F. W. Murnau
Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau was a German film director. He was influenced by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Ibsen plays he had seen at the age of 12, became a friend of director Max Reinhardt. During World War I he served as a company commander at the eastern front and was in the German air force, surviving several crashes without any severe injuries. One of Murnau's acclaimed works is an adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula. Although not a commercial success, owing to copyright issues with Stoker's novel, the film is considered a masterpiece of Expressionist film, he directed the 1924 film The Last Laugh, as well as a 1926 interpretation of Goethe's Faust. He emigrated to Hollywood in 1926, where he joined the Fox Studio and made three films: Sunrise, 4 Devils and City Girl; the first of these three is regarded as one of the greatest films made. In 1931, Murnau travelled to Bora Bora to make the film Tabu with documentary film pioneer Robert J. Flaherty, who left after artistic disputes with Murnau, who had to finish the movie on his own.
A week prior to the opening of the film Tabu, Murnau died in a Santa Barbara hospital from injuries he had sustained in an automobile accident that occurred along the Pacific Coast Highway near Rincon Beach, southeast of Santa Barbara. Of the 21 films Murnau directed, eight are considered to be lost. One reel of his feature Marizza, genannt die; this leaves only 12 films surviving in their entirety. Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe was born in Province of Westphalia. By the age of seven, he was living in Kassel, northern Hesse, he had two brothers and Robert, two stepsisters and Anna. His mother, Otilie Volbracht, was the second wife of his father, Heinrich Plumpe, an owner of a cloth factory in the northwest part of Germany, their villa was turned into a stage for little plays, directed by the young Friedrich, who had read books by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Ibsen plays by the age of 12. Plumpe would take the pseudonym of "Murnau" from the town of that name near Lake Staffel, south of Munich, where he lived for a time.
The young Murnau was 6' 4" tall, was said to have an icy, imperious disposition and an obsession with film. Some reference sources list him as being 7 feet tall, but extant photos show him to be closer to 6'4". Murnau studied philology at the University in Berlin and art history and literature in Heidelberg, where director Max Reinhardt saw him at a students' performance and decided to invite him to his actor-school, he soon became a friend of Else Lasker-Schüler and Hans Ehrenbaum-Degele. In World War I Murnau served as a company commander at the eastern front, he joined the Imperial German Flying Corps and flew missions in northern France for two years. After landing in Switzerland, he was interned for the remainder of the war. In his POW camp he wrote a film script. After World War I ended, Murnau returned to Germany where he soon established his own film studio with actor Conrad Veidt, his first feature-length film, The Boy in Blue, a drama inspired by the famous Thomas Gainsborough painting, was released in 1919.
He explored the popular theme of dual personalities, much like Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in 1920's Der Janus-Kopf starring Veidt and featuring Bela Lugosi. Murnau's most famous film is Nosferatu, a 1922 adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula, starring German stage actor Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok; the release would be the only one by Prana Film because the company declared itself bankrupt in order to avoid paying damages to Stoker's estate after the estate won a copyright infringement lawsuit. Apart from awarding damages, the court ordered all existing prints of the film to be destroyed. However, one copy had been distributed globally; this print, duplicated time and again by a cult following over the years, has made Nosferatu an early example of a cult film. In Murnau's filmography was The Last Laugh, written by Carl Mayer and starring Emil Jannings; the film introduced the subjective point of view camera, where the camera "sees" from the eyes of a character and uses visual style to convey a character's psychological state.
It anticipated the cinéma vérité movement in its subject matter. The film used the "unchained camera technique", a mix of tracking shots, pans and dolly moves. Unlike the majority of Murnau's other works, The Last Laugh is considered a Kammerspielfilm with Expressionist elements. Unlike expressionist films, Kammerspielfilme are categorized by their chamber play influence, involving a lack of intricate set designs and story lines / themes regarding social injustice towards the working classes. Murnau was gay. Murnau's last German film was the big budget Faust with Gösta Ekman as the title character, Emil Jannings as Mephisto and Camilla Horn as Gretchen. Murnau's film draws on older traditions of the legendary tale of Faust as well as on Goethe's classic version; the film is well known for a sequence in which the giant, winged figure of Mephisto hovers over a town sowing the seeds of plague. Nosferatu and Faust were two of the first films to feature original film scores. Murnau emigrated to Hollywood in 1926, where he joined the Fox Studio and made Sunrise: A Song of T
Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang was an Austrian-German-American filmmaker and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best-known émigrés from Germany's school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the "Master of Darkness" by the British Film Institute. Lang's most famous films include the groundbreaking futuristic Metropolis and the influential M, a film noir precursor that he made before he moved to the United States. Lang was born in Vienna as the second son of Anton Lang, an architect and construction company manager, his wife Pauline "Paula" Lang née Schlesinger, he was baptized on December 1890, at the Schottenkirche in Vienna. Lang's parents were of Moravian descent, his parents took their religion and were dedicated to raising Fritz as a Catholic. Lang had Catholic-influenced themes in his films. Late in life, he described himself as "born Catholic". After finishing school, Lang attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and switched to art. In 1910 he left Vienna to see the world, traveling throughout Europe and Africa and Asia and the Pacific area.
In 1913, he studied painting in France. At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for military service in the Austrian army and fought in Russia and Romania, where he was wounded three times. While recovering from his injuries and shell shock in 1916, he wrote some scenarios and ideas for films, he was discharged from the army with the rank of lieutenant in 1918 and did some acting in the Viennese theater circuit for a short time before being hired as a writer at Decla, Erich Pommer's Berlin-based production company. Lang was an atheist. Lang's writing stint was brief, as he soon started to work as a director at the German film studio UFA, Nero-Film, just as the Expressionist movement was building. In this first phase of his career, Lang alternated between films such as Der Müde Tod and popular thrillers such as Die Spinnen, combining popular genres with Expressionist techniques to create an unprecedented synthesis of popular entertainment with art cinema. In 1920, Lang met the writer Thea von Harbou.
She and Lang co-wrote all of his movies from 1921 through 1933, including Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler, which ran for over four hours in two parts in the original version and was the first in the Dr. Mabuse trilogy, the five-hour Die Nibelungen, the famous 1927 film Metropolis, the science fiction film Woman in the Moon. Metropolis went far over budget and nearly destroyed the Ufa, bought by right-wing businessman and politician Alfred Hugenberg, it was a financial flop as well as his last silent films Spies and Woman in the Moon produced by Lang's own company. In 1931 independent producer Seymour Nebenzahl hired Lang to direct M for Nero-Film, his first "talking" picture, considered by many film scholars to be a masterpiece of the early sound era, M is a disturbing story of a child murderer, hunted down and brought to rough justice by Berlin's criminal underworld. M remains a powerful work. During the climactic final scene in M, Lang threw Peter Lorre down a flight of stairs in order to give more authenticity to Lorre's battered look.
Lang, known for being hard to work with, epitomized the stereotype of the tyrannical German film director, a type embodied by Erich von Stroheim and Otto Preminger. His wearing a monocle added to the stereotype. In the films of his German period, Lang produced a coherent oeuvre that established the characteristics attributed to film noir, with its recurring themes of psychological conflict, paranoia and moral ambiguity. At the end of 1932, Lang started filming The Testament of Dr. Mabuse. Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder. Testament is sometimes deemed an anti-Nazi film as Lang had put phrases used by the Nazis into the mouth of the title character. Lang was worried about the advent of the Nazi regime because of his Jewish heritage, whereas his wife and screenwriter Thea von Harbou had started to sympathize with the Nazis in the early 1930s and joined the NSDAP in 1940, they soon divorced. Lang's fears would be realized following his departure from Austria, as under the Nuremberg Laws he would be identified as a Jew though his mother was a converted Roman Catholic, he was raised as such.
According to Lang, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels called Lang to his offices to inform him that The Testament of Dr Mabuse was being banned but that he was so impressed by Lang's abilities as a filmmaker, he was offering Lang a position as the head of German film studio UFA. Lang had stated that it was during this meeting that he had decided to leave for Paris – but that the banks had closed by the time the meeting was over. Lang has stated that he fled that evening; this statement has been found wrong after his passport of the time showed that he travelled a few times during 1933 to and from Germany, where he got his divorce from Thea von Harbou, who stayed behind, late in 1933. Lang left Berlin on 31 July 1933, four months after his meeting with Goebbels and supposed dramatic escape, he moved to Paris. In Paris, Lang filmed a version of Ferenc Molnár's Liliom; this was Lang's only film in Fren
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Ozone Park, Queens
Ozone Park is a neighborhood located in the southwestern section of the borough of Queens, in New York City, New York, United States. It is located next to the Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, a popular spot for Thoroughbred racing; the neighborhood was known for its large Italian-American population. Over the years, it has become a diverse community; the northern border is cited as 103rd Avenue or Atlantic Avenue. Ozone Park is in Queens Community Board 10, covered by New York City Police Department's 106th Precinct, though the section north of 103rd Avenue is in Queens Community Board 9 and covered by the NYPD's 102nd Precinct. Ozone Park is represented by three civic organizations: Our Neighbors Civic Association, Ozone Park Residents Block Association, Ozone Tudor Civic Association; the name "Ozone Park" was chosen for the development to "lure buyers with the idea of refreshing breezes blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean to a park-like community". The "Ozone" in the neighborhood's name referred to a park-like area with cool ocean breezes, an archaic definition, not related to the present-day definition of the alternate form of oxygen.
An area now part of Ozone Park that pre-dated that community was called "Centreville". It was founded in the 1840s and was centered around Centreville Street and the Centreville Community Church. Part of Ozone Park is still called "Centreville". In the 1870s, two immigrants from France named Charles Lalance and Florian Grosjean developed a factory in Woodhaven; the factory manufactured cooking materials and porcelain enamelware, but burned down in a fire in 1876. Lalance and Grosjean built a second factory, as well as a hundred houses for workers, at Atlantic Avenue and 92nd Street in modern-day Ozone Park. During the 1870s, an economic depression caused residents of New York City to look for better housing opportunities in the suburbs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, where housing would be cheaper. In 1880, the New York, Woodhaven & Rockaway Railroad began service on the Montauk Branch and Rockaway Beach Branch from Long Island City to Howard Beach, Queens. Two years two wealthy partners named Benjamin W. Hitchcock and Charles C. Denton bought plots of land around what would become the Woodhaven Junction station.
The Rockaway Beach Branch's Ozone Park station opened in 1883. Advertisements for Ozone Park proclaimed that the development had "pure air" and "no malaria". Called Ozone Park was called "the Harlem of Brooklyn" because at the time, the borough of Queens did not yet exist, Harlem was a thriving Jewish and Italian neighborhood in Manhattan. Hitchcock and Denton chose the "Ozone Park" name because in the 1880s, ozone was associated with breezes from the sea, the Atlantic Ocean was located nearby; the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's Fulton Street elevated railroad line above Liberty Avenue opened in 1915, with a station at Lefferts Avenue. The elevated train system only charged a 5-cent fare; the nickel fare was another major factor in the development of Ozone Park, as residents could travel across the entire elevated and subway system for 5 cents. After the opening of the elevated line, real estate developers began buying up all the lots on either side of Liberty Avenue in hopes the new station would attract more people to want to live in Ozone Park.
Extensive housing construction occurred in the 1920s. The houses featured enclosed front porches, open back porches and stained-glass windows in the living rooms. Most of the houses were detached or semi-detached built to the same plan, with the living room, dining room and kitchen all in line and three bedrooms and a bath upstairs; the stairs were in the dining room. One of the builders was named Weyerman. During the 1920s, Woodhaven Avenue was the main north-south artery in the area, though its southern terminus was at Liberty Avenue. In conjunction with the extension of Woodhaven Avenue to the Rockaway Peninsula, the avenue was widened to 150 feet and renamed Woodhaven Boulevard; the extension itself, named Cross Bay Boulevard, opened to traffic in 1925. Because Ozone Park was now more accessible by car, the land became much more valuable, leading to a construction boom. Between 1921 and 1930, Ozone Park saw a population increase of over 180% from 40,000 to 112,950 people. With this increase in population came the need for schools and sources of entertainment.
In response to this demand came the construction of John Adams High School in 1930. This school was built just as the construction boom slowed down and right before the Great Depression; the 1,800-seat Cross-Bay Movie Theatre opened in December 1924, a 2,000-seat theater at 102nd Street and Liberty Avenue was built during this time. One area of Ozone Park is known as "The Hole", includes the area bounded by 75th Street, South Conduit Avenue, 78th Street and Linden Boulevard, it is named as such because the houses in this area were built below grade, with a ground level, 30 feet lower than the surrounding area. The area is run-down, suffers from frequent flooding. In the 1930s, the city of New York decided to install sewers and sewer lines in Ozone Park to stop the serious flooding, a major problem. In order to install the sewers, the houses had to be raised an entire floor. Owners were given a stipend to raise their homes but some chose not to do so; the first floor in some of the non-raised homes subsequently became basements.
