Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, food and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells unattainable from natural aromatics alone; the word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, or maybe Ancient China, was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs; the world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers and calamus with other aromatics filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization. One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus; the perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume “Rodo” was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show “Countless Aspects of Beauty”, allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors. In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, aromatic waters, substitutes or imitations of costly drugs.
The book described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most used today, he first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology influenced western perfumery and scientific developments chemistry; the art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary; the art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici, Rene the Florentine, took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing. Due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed. In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne. By the 18th century the Grasse region of France and Calabria were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Today and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used; as the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product; the most widespread terms are: parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds.
An Emmy Award, or Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, is the equivalent of an Academy Award, the Tony Award, the Grammy Award. Because Emmys are given in various sectors of the American television industry, they are presented in different annual ceremonies held throughout the year; the two events that receive the most media coverage are the Primetime Emmy Awards and the Daytime Emmy Awards, which recognize outstanding work in American primetime and daytime entertainment programming, respectively. Other notable Emmy Award ceremonies are those honoring national sports programming, national news and documentary shows, national business and financial reporting, technological and engineering achievements in television, including the Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. Regional Emmy Awards are presented throughout the country at various times through the year, recognizing excellence in local and statewide television. In addition, International Emmys are awarded for excellence in TV programming produced and aired outside the United States.
Three related but separate organizations present the Emmy Awards: the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Each is responsible for administering a particular set of Emmy ceremonies; the Los Angeles–based Academy of Television Arts & Sciences established the Emmy Award as part of an image-building and public relations opportunity. The first Emmy Awards ceremony took place on January 25, 1949, at the Hollywood Athletic Club, but to honor shows produced and aired locally in the Los Angeles area. Shirley Dinsdale has the distinction of receiving the first Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Television Personality, during that first awards ceremony; the term "Emmy" is a French alteration of the television crew slang term "Immy", the nickname for an "image orthicon", a camera tube used in TV production. In the 1950s, the ATAS expanded the Emmys into a national event, presenting the awards to shows aired nationwide on broadcast television.
In 1955, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences was formed in New York City as a sister organization to serve members on the East Coast, help to supervise the Emmys. The NATAS established regional chapters throughout the United States, with each one developing their own local Emmy awards show for local programming; the ATAS still however maintained its separate regional ceremony honoring local programming in the Los Angeles Area. There was only one Emmy Awards ceremony held per year to honor shows nationally broadcast in the United States. In 1974, the first Daytime Emmy Awards ceremony was held to honor achievement in national daytime programming. Other area-specific Emmy Awards ceremonies soon followed; the International Emmy Awards, honoring television programs produced and aired outside the U. S. was established in the early 1970s. Meanwhile, all Emmys awarded prior to the emergence of these separate, area-specific ceremonies are listed along with the Primetime Emmy Awards in the ATAS's official records.
In 1977, due to various conflicts, the ATAS and the NATAS agreed to split ties. However, they agreed to share ownership of the Emmy statue and trademark, with each responsible for administering a specific set of award ceremonies. There was an exception regarding the Engineering Awards: the NATAS continues to administer the Technology & Engineering Emmy Awards, while the ATAS holds the separate Primetime Engineering Emmy Awards. With the rise of cable television in the 1980s, cable programs first became eligible for the Primetime Emmys in 1988 and the Daytime Emmys in 1989. In 2011, the ABC Television Network cancelled the soap operas All My Children and One Life to Live and sold the two shows' licensing rights to the production company Prospect Park so they could be continued on web television; the ATAS began accepting original online-only web television programs in 2013. The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model.
The TV Academy rejected forty-seven proposals before settling on McManus's design in 1948. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art. However, "Ike" was the popular nickname of World War II hero and future U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Academy members wanted something unique. Television engineer and the third academy president Harry Lubcke suggested the name "Immy", a term used for the image orthicon tube used in the early cameras. After "Immy" was chosen, it was feminized to Emmy to match their female statuette; each Primetime Emmy statuette weighs six pounds, twelve-and-a-half ounces, is made of copper, nickel and gold. The statue stands 15.5 inches tall with weight of 88 oz. The Regional Emmy Award statuette is 11.5 inches tall with a base diameter of 5.5 inches and weight of 48 oz. Each takes five and a half hours to
The Godfather Part III
The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola, directed by Coppola. A sequel to The Godfather and The Godfather Part II, it completes the story of Michael Corleone, a Mafia kingpin who attempts to legitimize his criminal empire; the film includes fictionalized accounts of two real-life events: the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–82, both linked to Michael Corleone's business affairs. The film stars Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, Talia Shire, Andy García. Coppola and Puzo preferred the title The Death of Michael Corleone, but Paramount Pictures found that unacceptable. Coppola stated that The Godfather series is two films and that The Godfather Part III is an epilogue, it received positive reviews, albeit less than the critical acclaim that the first two films received. It grossed $136,766,062 and was nominated for seven Academy Awards including the Academy Award for Best Picture. In 1979, Michael Corleone, approaching 60, is wracked with guilt over his ruthless rise to power for having ordered Fredo's assassination.
He donates part of his tremendous wealth to charitable causes. Michael and Kay are divorced. At the reception following a papal order induction ceremony in St. Patrick's Old Cathedral in Michael's honor, Anthony tells his father that he is leaving law school to become an opera singer. Kay supports his decision. Michael and Kay have an uneasy reunion when Kay reveals that she and Anthony know the truth about Fredo's death. Vincent Mancini, the illegitimate son of Sonny Corleone, arrives at the reception, he is embroiled in a feud with Joey Zasa. Connie Corleone arranges for Vincent to meet Zasa, who calls Vincent a bastard, Vincent bites Zasa's ear. Although Michael is troubled by Vincent's fiery temper, he is impressed by his loyalty, so agrees to include Vincent in the family business. Knowing that Archbishop Gilday, head of the Vatican Bank, has accumulated a massive deficit, Michael offers the bank $600 million in exchange for shares in Internazionale Immobiliare, an international real estate company, which would make him its largest single shareholder with six seats on the company's 13-member board.
He makes a tender offer to buy the Vatican's 25% share in the company, which will give him a controlling interest. Immobiliare's board approves the offer, pending ratification by the Pope. Don Altobello, an elderly New York Mafia boss and Connie's godfather, tells Michael that his partners on The Commission want in on the Immobiliare deal. Michael wants the deal untainted by Mafia involvement and pays off the mob bosses from the sale of his Las Vegas holdings. Zasa receives nothing and, storms out. Altobello follows Zasa. Moments a helicopter hovers outside the conference room and opens fire. Most of the bosses are killed, but Michael and Michael's bodyguard, Al Neri, escape. Neri tells Michael that the surviving mob bosses made deals with Zasa but Michael realizes that it is Altobello, the traitor. Michael is hospitalized; as Michael recuperates and Mary begin a romantic relationship, while Neri and Connie give Vincent permission to retaliate against Zasa. During a street festival hosted by Zasa's Italian American civil rights group, Vincent kills Zasa.
Michael berates Vincent for his actions and insists that Vincent end his relationship with Mary, explaining Vincent's involvement in the family's criminal enterprises endangers her life. The family goes to Sicily for Anthony's operatic debut in Palermo at the Teatro Massimo and stays with Don Tommasino. Michael tells Vincent to pretend to defect from the Corleone family. Altobello introduces Vincent to Don Licio Lucchesi, a powerful Italian political figure and Immobiliare's chairman. Michael discovers that the Immobiliare deal is an elaborate swindle, arranged by Lucchesi and Vatican accountant Frederick Keinszig. Michael visits Cardinal Lamberto, favored to become the next Pope, to discuss the deal. Lamberto persuades Michael to make his first confession in 30 years. Michael tearfully confesses that he ordered Fredo's murder, Lamberto says that Michael deserves to suffer but can be redeemed. Altobello hires a veteran hitman, to assassinate Michael. Mosca and his son, disguised as priests, kill Don Tommasino.
While Michael and Kay tour Sicily, Michael asks for Kay's forgiveness, they admit they still love each other. Michael receives word of Tommasino's death, at the funeral vows never to sin again. After the Pope dies, Cardinal Lamberto is elected as Pope John Paul I, the Immobiliare deal is to be ratified; the plotters against the ratification attempt to cover their tracks. Vincent tells Michael. Michael sees that his nephew is a changed man and names him the new Don of the Corleone family, telling him to adopt the Corleone name. Vincent ends his romance with Mary; the family sees Anthony's performance in Cavalleria rusticana in Palermo while Vincent exacts his revenge: Keinszig is abducted by Vincent's men, who smother and hang him from a bridge, making his death look like a suicide. Don Altobello, at the opera, is given poisoned cannoli by Connie, who watches him die from her opera box. Calò, Tommasino's former bodyguard, meets with Don Lucchesi at his office, claiming to bear a message from Michael.
As he whispers the message, Calò stabs Lucchesi in the neck with his own spectacles. The Pope is served poisoned tea by Archbishop Gilday and dies after he approves the Immobiliare deal. Al Neri travels
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Ocean's Thirteen is a 2007 American heist film directed by Steven Soderbergh and starring an ensemble cast. It is the final film in the Ocean's Trilogy, it followed the 2004 sequel Ocean's Twelve and the 2001 film Ocean's Eleven, which itself was a remake of the 1960 Rat Pack film Ocean's 11. All the male cast members reprise their roles from the previous installments, but neither Julia Roberts nor Catherine Zeta-Jones return. Al Pacino and Ellen Barkin joined the cast as the characters' new targets. Filming began in July 2006 in Las Vegas and Los Angeles, based on a script by Brian Koppelman and David Levien; the film was screened as an Out of Competition presentation at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. And was theatrically released on June 8, 2007 in the United States, on June 6 in several countries in the Middle East; the film was well received and grossed $398 million worldwide, making it the 16th highest-grossing film of 2007. Reuben Tishkoff invests in building a new hotel-casino on the Las Vegas strip.
Tishkoff becomes bedridden. Out of respect for him, Ocean offers Bank a chance to set things right, given his long history in Las Vegas and the fact that he "shook hands with Sinatra," but Bank refuses and completes construction of the hotel, renamed "The Bank" since he broke the deal with Reuben. To avenge Tishkoff, Ocean gathers his partners-in-crime and plans to ruin Bank on the opening night of the hotel, they develop a two-part plan to occur on the casino's opening night. One part is to prevent The Bank from winning the prestigious Five Diamond Award, which all of Bank's previous hotels have won. Saul Bloom is designated to stand in as the anonymous Diamond reviewer, while Ocean and his associates will treat the real reviewer horribly during his stay; the second part of the plan is to rig the casino's slot machines to pay out more than $500 million in winnings. While they can implement various rigging mechanisms into the casino and his crew know that they would be stopped by the Greco Player Tracker, a state-of-the-art computer system that continuously monitors the gamblers' biometric responses and predicts when cheating is happening.
To disrupt the Greco, they plan to use a magnetron, disguised as a new cell phone as a gift to Bank. They obtain the drilling machine used to bore the Channel Tunnel to simulate an earthquake under the casino, assuring that Bank will implement safety protocols to evacuate the casino, their plan on opening night is to have Bank inadvertently disrupt Greco by using his new phone, initiate their rigged machines and dealers on their payroll, simulate the earthquake to force the evacuation and have players leave with their winnings. Shortly before opening night, the drill breaks down, forcing Danny to ask Terry Benedict, whom Danny has slighted in the past, for funds to buy a replacement. Benedict, who seeks retribution against Bank, offers the funds for a portion of his share of the take and demands that Ocean steal Banks' private diamond collection in celebration of his "five diamond" awards; these are secured in a case at the top of The Bank. Ocean has Linus Caldwell get romantically close to Bank's assistant, Abigail Sponder, to gain access to the case.
Secretly, Benedict contracts master thief François "The Night Fox" Toulour to intercept the diamonds after Ocean steals them. On opening night, Ocean institutes the final part of the plan by having FBI agents on his pay arrive at the hotel and publicly arrest Livingston Dell on suspicion of rigging the card-shuffling machines, allowing them to be replaced with actual rigged ones under Bank's nose. Another FBI agent arrests Linus for switching the diamonds with fakes; the agent takes Linus away but reveals himself to be his father, Robert Caldwell in on Ocean's plan. They are intercepted by Toulour, who takes the diamonds. However, Ocean has anticipated this, for this reason never had Linus make the switch. Linus and his father escape in a helicopter piloted by Basher, tearing the case from the roof and taking the real diamonds with them; the remainder of Ocean's plan goes as expected, as they trigger the earthquake, the players evacuate with millions of dollars of winnings. Ocean approaches a devastated Bank and tells him they did everything for Reuben.
Ocean reminds Bank that he cannot go to the police due to Bank's past illegal activities and that all of Bank's associates favor Ocean over him. With their share of the winnings, Ocean's crew buy property on the Strip for Reuben to build his own casino; because of his treachery, Ocean donates Benedict's $72 million portion of the take to charity in Benedict's name, forcing him to admit his philanthropy on broadcast television. As Ocean and Linus prepare to head off at the airport, Rusty rigs one of the slot machines there to allow the real Diamond reviewer to win $11 million as a way to compensate him for how they treated him. In January 2006, it was reported that producers were in discussions about setting and shooting most of the film at the Wynn Las Vegas. Clooney had hoped to film it at his then-upcoming Las Ramblas Resort in Las Vegas, although the project would not have been ready in time for production. In March 2006, it was reported that the film would be shot in a fake casino that would be constructed on five Warner Bros. sound stages.
Filming was expected to begin in Las Vegas and Los Angeles in July 2006. Al Pacino joined the