated out. Also, the slavers knew that if they hoisted a Spanish or Portuguese flag they could easily escape pursuit, congress made it difficult for the navy to keep a small force in Africa until 1842 when the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain was signed. Commodore Matthew C. Perry was sent to command the Africa Squadron again after serving as its commander in 1821 in the USS Shark. The British captured hundreds of ships and fought several naval battles, their success was largely due to the superior size of their navy.
The Brazil Squadron, the West Indies Squadron, the East India Squadron, on 13 June 1844, the brig USS Truxtun was placed back in commission with Commander Henry Bruce in charge. Two weeks later, she sailed down the Delaware River and passed between the capes and into the Atlantic, after visiting Funchal, the ship joined the African Station off Tenerife in the Canary Islands. For the next sixteen months, Truxtun patrolled off West Africa, visiting Monrovia and Sierra Leone, Truxtun sailed to Maio islands of Santiago, and São Vicente. The Americans captured only one slaver on their cruise in 1845, the vessel was caught on the Rio Pongo in Guinea and was taken without incident. Though she was only about 100 tons, she carried 346 slaves, the Americans discovered that she had landed 339 slaves near Matanzas, in Cuba, the year before. No one can imagine the sufferings of slaves on their passage across, unless the conveyances in which they are taken are examined, a good hearty negroe costs but twenty dollars, or thereabouts, and brings from three to four hundred dollars in Cuba.
The capture of the Spitfire gave the American navy the incentive to increase the strength of the Africa Squadron, on October 30,1845, the Truxtun weighed anchor at Monrovia, and she headed west towards Gosport Navy Yard which she reached on November 23. She was decommissioned on November 28, the brig USS Perry served in the South Atlantic with the Brazil Squadron beginning in 1847. Perry got under way from Philadelphia on May 16,1847 with specific orders to patrol between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lieutenant John A. Davis was informed that suspected slavers in the American barque Ann D. Richardson were bound for the coast of Africa under false papers. Perry seized the ship off Rio de Janeiro on December 16, investigation proved that both ships had been engaged in the slave trade and were sent to, New York, New York as prizes
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains almost 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky, the river flows generally west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork, although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the system has been extensively developed for flood control. Its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in its Harlan County, Martins Fork starts in Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Flat Gap, Virginia. It flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the two forks in Baxter.
From there, the river continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky. The 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle Rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south. From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam, the more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River, northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake, the river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah.
The explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, the Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans, who lived in this area. French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or river of the Shawnee for this association, the river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walkers trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the transportation routes for trading. In more recent history, a number of floods have struck various regions that the river flows through
Grove Street Cemetery
Grove Street Cemetery or Grove Street Burial Ground in New Haven, Connecticut, is located adjacent to the Yale University campus. It was organized in 1796 as the New Haven Burying Ground and this was a real turning point. A whole redefinition of how people viewed death and dying, according to historian Peter Dobkin Hall, with ideas like permanent memorials. In part for this reason, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2000, for the first 160 years of permanent settlement, New Haven residents buried their dead on the New Haven Green, the towns central open space and churchyard. In 1794–95, a yellow fever swept the town. In 1796, thirty-two families purchased a tract just north of Grove Street, the tract was enclosed by a wooden fence, at first consisting of 6 acres, the cemetery was quickly subscribed and thereafter expanded to nearly 18 acres. Gravestones from the New Haven Green were moved to the new cemetery for preservation in 1821 and are displayed against the walls of the cemetery.
Completed in 1845, the entrance on Grove Street is a brownstone Egyptian Revival gateway, designed by New Haven architects Henry Austin and Hezekiah Augur, the style, popular in New England in that era, was chosen to reinforce the antiquity of the site. The lintel of the gateway is inscribed The Dead Shall Be Raised, the quotation is taken from 1 Corinthians 15.52, For the trumpet will sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed. Supposedly, Yale President Arthur Twining Hadley said of the inscription, They certainly will be, in 1848–49, the perimeter of the cemetery was surrounded on three sides by an 8-foot stone wall. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997 and it was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Secretary of the Interior in 2000, citing its history and the architectural significance of its gateway. In 2008, Yale announced plans to construct two new colleges to the immediate north of the cemetery.
The proposal, withdrawn following a meeting, included architectural. Grove Street Cemetery is managed by Camco Cemetery Management, James Rowland Angell —President of Yale University Kanichi Asakawa —historian. Jehudi Ashmun —religious leader, and social reformer, agent of the African Colonization Society Hezekiah Augur —wood carver, Henry Austin —architect, designed the gate of the cemetery, Yales College Library, and several mansions on Hillhouse Avenue. James Bishop —was Secretary, Lieutenant Governor and Deputy Governor of New Haven Jurisdiction, eli Whitney Blake —manufacturer and inventor of the stone crusher. His brother, invented the corkscrew, Edward Gaylord Bourne —historian and educator. Leader in the American Historical Association, commander of the artillery defending New Haven, July 5,1779 William H. Brewer —scientist
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region.