In 2004, the New York City Departmen
Vertigo is a 1958 American film noir psychological thriller film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock. The story was based on the 1954 novel D'entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac; the screenplay was written by Samuel A. Taylor; the film stars James Stewart as former police detective John "Scottie" Ferguson. Scottie is forced into early retirement because an incident in the line of duty has caused him to develop acrophobia and vertigo. Scottie is hired by an acquaintance, Gavin Elster, as a private investigator to follow Gavin's wife Madeleine, behaving strangely; the film was shot on location in San Francisco, at Paramount Studios in Hollywood. It is the first film to use the dolly zoom, an in-camera effect that distorts perspective to create disorientation, to convey Scottie's acrophobia; as a result of its use in this film, the effect is referred to as "the Vertigo effect". Vertigo received mixed reviews upon initial release, but is now cited as a classic Hitchcock film and one of the defining works of his career.
Attracting significant scholarly criticism, it replaced Citizen Kane as the greatest film made in the 2012 British Film Institute's Sight & Sound critics' poll. In 1996, the film underwent a major restoration to create DTS soundtrack, it has appeared in polls of the best films by the American Film Institute, including a 2007 ranking as the ninth-greatest American movie of all time. After a rooftop chase, where his fear of heights and vertigo result in the death of a policeman, San Francisco detective John "Scottie" Ferguson retires. Scottie tries to conquer his fear, but his friend and ex-fiancée Midge Wood says that another severe emotional shock may be the only cure. An acquaintance from college, Gavin Elster, asks Scottie to follow his wife, claiming that she is in some sort of danger. Scottie reluctantly agrees, follows Madeleine to a florist where she buys a bouquet of flowers, to the Mission San Francisco de Asís and the grave of one Carlotta Valdes, to the Legion of Honor art museum where she gazes at the Portrait of Carlotta.
He watches her enter the McKittrick Hotel. A local historian explains that Carlotta Valdes committed suicide: she had been the mistress of a wealthy married man and bore his child. Gavin reveals that Carlotta is Madeleine's great-grandmother, although Madeleine has no knowledge of this, does not remember the places she has visited. Scottie tails Madeleine to Fort Point and, when she leaps into the bay, he rescues her; the next day Scottie follows Madeleine. They travel to Muir Woods and Cypress Point on 17-Mile Drive, where Madeleine runs down towards the ocean. Scottie grabs they embrace. Madeleine recounts a nightmare and Scottie identifies its setting as Mission San Juan Bautista, childhood home of Carlotta, he drives her there and they express their love for each other. Madeleine runs into the church and up the bell tower. Scottie, halted on the steps by his acrophobia, sees Madeleine plunge to her death; the death is declared a suicide. Gavin does not fault Scottie, but Scottie breaks down, becomes clinically depressed and is in a sanatorium catatonic.
After release, Scottie frequents the places that Madeleine visited imagining that he sees her. One day, he notices a woman. Scottie follows her and she identifies herself as Judy Barton, from Salina, Kansas. A flashback reveals that Judy was the person Scottie knew as "Madeleine Elster". Judy drafts a letter to Scottie explaining her involvement: Gavin had deliberately taken advantage of Scottie's acrophobia to substitute his wife's freshly killed body in the apparent "suicide jump", but Judy continues the charade, because she loves Scottie. They begin seeing each other, but Scottie remains obsessed with "Madeleine", asks Judy to change her clothes and hair so that she resembles Madeleine. After Judy complies, hoping that they may find happiness together, he notices her wearing the necklace portrayed in the painting of Carlotta, realizes the truth, that Judy had been Elster's mistress, before being cast aside just as Carlotta was. Scottie insists on driving Judy to the Mission. There, he tells her he must re-enact the event that led to his madness, admitting he now understands that "Madeleine" and Judy are the same person.
Scottie makes her admit her deceit. Scottie reaches the top conquering his acrophobia. Judy confesses. Judy begs Scottie to forgive her, he embraces her, but a shadowed figure rises from the trapdoor of the tower, startling Judy, who steps backward and falls to her death. Scottie, bereaved again, stands on the ledge, while the figure, a nun investigating the noise, rings the mission bell. James Stewart as John "Scottie" Ferguson Kim Novak as Judy Barton Barbara Bel Geddes as Marjorie "Midge" Wood Tom Helmore as Gavin Elster Henry Jones as the coroner Raymond Bailey as Scottie's doctor Ellen Corby as the manager of the McKittrick Hotel Konstantin Shayne as bookstore owner Pop Leibel Lee Patrick as the car owner mistaken for MadeleineUncredited Margaret Brayton as the Ransohoff's saleslady Paul Bryar as Capt. Hansen (accompanies Scottie
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai