The Andromeda Galaxy known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224 and the Andromeda Nebula, is a spiral galaxy 2.5 million light-years from Earth, the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. The galaxy's name stems from the area of the Earth's sky in which it appears, the constellation of Andromeda; the virial mass of the Andromeda Galaxy is of the same order of magnitude as that of the Milky Way, at 1 trillion solar masses. The mass of either galaxy is difficult to estimate with any accuracy, but it was long thought that the Andromeda Galaxy is more massive than the Milky Way by a margin of some 25% to 50%; this has been called into question by a 2018 study which cited a lower estimate on the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy, combined with preliminary reports on a 2019 study estimating a higher mass of the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy has a diameter of about 220,000 ly, making it the largest member of the Local Group at least in terms of extension, if not mass; the number of stars contained in the Andromeda Galaxy is estimated at one trillion, or twice the number estimated for the Milky Way.
The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are expected to collide in around 4.5 billion years, merging to form a giant elliptical galaxy or a large lenticular galaxy. With an apparent magnitude of 3.4, the Andromeda Galaxy is among the brightest of the Messier objects making it visible to the naked eye from Earth on moonless nights when viewed from areas with moderate light pollution. Around the year 964, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi was the first to describe the Andromeda Galaxy, he referred to it in his Book of Fixed Stars as a "nebulous smear". Star charts of that period labeled it as the Little Cloud. In 1612, the German astronomer Simon Marius gave an early description of the Andromeda Galaxy based on telescopic observations. Pierre Louis Maupertuis conjectured in 1745. In 1764, Charles Messier cataloged Andromeda as object M31 and incorrectly credited Marius as the discoverer despite it being visible to the naked eye. In 1785, the astronomer William Herschel noted a faint reddish hue in the core region of Andromeda.
He believed Andromeda to be the nearest of all the "great nebulae", based on the color and magnitude of the nebula, he incorrectly guessed that it was no more than 2,000 times the distance of Sirius, or 18,000 ly. In 1850, William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse made the first drawing of Andromeda's spiral structure. In 1864, William Huggins noted that the spectrum of Andromeda differed from that of a gaseous nebula; the spectra of Andromeda displays a continuum of frequencies, superimposed with dark absorption lines that help identify the chemical composition of an object. Andromeda's spectrum is similar to the spectra of individual stars, from this, it was deduced that Andromeda has a stellar nature. In 1885, a supernova was seen in the first and so far only one observed in that galaxy. At the time Andromeda was considered to be a nearby object, so the cause was thought to be a much less luminous and unrelated event called a nova, was named accordingly. In 1887, Isaac Roberts took the first photographs of Andromeda, still thought to be a nebula within our galaxy.
Roberts mistook Andromeda and similar spiral nebulae as solar systems being formed. In 1912, Vesto Slipher used spectroscopy to measure the radial velocity of Andromeda with respect to our Solar System—the largest velocity yet measured, at 300 km/s. In 1917, Heber Curtis observed a nova within Andromeda. Searching the photographic record, 11 more novae were discovered. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred elsewhere in the sky; as a result, he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 500,000 ly. He became a proponent of the so-called "island universes" hypothesis, which held that spiral nebulae were independent galaxies. In 1920, the Great Debate between Harlow Shapley and Curtis took place concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, the dimensions of the Universe. To support his claim of the Great Andromeda Nebula being, in fact, an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes within Andromeda which resembled the dust clouds in our own galaxy, as well as historical observations of Andromeda Galaxy's significant Doppler shift.
In 1922 Ernst Öpik presented a method to estimate the distance of Andromeda using the measured velocities of its stars. His result placed the Andromeda Nebula far outside our galaxy at a distance of about 450 kpc. Edwin Hubble settled the debate in 1925 when he identified extragalactic Cepheid variable stars for the first time on astronomical photos of Andromeda; these were made using the 2.5-metre Hooker telescope, they enabled the distance of Great Andromeda Nebula to be determined. His measurement demonstrated conclusively that this feature was not a cluster of stars and gas within our own galaxy, but an separate galaxy located a significant distance from the Milky Way. In 1943, Walter Baade was the first person to resolve stars in the central region of the Andromeda Galaxy. Baade identified two distinct populations of stars based on their metallicity, naming the young, high-velocity stars in the disk Type I and the older, red stars in the bulge Type II; this nomenclature was subsequently adopted for stars within the Milky Way, elsewhere.
Baade discovered that there were two types of Cepheid variables, which resulted in a doubling of the distance estimate to Andromeda, as well
Alan Shuptrine A painter known for his Southern and Appalachian Mountains genre, Alan Shuptrine has extended his reputation from a renowned framemaker and water gilder to a nationally acclaimed watercolorist. Born the son of recognized painter, Hubert Shuptrine, Alan has continued the legacy of realism that both Andrew Wyeth and his father Hubert established; as of October 2017, Alan and his wife are current residents of Lookout Mountain, Shuptrine's pursuit of the arts includes schooling at The Baylor School. His style is Realism with detailed and dramatic lighting in his landscapes and figurative paintings. Shuptrine’s medium is watercolor which he applies and controls in various techniques, from wet-in-wet to drybrush, he creates using egg tempera, the centuries-old art of water gilding with genuine gold leaf, wood carving, sgraffito. He prefers to handcraft and carve his own frames for his paintings, a practice of two of his influences: James McNeill Whistler, Charles Prendergast, his other influences include the works of his father, Hubert Shuptrine, Andrew Wyeth, Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, John Singer Sargent.