For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua
Guangzhou, traditionally romanised as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Guangzhou is currently, the third city in mainland China, behind Beijing and Shanghai, holds sub-provincial administrative status. In 2015 the citys area was estimated to have a population of 13,501,100. Some estimates place the population of the area of the Pearl River Delta Mega City as high as 44 million without the Hong Kong SAR and 54 million including it. Guangzhou is ranked as a Beta+ Global city, in recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of foreign residents and illegal immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, as well as from Africa. This has led to it being dubbed the Capital of the Third World, the migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40 percent of the citys total population in 2008. Long the only Chinese port accessible to foreign traders, the city fell to the British during the First Opium War.
No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, for the three consecutive years 2013–2015, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city on the Chinese mainland. Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, which was simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s, before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhous districts. The origin of the name is uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a commandery. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi, under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. Under the Qing, it was known to its inhabitants as simply The Provincial Capital. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is 穗, after its nickname Rice City, the former name City of the Immortals came from the same story.
The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a reference to the areas greenery. The English name Canton derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was used in English in reference to Guangdong generally. It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in use until the gradual adoption of pinyin
Grog is any of a variety of alcoholic beverages. The word originally referred to a made with water and rum. Vernon wore a coat of grogram cloth and was nicknamed Old Grogram or Old Grog, merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, which agrees with this story of the words origin, states that the word grog was first used in this sense in 1770, though other sources cite 1749. In modern times the term grog has had a variety of meanings in a number of different cultures, modern versions of the drink are often made with hot or boiling water, and sometimes include lemon juice, lime juice, cinnamon, or sugar to improve the taste. Additionally in the United States, apple cider is sometimes substituted for water, Rum with water and nutmeg was known as bumbo and was more popular with pirates and merchantmen. By contrast, in Australia and New Zealand, the word has come to any alcoholic drink. The difference between the Swedish definition of grog and long drinks, mixed drinks or punches is the number of ingredients, the number of ingredients in drinks may vary, but grog typically has just one kind of liquor and one kind of a non-alcoholic beverage.
Grosshandlargrogg refers to a mix of Eau de vie and Trocadero, in some parts of Europe, notably Belgium and France, grog is used for a hot drink, basically made of black tea, lemon juice, honey and a splash of rum. It is a winter drink, said to have a medicinal effect when having a cold. In Fiji, the term refers to a drink made by pounding sun-dried kava root into a fine powder. Traditionally, grog is drunk from the shorn half-shell of a coconut, Grog has been used as a metaphoric term for a persons vices, as in the old Irish song All For Me Grog. Sailors require significant quantities of water on extended voyages. Since desalinating sea water was not practical, fresh water was taken on board in casks but quickly developed algae, stagnant water was sweetened with beer or wine to make it palatable, which involved more casks and was subject to spoilage. As longer voyages became more common, the task of stowage became more and more difficult, following Englands conquest of Jamaica in 1655, a half pint or 2 gills of rum gradually replaced beer and brandy as the drink of choice.
Given to the straight, this caused additional problems, as some sailors saved the rum rations for several days to drink all at once. Due to the subsequent illness and disciplinary problems, the rum was mixed with water and this both diluted its effects and accelerated its spoilage, preventing hoarding of the allowance. This gives a ratio of 4,1 and it seems unlikely that many men would have spent their meagre pay on such a thing. Standard medical remedies focussed on gingering up the system by imbibing a variety of fizzy or fermenting drinks
USS Cumberland (1842)
The first USS Cumberland was a 50-gun sailing frigate of the United States Navy. She was the first ship sunk by the ironclad CSS Virginia, Cumberland began in the pages of a Congressional Act. Congress passed in 1816 An act for the increase of the Navy of the United States. The act called for the U. S. to build several ships-of-the-line and several new frigates, money issues, prevented Cumberland from being finished in a timely manner. It was not until Secretary of the Navy Abel Parker Upshur came to office that the ship was finished, a war scare with Britain led Upshur to order the completion of several wooden sailing ships and for the construction of new steam powered ships. Designed by famed American designer William Doughty, Cumberland was one a series of frigates in a called the Raritan-class. The design borrowed heavily from older American frigate designs such as Constitution, Doughty liked the idea of giving a frigate more guns than European designs called for. As a result, he called for Cumberland and her ships to have a fully armed spar deck.
