Wiedźmin is a 2001 Polish fantasy film directed by Marek Brodzki. It stars Michał Żebrowski as Geralt of Rivia; the story is based on the books and stories of The Witcher written by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski. The 13-episode television series came out the following year; the film has been described as the then-unreleased television series condensed into a 2-hour film, received poor reviews from both fans and critics. The film was the first attempt to depict The Witcher universe in the cinema; the television series and the film were loosely based on Andrzej Sapkowski's The Witcher book series. The film had a budget of 19 million Polish zlotys, high for contemporary Polish movies; the film's marketing campaign had several times the budget of other Polish films of that time, in an attempt to imitate Hollywood's super-production. The film was aimed not just at science fiction and fantasy fans, but at a general audience. To that end, its cast included actors seen in Poland as "stars", the music was composed by a well-known Polish composer, the film was tied to a number of other promotional campaigns and related products tied to the Witcher universe, such as toys and games, as well as the first official English translation of The Witcher.
The Hexer was the first film directed by Marek Brodzki. The final release was described as the third version of the film and shortened; some fans objected to the casting of several major roles. Their protests, reported in the press, led to a meeting between the producers and the cast and fans, which appeased most of the protesters. Citing two major departures from his original script, screenwriter Michał Szczerbic demanded that his name not appear in the closing credits; the film received negative reviews after its release and since, with reviewers being positive in regard to actors and music, but critical of the plot and special effects. A review in the Polish online film database Filmweb concluded that "it is not a good movie", noting that the plot was chaotic, mixing various adventures and scenes from the book series in a random manner; the review speculated that the film was intended as a glorified trailer for the subsequent television series. The montage of the scenes was considered so bad that it was said to evoke laughter in the audience, the special effects were described as low-quality and obsolete.
The review did note that the film's saving grace was its actors, praising Michał Żebrowski, Zbigniew Zamachowski, Grażyna Wolszczak, others. A review in the Polish game portal gry-online praised the actors, scenography and music, but criticized the fragmentary, incoherent plot, due to the producers being unable to agree on the main plot and structure, trying to summarize all of the key plot elements of the planned TV series episodes into one 2-hour movie; the reviewer for the esensja portal criticized the plot, which "tries to tell too much and ends up telling too little", the special effects, noting that the plastic dragon used for special effects was so lackluster that it resulted in salvos of laughter in the film audience. The reviewer was critical of the unnecessary nudity and poor dialogue, though praised the actors for their efforts, as well as the music. Sapkowski himself in several interviews laconically expressed his negative opinion about the film: "I can answer only with a single word, an obscene, albeit a short one".
"I am a Polish Catholic, it is Lent now. A 2016 review referred to the film as "the film we all want to forget"; this review noted that while some actors were good, others acted as if in a story directed at children. The review criticized some casting decisions, which portrayed then-popular comedy actors in serious roles, making it more difficult for audiences to treat the production as aimed at adults; the review was critical of the plot, special effects, costuming. It attributed the failures of the production to an inexperienced production crew, in particular director Marek Brodzki. A 2018 mention notes that the film has been "crushed by the reviewers and laughed out by fans". Filmweb provides a score of 3.9/10. The film has been subject to several analyses in academic research. In his 2015 article on The Hexer film and series, Robert Dudziński noted that both became in Poland "widely recognized examples of the weak level of Polish cinematography's entertainment releases and a common butt of jokes of Polish science fiction and fantasy fans".