Recognized by publications such as American Artist Magazine and Watercolor Artist Magazine, Shuptrine garnered additional recognition when he was asked to participate in the exhibit, “In the Tradition of Wyeth: Contemporary Watercolor Masters” at The Vero Beach Museum of Art in 2010. The exhibition opened with Alan’s paintings displayed alongside the works by Andrew Wyeth and his father. Following the Vero Beach exhibition, the Huntsville Museum of Art and The Tennessee State Museum selected Shuptrine’s watercolors for their permanent collections. After participating in numerous juried exhibitions and receiving awards from national and international watercolor societies, Shuptrine is now launching his first solo museum exhibition in May, 2017. Alan Shuptrine: Appalachian Watercolors of the Serpentine Chain will open at Tennessee State Museum and will celebrate the Celtic roots of the Appalachian Mountains. Serving as a monument to the descendants of early English, Irish and Welsh who settled the Eastern Seaboard, this art collection and soon-to-be coffee table book and documentary film, will collectively preserve mountain heritage and traditions for future generations.
But for all the beautiful scenery, at its core this exhibition is about heritage, with Appalachian ties to the old country that can be seen in folk tales, quilt patterns, fiddle tunes. In the 18th century, when many British people immigrated to America, they didn't feel comfortable on the coast, so they kept moving westward; when they got to the Appalachians, it felt familiar, like home. Unbeknownst to them, they were settling in the same mountains they had just left behind, an ocean way."The paintings are quite varied in subject matter: Stirring the Mash shows a group of moonshiners preparing their product in the dim light of dusk, in a clearing hidden by the mountains and shrouded in fog. In Mist and Lace, the fog gives the mountain in the background an otherwordly quality, while in the foreground are crisply rendered flowers catching the sunlight. Just Before Dawn silhouettes a branching tree against the pale sky, with the roof of a house just visible behind the barbed-wire fence."Collaborating with New York Times best-selling author, Sharyn McCrumb, Alan will create a coffee table book, The Serpentine Chain, which will be a self-published thematic and large format art book.
Filippo Baldinucci was an Italian art historian and biographer. Baldinucci is considered among the most significant Florentine biographers/historians of the artists and the arts of the Baroque period. Patronised by the Medici, he aspired to become the new Vasari by renewing and expanding his biographies of artists, to which Baldinucci added lives of French and Flemish artists omitted by Vasari, his most important work was this biographical dictionary of artists, Notizie de' professori del disegno da Cimabue in qua, of which the publication began in 1681 and continued after his death. His biography of Gian Lorenzo Bernini was published in 1682. Baldinucci came from a wealthy family of the Florentine merchant elite; as well as writing he modeled in clay. For Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici, brother of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and a scholar and patron of the arts, he began as bookkeeper in 1664 and developed, after the Cardinal's death, into the curator of the Grand Ducal collections.
In this way Baldinucci made a name as one of Italy's leading connoisseurs. His work recataloguing and adding to the Medici collections, first of drawings and of paintings, was groundbreaking, using new ideas about organisation and completeness to make these the most modern collections of the time—collections in large part the foundation of the Uffizi's art holdings; this meticulous work was based on an ability to distinguish between the hands of different painters—an idea new and untested, one that opened up the field of connoisseurship that enabled the attributions of Italian drawings, which are unsigned. In his Vocabolario, the first dictionary of artistic terms, Baldinucci provided fourteen definitions of style using eighty different terms, applied some of his terms to "bad" art. From this grew his Notizie, in which he consciously intended to build upon the Vite of Giorgio Vasari, he studied the stylistic debts of the great masters to one another, in this, his meticulous use of documentation and archives, he was centuries ahead in the discipline of art history.
In his Vocabolario he presented terms of art and technical terms, not only for the fine arts but for goldsmith's work, pietre dure, color pigments and tools. In other ways Baldinucci was much a man of his time, of the Counter-Reformation and of the Baroque. Educated at a Jesuit school, he was intensely pious—before marrying, he completed the whole of Ignatius of Loyola's Spiritual Exercises to discover whether he should in fact devote himself to a single life. Three of his sons went into the church, one, was a Jesuit missionary beatified, he had great appreciation of the Baroque, wrote in a periodic style which reflected it, each phrase opening from the preceding, full of periphrasis and other flourishes of rhetoric, though flowing. His understanding of art stemmed from his religion, for he believed that it came as divine inspiration into special lives, the lives of the artists he so painstakingly recorded. Baldinucci's son wrote the first biography of his father. Florence 1667 and further editions.
Baldinucci's engraving forms the frontispiece. This contains the first mention in Italy of Rembrandt's prints. Vocabolario toscano dell'arte del disegno Florence 1681. Reprinted 1976. Notizie de' professori del disegno da Cimabue in qua, 6 vols, Florence 1681–1728, published in part posthumously. A second edition in six volumes with additional materials was edited by A. Matteoli and was reprinted in Rome, 1975. Vita del cav. Gio. Lorenzo Bernino, Lettera a Vinc. Capponi, Veglia sulle Belle Arti, Lezione accademica were collected and appended to the second volume of his Notizie, 1682. Filippo Baldinucci on the Privilege of Burial is the title of a poem by Robert Browning from his 1876 collection and How He Worked in Distemper, it is based on an anecdote contained in Baldinucci's life of the artist Lodovico Buti. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baldinucci, Filippo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Portrait of a man and black chalk Schlosser-Magnino, Julius. La letteratura artistica Rev. ed. 1935 Ernst Gombrich "Kunstliteratur", in Atlantisbuch der Kunst 1952