Richard Anthony Wolf is an American television producer, best known as the creator and executive producer of the Law & Order franchise, which since 1990 has included six police/courtroom dramas and four international spinoffs, as well as a creator and executive producer of the Chicago franchise, which since 2012 has included four Chicago-based police, courtroom and medical dramas. Wolf has won numerous awards, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Wolf has written four books; the first, the non-fiction volume Law & Order: Crime Scenes, is a companion to the Law & Order television series. The Intercept, The Execution, The Ultimatum, all of which are works of fiction, are volumes in a thriller series upon whose writings Wolf collaborates with N. Y. P. D. Detective Jeremy Fisk. Wolf was born in New York City, the son of Marie G. a homemaker, George Wolf, an advertising executive. His father was Jewish and his mother was Roman Catholic of Irish descent, he was an altar boy and attended Saint David's School, The Gunnery, the University of Pennsylvania, where he belonged to the Zeta Psi fraternity.
He attended Phillips Academy. Wolf worked as an advertising copywriter at Benton & Bowles creating commercials for Crest toothpaste, including the slogan "You can't beat Crest for fighting cavities." He is credited with the campaign "I'm Cheryl, fly me" for National Airlines. Yet despite his success in copywriting, all the while he was writing screenplays in the hopes of a film career, it was at this time that he collaborated on a screenplay with Oliver Stone, a struggling screenwriter at the time. He had three screenplays produced, he started his television career as a staff writer on Hill Street Blues and was nominated for his first Emmy for an episode entitled "What Are Friends For?", on which he was the only writer. While working on Hill Street Blues, Wolf became close friends with Tom Fontana writing for the series St. Elsewhere, produced in the same building, at the same time. Wolf moved from Hill Street Blues to Miami Vice, where he was a writer and co-producer for the third and fourth seasons.
Wolf's Law & Order, which ran from 1990 to 2010, tied Gunsmoke for the longest-running dramatic show in television history, making it one of television's most successful franchises. It has been nominated for the most consecutive Emmy Awards of any primetime drama series. Wolf serves as creator and executive producer of the current Law & Order drama series from Wolf Films and NBC Universal Television – Law & Order: Special Victims Unit – and did so for the four that have been cancelled – Law & Order: Criminal Intent, Law & Order: Trial by Jury, Law & Order: UK, Law & Order: Los Angeles. Along with Kevin Arkadie, he co-created the police drama, New York Undercover, which ran on the Fox Broadcasting Company Network from 1994 to 1998, he was the creator and executive producer of NBC's courtroom reality series Crime & Punishment, which chronicled real-life cases prosecuted by the San Diego District Attorney’s office. Many of Wolf's series have intersected with the Law & Order franchise in some fashion, the Law & Order series have been adapted into several foreign versions.
Wolf's company produced Twin Towers, the 2003 Academy Award-winning Short Documentary about two brothers, one a policeman and the other a fireman, who lost their lives in the line of duty on September 11, 2001. Wolf was involved with the production of a theatrical documentary about the popular rock group The Doors, titled When You're Strange. Wolf developed Chicago Fire, a drama about a group of men and women working at the Chicago Fire Department; the series was picked up by NBC in May 2012, premiered on October 10, 2012, with meek numbers in the ratings and minimal reviews in the first few weeks before spiking to NBC's #2 scripted drama series, under Revolution. In March 2013, NBC announced intentions for a spin-off of Chicago Fire, revolving around the Chicago Police Department; when that series, Chicago P. D. premiered, Derek Haas, Michael W. Brandt, Matt Olmstead became executive producers, under Wolf. Two subsequent shows, Chicago Med, which premiered in 2015, Chicago Justice, whose one season began and ended in 2017, followed in Chicago P.
D.'s wake. In 2018, Wolf became executive producer of the CBS drama FBI starring Law and Order alumnus Jeremy Sisto, Sela Ward, who appeared in the non-Wolf CBS series CSI: NY. In 2012, Wolf developed the unscripted show Cold Justice, a documentary drama, for TNT, he has written three novels whose central character is NYPD Detective Jeremy Fisk: The Intercept, The Execution, The Ultimatum. Wolf's personal honors include the Award of Excellence from the Banff Television Festival, the 2002 Creative Achievement Award from NATPE. On March 29, 2007, Wolf received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7040 Hollywood Boulevard. In 2013 Wolf was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame. Wolf is an Honorary Consul general of Monaco and is involved in the principality’s prestigious annual
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Heaven Help Us
Heaven Help Us is a 1985 American comedy-drama film starring Andrew McCarthy, Mary Stuart Masterson, Kevin Dillon, Donald Sutherland, Wallace Shawn, Stephen Geoffreys, John Heard and Patrick Dempsey. Andrew McCarthy said the film was "my favorite and/or the best movie I did in that whole era of those movies." In 1965, Boston teenager Michael Dunn and his young sister Boo have been sent to Brooklyn to live with their Irish-Catholic grandparents following the deaths of their parents. He is enrolled at St. Basil's, the strict all-boys Roman Catholic school run by St. Basil's Church, where his grandmother is determined to see him fulfill his parents' dream of him joining the priesthood after graduation. Dunn befriends Caesar, an over-weight, bespectacled bookworm. Caesar helps Dunn catch up with the rest of the class, but because of their association, foul-mouthed class bully and underachiever Ed Rooney bullies Dunn with a prank outside of the soda fountain across the street from school. Not long after this, Dunn enters the classroom at the beginning of his English-Lit class and sees Rooney remove the screws from Caesar's desk.
Minutes Caesar arrives, sits on the desk and falls to the floor. The teacher, Brother Constance orders all the boys on their knees until one of the students confesses. Dunn whispers to Caesar that he tried to warn him, but his whisper is caught by Constance. Convinced that Dunn knows the perpetrator, he tries to get the prankster's name out of him by striking Dunn's open palms with a wooden paddle. Fed up with Dunn's refusal to rat out Rooney, Constance shoves him to the floor and orders him to point the guilty party out. Dunn looks up at Rooney from the floor. Dunn lunges towards Rooney, taking him to the floor and the pair are separated by Constance and the novice friar, Brother Timothy, observing Constance's classroom teaching and discipline methods that day. Both are sent to headmaster Brother Thadeus' office. During a moment alone, impressed by Dunn's refusal to snitch on him, attempts to patch things up between them, but Dunn wants nothing to do with him. Rooney tries again after class, but this time tells him that if they don't become friends he has to continue in his harassment in order to save face.
Reluctantly, Dunn befriends Rooney, along with his friends Williams, a sexually frustrated kid, caught masturbating, Corbett, the dull one of the bunch. Dunn befriends Danni, a teenage tomboy who runs the soda fountain across from the school and takes care of her mentally infirm father. Looking for mischief by St. Basil's students, Danni's fountain shop is raided numerous times by the Brothers, leaving the shop in shambles. Dunn helps sparking a romance between the pair. At the sacrament of confession, Rooney looks at the lists of sins each of the boys has committed and tells them how to edit them so they don't sound so bad and are yet truthful; when Caesar enters the confessional, Father Abruzzi becomes preoccupied with another student misbehaving in the church. At that point, Rooney goes into the priest's booth and acts as the priest hearing Caesar's confession, giving him the penance of befriending Rooney and making sure he gets Rooney passing grades; as a result, Caesar befriends them while tutoring Rooney.
While the students are attending a St. Basil's school dance, Father Abruzzi gives an outlandish speech to the school along with the girls' school nearby regarding the evils of the flesh and "lust" and how that will condemn them to hell; that night, after getting bored at the dance and Janine, a student at the neighboring Virgin Martyr Girls Academy, drive Caesar and Janine's friend Cathleen around Brooklyn and get Rooney's father's brand new 1966 Lincoln Continental, getting stuck on the Carroll Street drawbridge over the Gowanus Canal, which destroys the powertrain and most of the undercarriage. Pope Paul VI visits New York City and St. Basil's school takes a field trip to Manhattan to see him ride in a parade; the five friends sneak off to a nearby movie theatre. After the movie, they are caught missing, Brother Constance orders them to clean St. Basil's statue with toothbrushes on the school courtyard after Sunday Mass for punishment; the friendship between Dunn and Danni further develops, culminating in a passionate kiss under the boardwalk on Coney Island in a rainstorm.
One day, during one of the Brothers' routine "raids", Danni locks them out. When they look into the windows and try to take names, she closes the blinds; the Brothers leave, but at dinner, they discuss the episode at the soda fountain. At the urging of Brother Constance and gym teacher Brother Paul, at the reluctance of Brothers Thaddeus and Timothy, they notify social services. A few days Dunn and his friends walk up to the fountain and find police cars and a few of the school's Brothers surrounding the door as Danni's father is led out of the front door in handcuffs. Fearing the worst, Dunn rushes in and finds that social workers are getting ready to take Danni away. A shaken Dunn takes Danni in his arms. Weeping, she wants him to promise, he watches helplessly. Angry at the loss of his hangout and at the Brothers for ruining his friend's life, Rooney develops another prank with the help of Caesar and Corbett; the night before Easter recess, the boys sneak onto the groun
Donald McNichol Sutherland is a Canadian actor whose film career spans more than five decades. Sutherland rose to fame after starring in a series of successful films including The Dirty Dozen, M*A*S*H, Kelly's Heroes, Don't Look Now, Fellini's Casanova, 1900, Animal House, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, Ordinary People and Eye of the Needle, he subsequently established himself as one of the most respected and versatile character actors of Canada. He went on to star in many other successful films where he appeared either in leading or supporting roles such as A Dry White Season, JFK, Outbreak, A Time to Kill, Without Limits, The Italian Job, Cold Mountain, Pride & Prejudice, Aurora Borealis and The Hunger Games franchise. Sutherland has been nominated for eight Golden Globe Awards, winning two for his performances in the television films Citizen X and Path to War. Inductee of Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama film Threshold.
Several media outlets and movie critics describe him as one of the best actors who have never been nominated for an Academy Award. In 2017, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his contributions to cinema, he is the father of Rossif Sutherland and Angus Sutherland. Sutherland was born in Saint John, New Brunswick, the son of Dorothy Isobel and Frederick McLea Sutherland, who worked in sales and ran the local gas and bus company, he is of Scottish and English ancestry. As a child, he had rheumatic fever and poliomyelitis, his teenage years were spent in Nova Scotia. He obtained his first part-time job, at the age of 14, as a news correspondent for local radio station CKBW. Sutherland graduated from Bridgewater High School, he studied at Victoria University, an affiliated college of the University of Toronto, where he met his first wife Lois Hardwick, graduated with a double major in engineering and drama. He had at one point been a member of the "UC Follies" comedy troupe in Toronto, he changed his mind about becoming an engineer, left Canada for Britain in 1957, studying at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art.
After quitting the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, Sutherland spent a year and a half at the Perth Repertory Theatre in Scotland. In the early to mid-1960s, Sutherland began to gain small roles in British films and TV, he featured alongside Christopher Lee in horror films such as Castle of the Living Dead and Dr. Terror's House of Horrors, he had a supporting role in the Hammer Films production Die! Die! My Darling!, with Tallulah Bankhead and Stefanie Powers. In the same year, he appeared in the Cold War classic The Bedford Incident and appeared in the TV series The Saint, in the 1965 episode "The Happy Suicide", in the TV series Gideon's Way, in the 1966 episode "The Millionaire's Daughter". In 1966, Sutherland appeared in the BBC TV play Lee Oswald-Assassin, playing a friend of Lee Harvey Oswald, Charles Givens. In 1967, he appeared in "The Superlative Seven," an episode of The Avengers, he made a second, more substantial appearance in The Saint. The episode, "Escape Route," was directed by the show's star, Roger Moore, who recalled that Sutherland "asked me if he could show it to some producers as he was up for an important role... they came to view a rough cut and he got The Dirty Dozen."
The film, which starred Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson, was the 5th highest-grossing film of 1967 and MGM's highest-grossing movie of the year. In 1968, after the breakthrough in the UK-filmed The Dirty Dozen, Sutherland left London for Hollywood, he appeared in two war films, playing the lead role as "Hawkeye" Pierce in Robert Altman's MASH in 1970. Sutherland starred with Gene Wilder in the 1970 comedy Start the Revolution Without Me. During the filming of the Academy Award-winning detective thriller Klute, Sutherland had an intimate relationship with co-star Jane Fonda. Sutherland and Fonda went on to co-produce and star together in the anti-Vietnam War documentary F. T. A. Consisting of a series of sketches performed outside army bases in the Pacific Rim and interviews with American troops who were on active service. A follow up to their teaming up in Klute and Fonda performed together in Steelyard Blues, a "freewheeling, Age-of-Aquarius, romp-and-roll caper" from the writer David S. Ward. Sutherland found himself as a leading man throughout the 1970s in films such as the Venice-based psychological horror film Don't Look Now, co-starring Julie Christie, a role which saw him nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor, the war film The Eagle Has Landed, Federico Fellini's Casanova and the thriller Eye of the Needle.
His role as Corpse of Lt. Robert Schmied in the Maximilian Schell's 1976 German film-directed End of the Game is listed in crazy credits, and as the ever-optimistic health inspector in the science fiction/horror film Invasion of the Body Snatchers alongside Brooke Adams and Jeff Goldblum. He helped launch the internationally popular Canadian television series Witness to Yesterday, with a performance as the Montreal doctor Norman
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Orange Is the New Black
Orange Is the New Black is an American comedy-drama web television series created by Jenji Kohan for Netflix. The series is based on Piper Kerman's memoir, Orange Is the New Black: My Year in a Women's Prison, about her experiences at FCI Danbury, a minimum-security federal prison. Produced by Tilted Productions in association with Lionsgate Television, Orange Is the New Black premiered on Netflix on July 11, 2013. In February 2016, the series was renewed for a fifth and seventh season; the sixth season was released on July 27, 2018. On October 17, 2018, it was confirmed that the seventh season would be its last and would be released in 2019. Orange Is the New Black, it has received many accolades. For its first season, the series garnered 12 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Comedy Series, Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series, Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series, winning three. A new Emmy rule in 2015 forced the series to change categories from comedy to drama. For its second season, the series received four Emmy nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series, Uzo Aduba won for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series.
Orange Is the New Black is the first series to score Emmy nominations in both comedy and drama categories. The series has received six Golden Globe Award nominations, six Writers Guild of America Award nominations, a Producers Guild of America Award, an American Film Institute award, a Peabody Award; the series begins revolving around Piper Chapman, a woman in her thirties living in New York City, sentenced to 15 months in Litchfield Penitentiary, a minimum-security women's federal prison in upstate New York. Chapman was convicted of transporting a suitcase full of drug money for her girlfriend Alex Vause, an international drug smuggler; the offense had occurred 10 years prior to the start of the series and in that time Piper had moved on to a quiet, law-abiding life among New York's upper middle class. Her sudden and unexpected indictment disrupts her relationships with family and friends. In prison, Chapman is reunited with Vause and they re-examine their relationship. Chapman, along with the other inmates, attempt to grapple with prison's numerous, inherent struggles.
Episodes feature flashbacks of significant events from various inmates' and prison guards' pasts. These flashbacks depict how an inmate came to be in prison or develop a character's backstory; the prison is operated by the "Federal Department of Corrections", was in a season acquired by the Management & Correction Corporation, a private prison company. The fifth season shows the prisoners revolting against the guards and the system after MCC's failed handling of an inmate's death at the hands of a guard in the fourth season; the inmate death had followed a peaceful protest and subsequent instigation of an inmate fight by another guard. Fueled by the conditions the inmates are forced to tolerate, as well as grudges against the prison guards, a three-day riot ensues. During the riot, some inmates attempt to negotiate better living conditions and seek justice for the death of the inmate, while others pursue their own interests and entertainment, a few seek no involvement. At the emergence of the riot, the guard who incited the fight in the prior season is critically wounded by an inmate who took the gun the guard illegally brought into the prison.
At the end of the season, SWAT raids the prison to end the riot and remove all inmates from the facility. During this raid, a correctional officer is fatally wounded by a corrupt "strike team", which conspires to blame the guard's death on inmates who hid in an underground bunker and had taken the guard hostage. All inmates are transported to other prisons; the consequences of the riot are shown in the sixth season. A number of the inmates, including Chapman and Vause, are transported to Litchfield Maximum Security. Most of these inmates are interrogated, several of them charged and sentenced for their involvement in the riot. In max, new inmates are introduced, alliances are made, a gang-like war emerges between two prison blocks, spearheaded by a longstanding feud between two sisters and a grudge harbored by them toward a former maximum-security inmate who returned. Inmates who arrived from the minimum security prison are either caught up or willingly participate in the war between prison blocks.
The season portrays guard brutality. Throughout the series, it is shown how various forms of corruption, funding cuts, privatization of prison, guard brutality and racial discrimination, affect the prisoners' safety and well-being, the correctional officers, the prison's basic ability to fulfill its fundamental responsibilities and ethical obligations as a corrections institution. One of the show's key conflicts involves the minimum-security prison's Director of Human Activities, Joe Caputo, whose efforts and aims as a warden conflict with the corporate interests of MCC, which acquired the facility when it was about to be shut down. Show creator Jenji Kohan read Piper Kerman's memoir, she set up a meeting with Kerman to pitch her on a TV adaptation, which she notes she "screwed up" as she spent most of the time asking Kerman about her experiences she described in the book rather than selling her on the show. This appealed to Kerman as it let her know that she was a fan and she signed off on the adaptation.
Kohan would go on to de
St. Elmo's Fire (film)
St. Elmo's Fire is a 1985 American coming-of-age film directed by Joel Schumacher; the movie, starring Emilio Estevez, Rob Lowe, Andrew McCarthy, Demi Moore, Judd Nelson, Ally Sheedy, Mare Winningham, centers on a clique of recent graduates of Washington, D. C.'s Georgetown University, their adjustment to post-university life and the responsibilities of adulthood. This film is a prominent movie of the Brat Pack genre; the film was reviled by the critics but was a moderate financial success, grossing $37.8 million against a $10 million budget. Recent Georgetown University graduates Alec, his girlfriend Leslie, Kevin and Kirby are waiting to hear about the conditions of their friends Wendy, a sweet-natured girl devoted to helping others, Billy, a former fraternity boy and now reluctant husband and father, after a minor car accident. At the hospital, Kirby spots a female medical student named Dale, with whom he has been infatuated since college; the group gathers at St. Elmo's Bar. Billy, trapped in an unstable marriage, has been fired from the job.
At their apartment, Alec pressures Leslie to marry him, but she thinks they are unprepared to make such a commitment. Kirby is telling Kevin of his love for Dale when Billy shows up, asking to spend the night as he cannot cope with his wife. Jules accuses Kevin of loving Alec; when Kevin visits Alec and Leslie for dinner, during a private moment with Kevin, confesses that he had sex with a lingerie saleswoman. Billy and Wendy get drunk together, Wendy reveals that she’s a virgin, they kiss, Billy, tugging at her clothing, makes fun of her girdle. Wendy insists. At St. Elmo's, Jules reveals to Leslie. Billy attacks him. Billy reconciles with his wife; the girls confront Jules about her affair and reckless spending, but she insists that everything is under control. Kirby takes a job working for Mr. Kim, a wealthy Korean businessman, invites Dale to a party that he’s holding at Mr. Kim’s house. Wendy arrives with an ungainly Jewish boy whom her parents want her to marry. Alec announces, she confronts him about her suspicions of his infidelity, the two break up.
Alec accuses Kevin of telling Leslie about the tryst with the lingerie lady. Jules gives Billy a ride home, Billy makes a pass at her. Furious, Jules orders him out of her car, Billy’s wife witnesses the confrontation; when Dale skips the party, Kirby drives to the ski lodge where she is staying and meets her tall, handsome boyfriend. Kirby's borrowed car gets stuck, Dale and her boyfriend invite him in; the next morning, as Kirby prepares to leave the lodge, Dale tells him that she’s flattered by his interest in her. He kisses her, poses for a photo with her before leaving; as he drives off, Dale watches him thinking about their kiss and doubtless wondering if she is missing out on something by not being involved with him. Leslie goes to Kevin’s apartment to spend the night after the breakup and discovers photographs of her. Kevin confesses his love for her, the two sleep together. Alec goes to the apartment to apologize to Kevin and finds Leslie there, Alec and Leslie argue. Wendy tells her father that she wants to move into her own place.
Jules has been fired from her job, fallen behind on her credit card payments, her possessions have been seized. Jules opens the windows, intending to freeze to death, her friends attempt to coax her out. Kirby fetches Billy, who landed a job at a gas station courtesy of Kevin, to calm Jules down. Billy convinces Jules to let him in, the two share a tender talk about the challenges of life, overheard by the rest of the gang. Wendy moves into her own place, where Billy visits and informs her that he is getting a divorce and moving to New York City, the two have sex. At the bus station, the group gathers once more to say goodbye to Billy. Billy urges Alec to make up with Leslie, but she declares that she does not want to date anyone for a while. Alec and Kevin make up, the group decides to get brunch. However, they decide not to go to St. Elmo's and instead choose Houlihan's because there are "not so many kids" there. According to Schumacher, "a lot of people turned down the script...the head of major studio called its seven-member cast "the most loathsome humans he had read on the page."
The producers interviewed "hundreds of people" for the cast, including Anthony Edwards and Lea Thompson. According to Lauren Shuler Donner, she found Estevez and Sheedy through recommendations from John Hughes, who had cast them in The Breakfast Club. Demi Moore had to go to rehab before shooting; the private Jesuit-affiliated Georgetown University would not permit filming on campus, with their administrators citing questionable content such as premarital sex. As a result, the university seen on film is the public University of Maryland located 10 miles away in College Park, Maryland. David Denby called Schumacher "brutally untalented" and said that "nobody over the moral age of fifteen" will like the work of the Brat Pack actors in the film: According to Janet Maslin: St. Elmo's Fire holds a 45% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, wi