Despite its poor critical reception, the film received several award nominations in Poland related to its music score by Grzegorz Ciechowski. Ciechowski's music for The Hexer won the 2002 Polish Film Awards for the Best Film Music in 2001, as well as the Fryderyk award for the Best 2001 Original Soundtrack. Michał Żebrowski as Geralt of Rivia Zbigniew Zamachowski as Dandelion Maciej Kozłowski as Falwick Tomasz Sapryk as Dermot Marranga Kinga Ilgner as Renfri Grażyna Wolszczak as Yennefer Ewa Wiśniewska as Calanthe Andrzej Chyra as Borch Three Jackdaws Anna Dymna as Nenneke Agata Buzek as Pavetta Jarosław Boberek as Yarpen Zigrin Dorota Kamińska as Eithne Wojciech Duryasz as Old Witcher Józef Para as Druid of Kaer Morhen Daniel Olbrychski as Filavandrel The Witcher – the fantasy series List of characters in The Witcher series The Witcher – the computer game Wiedźmin on IMDb Wiedźmin at AllMovie Wiedźmin at Rotten Tomatoes Unofficial website of the film Original Soundtrack
Geralt of Rivia
Geralt of Rivia is a fictional character, the protagonist of The Witcher series of short stories and novels by Polish writer Andrzej Sapkowski, as well as its adaptations, which include film, TV series, comic books and video games. Geralt, one of the few remaining witchers on the Continent, is a traveling monster slayer for hire and trained from an early age to slay deadly beasts. Geralt was portrayed by Michał Żebrowski in The Hexer film and TV series, will be portrayed by Henry Cavill in the Netflix television adaptation. Geralt, the central character, is a witcher. Shortly after being born, Geralt's mother, gave him away to undergo training and become a witcher at Kaer Morhen — the stronghold of the Wolf School Witchers. Geralt survived numerous mutations during the Trial of the Grasses, thanks to which he gained superhuman physical and mental abilities with minimal side effects, he resisted the "changes" brought on by the Trial of Grasses better than most, which encouraged his makers to perform more dangerous experimental procedures on him, making him lose all body pigmentation.
Because of his pale skin and white hair, he is known in the Elder Speech as "Gwynbleidd", the White Wolf. Despite his name, Geralt does not come from Rivia: young witchers were encouraged to make up surnames for themselves by master Vesemir, to make their names sound more trustworthy, he once claimed that his first choice was Geralt Roger Eric du Haute-Bellegarde, but this was dismissed by Vesemir as silly and pretentious. After completing his witcher training, he received his Wolf medallion and embarked into the world on his horse called Płotka — to become a monster slayer for hire. I looked for the words "Witcher urgently needed", and there'd be a sacred site, a dungeon, necropolis or ruins, forest ravine or grotto hidden in the mountains, full of bones and stinking carcasses. Some creatures which lived to kill, out of hunger, for pleasure, or invoked by some sick will. A manticore, fogler, ilyocoris, leshy, ghoul, were-wolf, giant scorpion, black annis, vypper... so many I've killed. Though Geralt did not believe in destiny, he unknowingly demanded the unborn child of princess Pavetta and her husband Duny as a reward for his services by invoking "the Law of Surprise".
The child turned out to be Ciri. At first, Geralt did not take her. However, fate or blind chance caused Geralt and Ciri to cross their paths thrice, after the death of her grandmother, Queen Calanthe of Cintra, Geralt ends up taking the girl into his care and loving her as his own daughter; the events of the novels unfold as Geralt is pulled into a whirlwind of events in his attempts to protect Ciri from those who would do her harm, becoming reluctantly embroiled in the political contentions of monarchs and emperors. After being killed by a mob during a slaughter of non-humans at the end of the Witcher saga and taken, with Yennefer, to the Isle of Avalon, by Ciri, who revives them, Geralt's story continues in CD Projekt Red's video game trilogy. Geralt wakes in the outskirts of the Kaer Morhen fortress, with no recollection of the details of his sudden reappearance, he is taken back to Kaer Morhen. Geralt, voiced by Doug Cockle, appeared as a guest character in the 2018 game Soulcalibur VI. Sapkowski stated that the games are a work of art of their own and that they cannot be considered either an "alternative version", or a sequel, "because this can only be told by Geralt's creator.
A certain Andrzej Sapkowski." Henry Cavill will portray Geralt in the upcoming Netflix adoption of the books scheduled for a 2019 release." Sapkowski will serve as a creative consultant on the project. Geralt is described as being emblematic of Polish popular culture's spirit of "neo-liberal anti-politics" in the 1990s, he is a professional, carrying out his duties and unwilling to become involved in the "petty quarrels" of the contemporary politics. Marek Oramus compared Geralt to Raymond Chandler's signature character Philip Marlowe. In 2012, GamesRadar ranked him as the 50th best hero in video game history. Reynevan CD Projekt Red
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings is an action role-playing hack and slash video game developed by CD Projekt Red for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, OS X, Linux. The game was released for Microsoft Windows in May 2011, for Xbox 360 and OS X in 2012, for Linux in 2014, it is a sequel to the 2007 video game The Witcher. Like its predecessor, the game is based on The Witcher series of fantasy novels by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski; the player directs the actions of Geralt of a monster hunter known as a Witcher. The fantasy world in which his adventures take place owes much to Polish history and Slavic mythology; the game was both a critical and commercial success, selling over 1.7 million copies by May 2012. The third installment in the series, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, was released in May 2015; the gameplay of The Witcher 2 is a marked departure from that of its predecessor. Combat, for instance, is much more complex, with additions in the form of abilities to lay traps and aim and throw ranged weapons.
The protagonist, has an improved offensive and defensive arsenal, with a wide range of melee and ranged weapons, bombs and secondary weapons such as hatchets and shovels. Upgrades are divided into four distinct paths: an initial training path, which includes generalized upgrades for various core abilities and must be invested in before the other paths can be accessed; the Witcher 2 includes a stealth mode in certain parts of the game, where players must remain undetected as they make their way to a certain objective. Players have the option of stunning enemies if Geralt manages to get behind them, but the player may choose to take a less subtle approach and engage the guards in combat; the player controls Geralt of Rivia, one of the few remaining witchers – enhanced and trained humans with special powers who hunt monsters for a living. The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings contains many different paths and storylines, along with multiple endings. PrologueAt the start of the game, Geralt is in prison under suspicion of assassinating Foltest, the king of Temeria.
The head of the Temerian special forces, Vernon Roche, interrogates Geralt and learns the story that led from Geralt being Foltest's right-hand man to a prisoner. Prior to and during the events of The Witcher, Foltest had a secret relationship with a baroness named Maria Louisa La Valette, which led to two children and Boussy; some time after Geralt saved Foltest from a witcher assassin, Foltest attempted to claim his children and bring them to live with him in Vizima. Maria was not willing to give up the children, Foltest waged a war to claim them. Geralt succeeded in escorting Foltest to his children, but an unknown assailant kills Foltest before disappearing, leaving Geralt the only suspect. After the interrogation, Roche decides that Geralt aids him in escaping the prison; the two, along with sorceress Triss Merigold, go in search of the kingslayer. Chapter 1The trio are ambushed by Iorveth, a rebel elf, it appears to the group that a witcher, believed to have assassinated King Demavend of the neighboring country of Aedirn, is in league with the rebels.
Geralt saves his old friends, the bard Dandelion and the dwarf Zoltan Chivay, from being hanged in the city square. With the help of sorceress Síle de Tansarville, Geralt kills a kayran, a giant monster, disrupting the town's trade routes. Geralt discovers that Loredo, the ostensibly Temerian commander of the town, is intending to sell the town to the Kaedwenian king Henselt, he discovers that the kingslayer, a witcher known as Letho, intends to betray Iorveth and convinces the elf of the truth. As Geralt and Iorveth confront Letho, Roche arrives with an armed force; the player chooses between assisting Roche, thus setting the path of the second chapter. Regardless of the choice, Letho kidnaps forces her to teleport both of them to Aedirn. Chapter 2 If Geralt assists Iorveth, the pair sail to upper Aedirn. There, they become embroiled in a rebellion against King Henselt of neighboring Kaedwen, they assist the rebel forces. Geralt completes three missions: formulating a poison antidote for rebel leader Saskia, determining Triss’s whereabouts, lifting a battlefield curse, preventing the rebels from defending Vergen, the rebel's base of operations.
The rebels defeat King Henselt’s army and Henselt is forced to acknowledge Saskia's terms. Geralt discovers Saskia is a dragon taking human form but she is under mind control by her advisor, the sorceress Philippa Eilhart; when Philippa teleports Saskia and herself to Loc Muinne and Iorveth follow. Chapter 2 If Geralt assists Roche, Roche has Geralt assassinate Loredo for treason. Geralt and Roche sail to upper Aedirn. There, they become embroiled in the rebellion against King Henselt, but assist the king instead of fighting against him. Geralt discovers an insurgency in the Kaedweni army: loyalists who are convinced Henselt is conspiring with the empire of Nilfgaard. Geralt completes three missions: determining Triss’s whereabouts, lifting a curse on King Henselt, lifting a battlefield curse, preventing the king from marching on the city of Vergen. Geralt defends Henselt from two witcher assassins and uses necromancy to discover they are in league with Síle de Tansarville, who has fled to Loc Muinne with fellow sorceress Philippa Eilh
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt is a 2015 action role-playing game developed and published by CD Projekt. Based on The Witcher series of fantasy novels by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski, it is the sequel to the 2011 game The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings. Played in an open world with a third-person perspective, players control protagonist Geralt of Rivia, a monster hunter known as a witcher, looking for his missing adopted daughter on the run from the Wild Hunt: an otherworldly force determined to capture and use her powers. Players battle the game's many dangers with weapons and magic, interact with non-player characters, complete main-story and side quests to acquire experience points and gold, which are used to increase Geralt's abilities and purchase equipment, its central story has several endings, determined by the player's choices at certain points in the game. Development lasted for three and a half years. Voice recording took over two and a half years; the writing was infused with realistic aspects like moral ambiguity in a deliberate attempt to avoid simplification, impart authenticity, reflect Sapkowski's novels.
Europe was the basis of the game's world, with Poland and Scandinavia as its primary inspirations. REDengine 3 enabled the developer to create a complex story without compromising the game's open world; the music was performed by the Brandenburg State Orchestra. The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt was released worldwide for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One on 19 May 2015; the game received critical acclaim, with praise for its gameplay, world design and visuals, although it received minor criticism due to technical issues, most of which were patched. It received numerous Game of the Year awards, has been cited as one of the greatest video games of all time; the game was a commercial success, shipping nearly ten million copies by March 2016. Two expansions, Hearts of Stone and Blood and Wine, were released to critical acclaim. A Game of the Year edition, with the base game and all downloadable content, was released in August 2016; the Witcher 3: Wild Hunt is an action role-playing game with a third-person perspective.
Players control Geralt of a monster hunter known as a Witcher. Geralt walks, runs and dodges, jumps and swims, he has a variety including bombs, a crossbow and two swords. The steel sword is used to kill humans while the silver sword is more effective against creatures and monsters. Players can draw out and sheathe their swords at will. There are two modes of melee attack. Players can counter enemy attacks with their swords. Swords have limited require regular repair. In addition to physical attacks, Geralt has five magical signs at his disposal: Aard, Igni and Quen. Aard prompts Geralt to unleash a telekinetic blast, Axii confuses enemies, Igni burns them, Yrden slows them down and Quen offers players a temporary, protective shield; the signs use stamina, cannot be used indefinitely. Players can use mutagens to increase Geralt's magic power, they lose health when they are attacked by enemies, although wearing armour can help reduce health loss. Health can be restored with meditation or consumables, such as food and potions.
Players control Ciri, Geralt's adoptive daughter who can teleport short distances. The game has advanced artificial intelligence and dynamic environments; the day-night cycle influences some monsters, as a werewolf becomes powerful during the night of a full moon. Players can prepare for combat by reading the in-game bestiary; when they kill an enemy, they can loot its corpse for valuables. Geralt's witcher sense enables players to find objects of interest, including items that can be collected or scavenged. Items are stored in the inventory. Players can use them to craft potions and bombs, they can visit blacksmiths to craft new weapons and armour with. The price of an item and the cost of crafting it depend on a region's local economy; the game focuses on narrative, has a dialogue wheel which allows players to choose how to respond to non-player characters. Geralt must make decisions which change the state of the world and lead to 36 possible endings, affecting the lives of in-game characters, he can have a romantic relationship with some of the game's female characters by completing certain quests.
In addition to the main quests, books offer more information on the game's world. Players can begin side quests after visiting a town's noticeboard; these side missions include Witcher Contracts and Treasure Hunt quests, which reward players with top-tier weapons or armour. Players earn experience points by completing missions; when a player earns enough experience, Geralt's level increases and the player receives ability points. These points may be used on four skill trees: combat, signs and general. Combat upgrades unlock new fighting techniques. General upgrades have a variety of functions, from raising Geralt's vitality to increasing crossbow damage; the game's open world is divided into several regions. Geralt can explore each region by transportation, such as a boat. Roach, his horse, may be summoned at will. Players can kill enemies with their sword while riding Roach, but an enemy presence may
Katowice is a city in southern Poland, with a city-proper population of 297,197 making it the eleventh-largest city in Poland as of 2017 and is the center of the Katowice metropolitan area, which has 2 million people. Throughout the mid-18th century, Katowice had developed into a village upon the discovery of rich coal reserves in the area. In 1742 the First Silesian War transferred Upper Silesia, including Katowice, to Prussia. Subsequently, from the second half of the 18th century, many German or Prussian craftsmen and artists began to settle in the region, inhabited by Poles over the past hundreds of years. Silesia experienced the influx of the first Jewish settlers. In the first half of the 19th century, intensive industrialization transformed local mills and farms into industrial steelworks, mines and artisan workshops; this contributed to the establishment of companies and eventual rapid growth of the city. At the same time, Katowice became linked to the railway system with the first train arriving at the main station in 1847.
The outbreak of World War I was favourable for Katowice due to the prospering steel industry. Following Germany's defeat and the Silesian Uprisings and parts of Upper Silesia were annexed by the Second Polish Republic. Poland was backed by the Geneva Convention and the ethnic Silesian minority. On 3 May 1921, the Polish army entered the Polish administration took control; the city became the capital of the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship as well as the seat of the Silesian Parliament and Committee of Upper Silesia. After the plebiscite, many former German citizens emigrated, however a vibrant German community remained until the end of World War II. In 1939, after the Wehrmacht seized the town and the provinces were incorporated into the Third Reich; the town was liberated by the Soviet army on 27 January 1945. Katowice is a center of science, industry, business and transportation in Upper Silesia and southern Poland, the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. Katowice lies within an urban zone, with a population of 2,746,460 according to Eurostat, part of the wider Silesian metropolitan area, with a population of 5,294,000 according to the European Spatial Planning Observation Network.
Today, the city is considered as an emerging metropolis. The whole metropolitan area is the 16th most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union with an output amounting to $114.5 billion. Katowice is the seat of Orchestra, it hosts the finals of Intel Extreme Masters, an Esports video game tournament. In 2015, Katowice was named a UNESCO City of Music; the area around Katowice, in Upper Silesia, has been inhabited by ethnic Polish Silesians from its earliest documented history. It was ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty until its extinction; the settlement of the area surrounding Katowice dates back to the end of the 12th century. From 1138, the Bytom castellany encompassed territories. In 1177 the lands were handed over by Duke Casimir II the Just to his nephew Mieszko I Tanglefoot. At the turn of the 14th century, new villages called Bogucice, Ligota and Podlesie were established, as well as the village of Dąb, mentioned in 1299 in a document issued by Duke Casimir of Bytom.
From 1327, the region was under Czech administration as part of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In historical documents dating from 1468 there was a reference to the settlement of Podlesie, which, at present, is one of the city districts, whereas the village of Katowice was first mentioned in the year 1598. Historians assume that Katowice was founded on the right bank of the Rawa river by Andrzej Bogucki in around 1580. In 1598 a village called Villa Nova was documented to stand in the area now occupied by the city of Katowice. By this time the territory had changed from the Bohemian Crown to the domain of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty. Kattowitz gained city status in 1865 in the Prussian Province of Silesia; the city flourished due to large mineral deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution; the city was inhabited by Germans, Silesians and Poles. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met here.
Part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, the city was separated from the district. Under the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations. Though Kattowitz proper voted 22,774 to remain in Germany and 3,900 for Poland, it was attached to Poland as the larger district voted 66,119 for Poland and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings of 1918–21 Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with some autonomy for the Silesian Parliament as a constituency and the Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body). During the early stages of World War II and the Poland Campaign, Katowice was abandoned, as the Polish Army had to position itself around Kraków. While the shelling of Westerplatte on 1 September 1939 is recognised as the first involvement in the Second World War, Hitler ordered a silent sabotage mission a day earlier by dressing his SS officers as Polish soldiers.
