SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. He assumed the presidency as he was vice president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Johnson was a Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, coming to office as the Civil War concluded, he favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union without protection for the former slaves. This led to conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives in 1868, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. His main accomplishment as president was the Alaska purchase. Johnson never attended school, he was apprenticed as a tailor and worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms.

He became governor of Tennessee for four years, was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862. Southern slave states seceded to form the Confederate States of America, including Tennessee, but Johnson remained with the Union, he was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state's secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee. In 1864, Johnson was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wished to send a message of national unity in his re-election campaign. Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865 and gave a rambling speech, after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Six weeks the assassination of Lincoln made him president. Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction, a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments.

Southern states returned many of their old leaders and passed Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties, but Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Johnson vetoed their bills, Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1866, he went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies, seeking to break Republican opposition; as the conflict grew between the branches of government, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act restricting Johnson's ability to fire Cabinet officials. He persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, but he was impeached by the House of Representatives and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate, he did not win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination and left office in 1869. Johnson returned to Tennessee after his presidency and gained some vindication when he was elected to the Senate in 1875, making him the only former president to serve in the Senate.

He died five months into his term. Johnson's strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for black Americans is criticized, he is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on December 29, 1808, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough, a laundress, he was of English, Scots-Irish, Irish ancestry. He had a brother William, four years his senior, an older sister Elizabeth, who died in childhood. Johnson's birth in a two-room shack was a political asset in the mid-19th century, he would remind voters of his humble origins. Jacob Johnson was a poor man, as had been his father, William Johnson, but he became town constable of Raleigh before marrying and starting a family. Both Jacob and Mary were illiterate, had worked as tavern servants, while Johnson never attended school and grew up in poverty. Jacob died of an apparent heart attack while ringing the town bell, shortly after rescuing three drowning men, when his son Andrew was three.

Polly Johnson became the sole support of her family. Her occupation was looked down on, as it took her into other homes unaccompanied. Since Andrew did not resemble either of his siblings, there are rumors that he may have been fathered by another man. Polly Johnson remarried to a man named Turner Doughtry, as poor as she was. Johnson's mother apprenticed her son William to James Selby. Andrew became an apprentice in Selby's shop at age ten and was bound to serve until his 21st birthday. Johnson lived with his mother for part of his service, one of Selby's employees taught him rudimentary literacy skills, his education was augmented by citizens who would come to Selby's shop to read to the tailors as they worked. Before he became an apprentice, Johnson came to listen; the readings caused a lifelong love of learning, one of his biographers, Annette Gordon-Reed, suggests that Johnson a gifted public speaker, learned the art as he threaded needles and cut cloth. Johnson was not happy at James Selby's, after about five years, both he and his brother ran away.

Selby responded by placing a reward for their return: "Ten Dollars Reward. Ran away from the subscriber, two apprentice boys bound, named William and Andrew Johnson... to any person who will deliver said apprentices to me

Gare de Besançon Franche-Comté TGV

Besançon Franche-Comté TGV is a high speed railway station located in Les Auxons, eastern France. The station was opened in 2011 and is located on the LGV Rhin-Rhône and Besançon-Viotte-Vesoul railway connecting railway; the train services are operated by SNCF. It serves the city of Besançon and surrounding areas. From Besançon Franche-Comté TGV train services depart to major French cities such as: Paris, Belfort, Strasbourg, Marseille and Lille. International services operate to Germany: Francfort Bus services are operated by Besançon operator Ginko. 60 Besançon Temis - École Valentin - Miserey Salines - Gare Besançon Franche-Comté TGV. 68 Tallenay - Chatillon-le-Duc - Gare Besançon Franche-Comté TGV. 69 Pirey - Pouilley-les-Vignes - Pelousey - Auxon-Dessous - Auxon-Dessus - Gare Besançon Franche-Comté TGV The station on ter-sncf.com

Bakonydraco

Bakonydraco is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur of the Santonian-age Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation of the Bakony Mountains, Iharkút, Veszprém, western Hungary. The genus was named in 2005 by Attila Ősi and Jianu Coralia; the type species is Bakonydraco galaczi. The genus name refers to the Bakony Mountains and to Latin draco, "dragon"; the specific epithet galaczi honors Professor András Galácz, who helped the authors in the Iharkút Research Program, where fossils are since 2000 found in open-pit mining of bauxite, among them the remains of pterosaurs, the first discovered in Hungary. Bakonydraco is based on a nearly complete mandibula, a fusion of the lower jaws. Assigned to it, as paratype, is MTM Gyn/4, 21: parts from another jaw's symphysis; the lower jaws are toothless and the two halves of the mandibula are frontally fused for about half of its overall length, forming a long, pointed section, compressed side-to-side and expanded vertically, giving it a somewhat spearhead- or arrowhead-like shape from the side.

This expansion occurs both on the lower edge and on the top surface, where the most extreme point corresponds with a transverse ridge which separates the straight back half of the symphysis from the pointed end in the front. The jaws of MTM Gyn/3 are 29 centimeters long, the wingspan of the genus is estimated to be 3.5 to 4 meters, medium-sized for a pterosaur. Because the jaws are taller than other azhdarchids, reminiscent of Tapejara, it could have been a frugivore. Andres & Myers have proposed that Bakonydraco is a tapejarid, a sister taxon to Tapejara and Tupandactylus. Indeed, the original paper describing this species compared the holotype jaw to Tapejara and Sinopterus, implicating its affinities to this clade. If Bakonydraco is a tapejarid, it represents the only Late Cretaceous record of Tapejaridae known to date. A more recent phylogenetic study reinforces this placement. List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research