Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, part of the North Aegean region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios. Locals refer to Chios town as "Chora", it was the site of the Chios massacre in which tens of thousands of Greeks on the island were killed by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 km long from north to south, 29 km at its widest, covering an area of 842.289 km2. The terrain is arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island; the two largest of these mountains and Epos, are situated in the north of the island.
The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions: Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main town of Chios, the regions of Vrontados and Kambos. Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour and medieval castle; the current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 m, was principally constructed during the time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating settlements there back to 2000 B. C; the town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881, only retains its original character. North of Chios Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados; the suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's Rock". In the southern region of the island are the Mastichochoria, the seven villages of Mesta, Olympi, Vessa and Elata, which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period.
The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a large number of historic villages including Armolia and Kalimassia. Along the east coast are the fishing villages to the south, Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822, it was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent; the island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate, with modest variation due to the stabilising effect of the surrounding sea.
Average temperatures range from a summer high of 27 °C to a winter low of 11 °C in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C or below freezing can sometimes be encountered. The island experiences steady breezes throughout the year, with wind direction predominantly northerly or southwesterly; the Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea adjacent to the island of Chios. Known as "Ophioussa" and "Pityoussa" in antiquity, during the Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio and Sakız; the capital during that time was "Kastron". Archaeological research on Chios has found evidence of habitation dating back at least to the Neolithic era; the primary sites of research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio Galas in the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period; the size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established.
The British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, most current information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological Service has been excavating periodically on Chios since 1970, though much of its work on the island remains unpublished; the noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic era on the island. The inhabitants all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming, it is widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by humans during the Middle Bronze Age, though researchers have suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may o
John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at the age of eight. John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant, his long reign was marked by the gradual dissolution of imperial power amid numerous civil wars and the continuing ascendancy of the Ottoman Turks. John V came to the throne at age eight, his reign began with an immediate civil war between his designated regent, his father's friend John Kantakouzenos, a self-proclaimed council of regency composed of his mother Anna, the patriarch John XIV Kalekas, the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos. During this civil war in 1343 Anna pawned the Byzantine crown jewels for 30,000 Venetian ducats. From 1346 to 1349, the Black Plague devastated Constantinople. Victorious in 1347, John Kantakouzenos ruled as co-emperor until his son Matthew was attacked by John V in 1352, leading to a second civil war. John V asked the ruler of Serbia, Stefan Dušan for help, Dušan obliged by sending 4,000 Serbian horsemen to his aid.
Matthew Kantakouzenos asked his father for help, 10,000 Ottoman Turks showed up at Demotika in October 1352 and engaged the forces of John V's Serbian allies in an open field battle that resulted in the destruction of the allies and a victory for the more numerous Turks in the service of the Byzantines. The Ottoman Empire thus acquired its first European territory, at Gallipoli. Able to retake Constantinople in 1354, John V removed and tonsured John VI. In 1366, John V reached the Hungarian Kingdom, arriving at the Royal city of Buda to meet King Louis I of Hungary. However, the Byzantine emperor offended the king by staying on his horse, while Louis descended and approached him on foot; the Hungarian monarch offered him help on the condition that John join the Catholic church, or at least achieve recognition by the Patriarch of the Pope's supremacy. The Emperor left the court of Buda with empty hands and continued his trip through Europe searching for assistance against the Ottomans; the Ottomans, allied with the Kantakouzenoi, continued to press John.
Suleyman Paşa, the son of the Ottoman sultan, led their forces in Europe and was able to take Adrianople and Philippopolis and to exact tribute from the emperor. John V appealed to the West for help, proposing to Pope Urban V in 1367 to end the schism between the Byzantine and Latin churches by submitting the patriarchate to the supremacy of Rome. In October 1369 John, having travelled through Naples to Rome, formally converted to Catholicism in St Peter's Basilica and recognized the pope as supreme head of the Church, he was not accompanied by the clergy of the Byzantine Church and the move failed to bring about an end to the Schism. Impoverished by war, he was detained as a debtor when he visited Venice in 1369 on his way back from Rome and was captured on his way back through Bulgarian territories. In 1371, he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Murad assisted him against his son Andronikos when the latter deposed him in 1376. In 1390, his grandson John VII usurped the throne, but he was overthrown.
The same year, John ordered the strengthening of the Golden Gate in Constantinople, utilizing marble from the decayed churches in and around the city. Upon completion of this construction, Bayezid I demanded that John raze these new works, threatening war and the blinding of his son Manuel, whom he held in captivity. John V filled the Sultan's order but is said to have suffered from this humiliation and died soon thereafter on 16 February 1391. John V was succeeded to the imperial throne by his son Manuel, his younger son Theodore had acceded to the Despotate of Morea in 1383. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347, they had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters. Their known children include: Andronikos IV Palaiologos; the couple had Princes Gunduz and Omer. Manuel II Palaiologos. List of Byzantine emperors Harris, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Alexander Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire 324-1453.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952. ISBN 0299809269 Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nicol, Donald M.. The Reluctant Emperor: A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, c. 1295-1383. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus, (17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320, reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos and Anna of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary. Michael IX Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1281 and was crowned in 1294. In 1302, he was sent at the head of Alanian mercenaries against the Turks in Asia Minor, in 1304–1305 he was charged with dealing with the rebellious Catalan Company. After organizing the murder of the Catalan commander Roger de Flor in an elaborate plot, Michael IX led the Byzantine troops against the furious Catalans, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Apros, he was heavily injured during that battle. A brave and energetic soldier willing to make personal sacrifices to pay or encourage his troops, Michael IX was unable to overcome the Catalans and is the only Palaiologan emperor to predecease his father. Michael IX's premature death at age 43 was attributed in part to grief over the accidental murder of his younger son Manuel Palaiologos by retainers of his older son and co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Michael IX Palaiologos married Rita of Armenia, daughter of King Leo III of Armenia and Queen Keran of Armenia on 16 January 1294. By this marriage, Michael IX had several children, including: Andronikos III Palaiologos Manuel Palaiologos, despotēs Anna Palaiologina, who married Thomas I Komnenos Doukas and Nicholas Orsini. Theodora Palaiologina, who married Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria and Michael Asen III of Bulgaria. Bartusis, Mark C.. The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. Geanakoplos, Deno. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261-1354". In Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Vol. III; the University of Wisconsin Press. Giannouli, Antonia. "Coronation Speeches in the Palaiologan Period". In Beihammer, Alexander. Court Ceremonies and Rituals of Power in Byzantium and the Medieval Mediterranean. Brill. Hilsdale, Cecily J.. Byzantine Art and Diplomacy in an Age of Decline. Cambridge University Press. Korobeĭnikov, Dimitri.
Byzantium and the Turks in the Thirteenth Century. Oxford University Press. Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991
Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, appears thus in Homer's Odyssey. Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after four and a half centuries of Ottoman rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13 regions and is further sub-divided into 5 regional units and 25 municipalities; the capital of the region is Larissa. Thessaly lies in northern Greece and borders the regions of Macedonia on the north, Epirus on the west, Central Greece on the south and the Aegean Sea on the east; the Thessaly region includes the Sporades islands. In Homer's epic, the Odyssey, the hero Odysseus visited the kingdom of Aeolus, the old name for Thessaly; the Plain of Thessaly, which lies between Mount Oeta/Othrys and Mount Olympus, was the site of the battle between the Titans and the Olympians. According to legend and the Argonauts launched their search for the Golden Fleece from the Magnesia Peninsula.
Thessaly was home to extensive Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures around 6000–2500 BC. Mycenaean settlements have been discovered, for example at the sites of Iolcos and Sesklo. In Archaic and Classical times, the lowlands of Thessaly became the home of baronial families, such as the Aleuadae of Larissa or the Scopads of Crannon. In the summer of 480 BC, the Persians invaded Thessaly; the Greek army that guarded the Vale of Tempe evacuated the road before the enemy arrived. Not much Thessaly surrendered to the Persians; the Thessalian family of Aleuadae joined the Persians subsequently. In the 4th century BC, after the Greco-Persian Wars had long ended, Jason of Pherae transformed the region into a significant military power, recalling the glory of Early Archaic times. Shortly after, Philip II of Macedon was appointed Archon of Thessaly, Thessaly was thereafter associated with the Macedonian Kingdom for the next centuries. Thessaly became part of the Roman Empire as part of the province of Macedonia.
Thessaly remained part of the East Roman "Byzantine" Empire after the collapse of Roman power in the west, subsequently suffered many invasions, such as by the Slavic tribe of the Belegezites in the 7th century AD. The Avars had arrived in Europe in the late 550s, they asserted their authority over many Slavs. Many Slavs were galvanized by the Avars. In the 7th century the Avar-Slav alliance began to raid the Byzantine Empire, laying siege to Thessalonica and the imperial capital Constantinople itself. By the 8th century, Slavs had occupied most of the Balkans from Austria to the Peloponnese, from the Adriatic to the Black seas, with the exception of the coastal areas and certain mountainous regions of the Greek peninsula. Relations between the Slavs and Greeks were peaceful apart from the initial settlement and intermittent uprisings. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs traded with the Greeks inside towns, it is that the re-Hellenization had begun by way of this contact. This process would be completed by a newly reinvigorated Byzantine Empire.
With the abatement of Arab-Byzantine Wars, the Byzantine Empire began to consolidate its power in those areas of mainland Greece occupied by Proto-Slavic tribes. Following the campaigns of the Byzantine general Staurakios in 782–783, the Byzantine Empire recovered Thessaly, taking many Slavs as prisoners. Apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process begun under Nicephorus I involved transfer of peoples. Many Slavs were moved to other parts of the empire such as Anatolia and made to serve in the military. In return, many Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought to the interior of Greece, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperor's disposal and dilute the concentration of Slavs. In 977 Byzantine Thessaly was raided by the Bulgarian Empire. In 1066 dissatisfaction with the taxation policy led the Aromanian and Bulgarian population of Thessaly to revolt against the Byzantine Empire under the leadership of a local lord, Nikoulitzas Delphinas; the revolt, which began in Larissa, soon expanded to Trikala and northwards to the Byzantine-Bulgarian border.
In 1199–1201 another unsuccessful revolt was led by Manuel Kamytzes, son-in-law of Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos, with the support of Dobromir Chrysos, the autonomous ruler of Prosek. Kamytzes managed to establish a short-lived principality in northern Thessaly, before he was overcome by an imperial expedition. Following the siege of Constantinople and the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in April 1204, Thessaly passed to Boniface of Montferrat's Kingdom of Thessalonica in the wider context of the Frankokratia. In 1212, Michael I Komnenos Doukas, ruler of Epirus, led his troops into Thessaly. Larissa and much of central Thessaly came under Epirote rule, thereby separating Thessalonica from the Crusader principalities in southern Greece. Michael's work was completed by his half-brother and successor, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, who by 1220 completed the recovery of the entire region; the Vlachs of Thessaly first appear in Byzantine sources in the 11th century, in the Strategikon of Kekaumenos and Anna Komnene's Alexiad).
In the 12th century, the Jewish traveller Benjamin of Tudela records the
Stefan Uroš III Nemanjić, known as Stefan Dečanski, was the King of Serbia from 6 January 1322 to 8 September 1331. Dečanski was the son of King Stefan Milutin, he defeated several of his family members vying for the throne, he took his epithet Dečanski from the great monastery. Stefan Uroš III was the son of King Stefan Uroš II Milutin and his first wife Jelena, a Serbian noblewoman, he was born before his father took the throne in 1282. While still a youth, he was sent by his father as a hostage with his entourage to Nogai Khan of the Golden Horde, to maintain the peace between the Serbs and Tatars, he stayed at Nogai's court until the Khan's death in 1299. In 1314, Stefan Dečanski quarreled with his father. Dečanski was never blinded and was not blinded at all. In Constantinople, Dečanski was at the court of Andronikos II Palaiologos, indicating good relations between the states. Dečanski wrote a letter to Bishop of Hum, asking him to intervene with Dečanski's father. Danilo wrote to Archbishop Nicodemus of Serbia, who spoke with Milutin and persuaded him to recall his son.
In 1320 Dečanski was permitted to return to Serbia and was given the appanage of Budimlje, while his half-brother Stefan Konstantin, held Zeta. Milutin became ill and died on 29 October 1321, leaving no formal instruction regarding his inheritance. Konstantin was crowned King in Zeta, but civil war broke out as both Stefan Dečanski and his cousin, Stefan Vladislav II, claimed the throne. Dečanski revealed that his eyesight was still intact, claiming a miracle, the populous rallied behind him believing the restoration of his sight to be a sign from God. On 6 January 1322, the Archbishop of Serbia, crowned Dečanski King and his son, Stefan Dušan, Young King. Dečanski granted Zeta to Dušan as an appanage, indicating his intention for Dušan to be his heir. According to one account, Dečanski offered to split the realm with Konstantin. Dečanski invaded Zeta, Konstantin was defeated and killed. In the meantime, Vladislav II had been released from prison upon Milutin's death and recovered the throne of Syrmia, which his father had established in northern Serbia.
Vladislav claimed the throne of Serbia upon Milutin's death and mobilized local support from Rudnik, a former appanage of Vladislav's father. Supported by Hungarians and Bosnians, Vladislav consolidated control over Syrmia and prepared for battle with Dečanski. In 1323, war broke out between Vladislav. In autumn, Vladislav still held Rudnik, but by the end of 1323, the market of Rudnik was held by officials of Dečanski, Vladislav seems to have fled further north; some of Vladislav's supporters from Rudnik, led by Ragusan merchant Menčet, took refuge in the nearby Ostrovica fortress, where they resisted Dečanski's troops. Dečanski sent envoys to capital of Ragusa, to protest the support of Vladislav. Dubrovnik rejected Dečanski's complaint. Dečanski was not satisfied, in 1324 he rounded up all the Ragusan merchants he could find, confiscated their property, held them captive. By year's end, Rudnik was restored to Dečanski, who released the merchants and returned their property. Vladislav was defeated in battle in late 1324, fled to Hungary.
Tensions between Dubrovnik and Serbia continued: in August 1325 Vojvoda Vojin plundered Dubrovnik, resulting in a brief trade ban. On 25 March 1326 Dečanski reaffirmed privileges granted to Ragusa by Milutin. Tensions began again, when Bosnia and Dubrovnik took actions against the Branivojevići. Dečanski maintained an alliance with Andronikos II, aside from occasional disruptions. Dečanski avoided taking a position in the Byzantine civil war between Andronikos II and Andronikos III Palaiologos; as Andronikos III gained control, he developed an alliance with Tsar Michael Asen III of Bulgaria. Michael Asen III divorced Dečanski's sister Anna and married the Byzantine princess Theodora Palaiologina instead; the allies intended to join forces for a major invasion of Serbia in 1330. In the most significant event of Dečanski's reign, he defeated and killed Michael Asen III in the Battle of Velbazhd. Prince Stefan Dušan contributed to the victory. Hearing of Michael's defeat, Andronikos III retreated. Dečanski's subsequent conquests pushed the Serbian border south into Byzantine Macedonia.
Some of his courtiers, were discontented with his policies and conspired to dethrone him in favour of Stefan Dušan. In 1331 Dušan came from Skadar to Nerodimlje to overthrow Dečanski, who fled to Petrič. On 21 August 1331 Dušan captured Petrič after a siege and imprisoned his father in Zvečan Fortress, where he was strangled on 11 November 1331. By his first wife, Theodora of Bulgaria, Stefan Dečanski had two children: Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, who overthrew him and took royal title Dušica By his second wife, Maria Palaiologina, daughter of John Palaiologos, Dečanski had: Simeon tried to usurp imperial title from his nephew, ruled as independent ruler in Thessaly Jelena, who married Mladen III Šubić Teodora, who married Dejan Stefan is seen as a noble character in epic poetry, the Serbian Orthodox Church had him canonized, his remains are venerated at the church of the Visoki Dečani monastery, in Kosovo. Dečanski's royal crown has been preserved until the present and is now kept at the Cetinje Monastery, in Montenegro.
Danilo II, Life of Saintly Stefan Dečanski (Primar
Thrace is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria and Turkey, bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises northeastern Greece and the European part of Turkey; the word Thrace was established by the Greeks for referring to the Thracian tribes, from ancient Greek Thrake, descending from Thrāix. It referred to the Thracians, an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeast Europe; the name Europe first referred to Thrace proper, prior to the term vastly extending to refer to its modern concept. The region could have been named after the principal river there, Hebros from the Indo-European arg "white river", According to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in Thracian. In Turkey, it is referred to as Rumeli, Land of the Romans, owing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire, conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In terms of ancient Greek mythology the name appears to derive from the heroine and sorceress Thrace, the daughter of Oceanus and Parthenope, sister of Europa.
The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians, a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions were added. In one ancient Greek source, the Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya and Thracia"; as the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the Danube on the north, by the Euxine Sea on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by Illyria to the west. This coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River; this usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, Thrace referred only to the tract of land covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace.
The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only. The largest cities of Thrace are: Plovdiv, Stara Zagora, Haskovo, Komotini, Xanthi, Istanbul, Çorlu, Kırklareli and Tekirdağ. Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Orthodox Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace are Sunni Muslims. Ancient Greek mythology provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thrax, the son of the war-god Ares, said to reside in Thrace; the Thracians appear in Homer's Iliad as Trojan allies, led by Peiros. In the Iliad, another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor, is given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east; the Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus. Ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones, Bisaltae and Bistones in addition to the tribe that Homer calls the “Thracians”.
Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes, Lycurgus, Tegyrius, Polymnestor and Oeagrus. Thrace is mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the episode of Philomela and Tereus: Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela, he kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however, she and her sister, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale, Tereus into a hoopoe; the indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent, Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies. On, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself.
The Thracians did not describe themselves by name. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the Odrysian state in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians, the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers and prophets. Sections of Thrace in the south star
Phocaea or Phokaia was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia in 600 BC, Emporion in 575 BC and Elea in 540 BC. Phocaea was the northernmost of the Ionian cities, on the boundary with Aeolis, it was located near the mouth of the river Hermus, situated on the coast of the peninsula separating the Gulf of Cyme to the north, named for the largest of the Aeolian cities, the Gulf of Smyrna to the south. Phocaea had two natural harbours within close range of the settlement, both containing a number of small islands. Phocaea's harbours allowed it to develop a thriving seafaring economy, to become a great naval power, which influenced its culture. Recent archaeological surveys have shown. Herodotus gives an idea of the size of Phocaea by describing the walls of Phocaea as having a length of several stadia. A 4th century BC Persian Tomb, known as Tas Kule, stands 7 km east of Phocaea along a main road; this funerary monument was carved out of solid rock with a lower 2.7 meter high rectangular story surmounted by a second 1.9 meter high story.
Four steps between the two levels suggest strong Persian influence and most archaeologists believe this tomb was built for a Persian aristocrat or local leader serving the Persians. Compare the style of the tomb of Cyrus; the ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred. According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.
Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they helped settle Amisos on the Black Sea, Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont; however Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica and Rhoda in Spain, Massalia in France. Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus, when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, fell under Lydian control and along with Lydia were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict. Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city; some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC. In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC.
However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter. After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia; the Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC. In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete. During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip, it was under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship.
It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular. In 1914, Phocaea was the location of a massacre against ethnic Greek civilians by Turkish irregular bands. Following the Lydians, the Phocaeans were among the earliest in the world to make and use coins as money, its earliest coins were made of electrum, a occurring alloy of silver and gold. The British Museum has a Phocaean coin containing the image of a seal dating from 600 to 550 BC. Cyme 25 Phocaea, an asteroid named after the city British Museum: "Gold ring engraved with a woman at an altar", circa 350 BC, Phocaea "Silver stater, with turtle", late 6th century BC Perseus Coin Catalog: "Dewing 2304", circa 477 BC–388 BC Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena, profile to the left.