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Witcher (video game)
The Witcher is an action role-playing game developed by CD Projekt Red and published by Atari, based on the novel series of The Witcher by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski. The story takes place in a medieval fantasy world and follows Geralt of Rivia, one of a few traveling monster hunters who have supernatural powers, known as Witchers; the game's system of moral choices as part of the storyline was noted for its time-delayed consequences and lack of black-and-white morality. The game utilizes BioWare's proprietary Aurora Engine. A console version was to be released in late 2009 using an new engine and combat system and entitled The Witcher: Rise of the White Wolf. Two sequels were released: The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings in 2011 and The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt in 2015. There are three camera styles available in The Witcher: two isometric perspectives, where the mouse is used to control most functions, an over-the-shoulder view, which brings the player closer to the in-game combat, but limits visibility.
In all three views the controls can be changed to be mouse focused or a combined keyboard and mouse approach. Players can choose one of three fighting styles to use in different situations and against different foes; the fast style allows for faster, less-damaging attacks with a greater chance of hitting faster enemies. The player can switch between the styles at any point. Both of Geralt's main swords have distinctively different combat styles from other weaponry, serve specific purposes; the steel blade is used to fight humans and other flesh-and-blood beings, while the silver sword is more effective against supernatural monsters and beasts. With precise timing, the player can link Geralt's attacks into combos to more damage enemies. Alchemy is a major part of gameplay; the player can create potions that increase health or endurance regeneration, allow Geralt to see in the dark, or provide other beneficial effects. The recipes for these potions can be learned by experimentation. Once the player creates an unknown potion he can choose to drink it, but if the potion is a failure it will poison or have other harmful effects on Geralt.
Each time Geralt drinks potions they increase the toxicity level of his body. This can be reduced by meditating at an inn or fireplace. In addition to potions, the player can create oils used to augment the damage done by weapons, they can create bombs for use as weapons in combat. Neither can be created. A time-delayed decision-consequence system means that the repercussions of players' decisions will make themselves apparent in plot devices in acts of the game; this helps avert a save-reload approach to decision making. It adds to the game's replay value, as the consequences resulting from the player's decisions can lead to great difference in the events that take place and a different gameplay experience than in prior playthroughs; the player find themselves choosing from the lesser of two evils rather than making a clear choice between good and evil, a situation reflective of real life morality. The game tells the story of Geralt of Rivia, a Witcher – a genetically enhanced human with special powers trained to slay monsters.
The Witcher contains three different paths. These paths are: alliance with the Scoia'tael, a guerrilla freedom-fighting group of Elves and other non-humans. In the game’s opening cutscene, Geralt is tasked with curing King Foltest's daughter, Princess Adda, of a curse that transforms her into a feral monster. Years a group of Witchers find an amnesiac Geralt unconscious in a field and take him to the Witcher stronghold of Kaer Morhen; as he struggles to recall his memories, the castle is attacked by a gang of bandits named the Salamandra. The Witchers and sorceress Triss Merigold battle the invaders, but the mage Azar Javed and the assassin Professor escape with the mutagenic potions that genetically alter the Witchers; the Witchers head off in different directions to find information on the Salamandra. Geralt heads south to Vizima, capital of Temeria. On the outskirts, he meets a magically gifted child called Alvin and learns that Vizima is in quarantine. To obtain a pass, Geralt defeats a hellhound plaguing the outskirts, but is arrested upon trying to enter Vizima.
Geralt volunteers to kill a monster in the sewers in exchange for his freedom from jail and emerges in Vizima's Temple Quarter. With the help of a private investigator, Geralt pursues multiple leads on the Salamandra and witnesses rising tensions between the Order of the Flaming Rose and the Scoia'tael. After a confrontation with Azar Javed and the Professor, Geralt is knocked unconscious and saved by Triss, who invites him to a party of high-standing officials in Vizima's Trade Quarter. There, Geralt gains several new leads on Salamandra's business front; as the Order and the Scoia'tael grow bolder in their efforts, Geralt finds out more about Alvin's powers and visions while taking down Salamandra drug operations. Geralt assaults a Salamandra base in Vizima with the help of either the Order or the Scoia'tael and kills the Professor, but