The result was an armed, 50-gun warship. She was launched on 24 May 1842 by Boston Navy Yard, the ship sailed to several parts of the Mediterranean including Port Mahon, Naples, Toulon and Alexandria. The cruise was uneventful, though there was a diplomatic scuffle with the Sultan of Morocco who refused to recognize the newly appointed American ambassador. The incident possibly was the result of the Sultan being misled by the outgoing American ambassador who did not want to leave his post, smith cleared up the misunderstanding and the new ambassador assumed his duties. The most notable event was Footes successful effort to ban the grog ration and he believed it was a grand success in turning sailors into harder working, upstanding men. Here she was flagship of the Home Squadron between February and December 1846, serving in the Gulf of Mexico during the Mexican-American War under the command of Cmdre, david Conner and Capt. Thomas Dulay. Capt. French Forrest took command when Dulay fell ill, other notable officers in this cruise were future Civil War rivals Raphael Semmes and John Winslow.
The ship oversaw the blockade of the eastern Mexican coast for most of the war and she participated in several aborted attacks on Mexican ports, before running aground on 28 July off the coast of Alvarado. The ship was freed and her ships company participated in a raid on Tabasco. The grounding damaged her enough to force her to retire to Norfolk for repairs and her crew, stayed behind and swapped ships with the crew of the sister frigate Raritan, which had been at sea for three years
Philadelphia Naval Shipyard
The Navy Yard, formerly known as the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and Philadelphia Naval Business Center, was an important naval shipyard of the United States for almost two centuries. It is now an industrial park that includes a commercial shipyard. Philadelphias original navy yard, begun in 1776 on Front Street, the new, much larger yard grew up around facilities begun in 1871 on League Island at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. The United States Navy ended most of its activities there in the 1990s, and in 2000, the Navy still has a Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility and a few engineering activities at the site. The yard has its origins in a shipyard on Philadelphias Front Street on the Delaware River that was founded in 1776, from 1812 till 1865 it was a big production center. The first ship which was launched to the water was vessel Franklin and this event was watched by more than 50,000 spectators. The rapid development of shipbuilding companies pledged Philadelphia to improve production processes.
It was the first shipyard in the world which used floating dry docks in the process to improve an operating time of the ships. After the advent of ironclad warships made the site obsolete, new facilities were built in 1871 on League Island at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. After first making a request to the Secretary of the Navy via shipyard Commandant Commodore James Barron, on August 29,1835 they appealed directly to President Andrew Jackson, there is no probability they will secede from their demands. Rodegier, David R. and Foner, Sheldon Our Own Time, A History of American Labor, Naval Aircraft Factory was established at the League Island site in 1917. Just after World War I, a 350-ton capacity hammerhead crane was ordered for the yard, manufactured in 1919 by the McMyler-Interstate Company in Bedford, the crane was called the League Island Crane by its builder. Weighing 3,500 tons, the crane was shipped to the yard in sections, the League Island Crane was for many years the Navys largest crane.
Mustin Field opened at the Naval Aircraft Factory in 1926 and operated until 1963, the shipyards greatest period came in World War II, when the yard employed 40,000 people who built 53 ships and repaired 574. During this period, the built the famed battleship New Jersey and its 45, 000-ton sister ship. In the Naval Laboratory Philip Abelson developed the thermal diffusion technique for separating U-235 for the Manhattan Project. After the war, the workforce dropped to 12,000, the yard built its last new ship, the command ship Blue Ridge, in 1970. The yards closure was originally recommended in 1991 by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission, as a result of foreign competition, the planned closing was unsuccessfully litigated to the US Supreme Court in Dalton v. Specter
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Seth Ledyard Phelps
Seth Ledyard Phelps was an American naval officer and diplomat. He served with distinction in the U. S. Navy during the Civil War and afterward was appointed president of the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia and as U. S. Phelps was born on January 13,1824 in Chardon, when the Civil War broke out in 1861, Phelps was a Lieutenant commanding the gunboat USS Conestoga. He was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in July 1862, and resigned from the Navy in October 1864, after the war, in 1875, his onetime commander Grant nominated Phelps to serve on the temporary Board of Commissioners. When Congress made it official in 1878, Phelps was elected as the permanent Boards first president and he served for one year, resigning on November 29,1879. In 1883, President Chester A. Arthur appointed Phelps Minister to Peru and he was buried in Washington at Oak Hill Cemetery. Phelps Vocational School in Northeast DC is named for Phelps, his home at 15 Logan Circle in Washington still stands and has been designated a national Historic Landmark.
Seth Ledyard Phelps Letterbook Missouri History Museum Archives Seth Ledyard Phelps at Find a Grave
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange