Classic cycle races
The classic cycle races are the most prestigious one-day professional road cycling races in the international calendar. Some of these events date back to the 19th century, they are held at the same time each year. The five most revered races are described as the cycling monuments. For the 2005 to 2007 seasons, some classics formed part of the UCI ProTour run by the Union Cycliste Internationale; this event series included various stage races including the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia, Vuelta a España, Paris–Nice and the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré. The UCI ProTour replaced the UCI Road World Cup series. Many of the classics, all the Grand Tours, were not part of the UCI ProTour for the 2008 season because of disputes between the UCI and the ASO, which organizes the Tour de France and several other major races. Since 2009, many classic cycle races are part of the UCI World Tour. Although cycling fans and sports media eagerly use the term "classic", there is no clear consensus about what constitutes a classic cycling race.
UCI, the international governing body of cycling, has no mention at all of the term in its rulings. This poses problems to define the characteristics of these races and makes it impossible to make precise lists. Several criteria are used to denote the importance of a cycling race: date of creation, historical importance and tradition, commercial importance, level of difficulty, level of competition field, etc. However, many of these paradigms tend to shift over time and are opinions of a personal nature. One of the few objective criteria is the official categorization of races as classified by the UCI, although this is not a defining feature either, as many fans dispute the presence of some of the highest-categorized races and some older races are not included in the UCI World Tour; because of the growing ambiguity and inflation of the term "classic", the much younger term "monument" was introduced in the 21st century to denote the five most revered of the classic cycling races. Given the lack of a clear definition of classic races, these are professional races regarded as classics.
It includes some of the one-day events of the UCI World Tour and additional races of historical importance. Together, Milan–San Remo, the Cobbled classics and the Ardennes classics make up the "Spring Classics", all held in March and April. Strade Bianche – race that includes sections of strade bianche gravel roads. Despite its short history, the Strade Bianche has gained prestige. First held in 2007. Milan–San Remo – the first true Classic of the year, its Italian name is La Primavera or La classicissima; this race is held on the Saturday closest to the vernal equinox. First run in 1907. It's the longest classic. E3 Harelbeke – the first of the "Spring Classics" in Flanders, first held in 1958. Gent–Wevelgem – first raced in 1934, in recent years held on the Sunday between Milan-San Remo and the Tour of Flanders. Tour of Flanders – is raced in early April, first held in 1913. Paris–Roubaix – La Reine or l'Enfer du Nord is traditionally held one week after the Tour of Flanders, was first raced in 1896.
Amstel Gold Race – held mid-April, it is the first of the three Ardennes Classics or hill classics, one week after Paris–Roubaix. First run in 1966. La Flèche Wallonne – the Walloon Arrow is the second Ardennes Classic, since 2004 held mid-week between the Amstel Gold Race and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. First run in 1936. Liège–Bastogne–Liège – La Doyenne, the oldest Classic, was first raced in 1892, it is the third Ardennes Classic, held in one week after the Amstel Gold Race. The summer classics are held from July to September. Clásica de San Sebastián – known as Donostia–Donostia in the Basque Country EuroEyes Cyclassics HEW Cyclassics and Vattenfall Cyclassics – known as the Hamburg Cyclassics Trittico Lombardo – three separate races in Lombardy, traditionally in August but moved to September: Coppa Ugo Agostoni Coppa Bernocchi Tre Valli Varesine – the Three valleys of Varese. Bretagne Classic – held in late August on a circuit near the small Breton village of Plouay Laurentian Classics – two one-day races in Canada, named after the Saint Lawrence River that runs through Quebec, organized since 2010 Grand Prix Cycliste de Québec – raced on a Friday in early September Grand Prix Cycliste de Montréal – held two days after the Grand Prix de Québec The autumn classics are held from September to November.
Paris–Brussels – First held in 1893, since 2013 renamed the Brussels Cycling Classic and only run on Belgian territory Grand Prix de Fourmies – held since 1928 in Northern France Paris–Tours – known as the "Sprinters' Classic", first race in 1896 Trittico di Autunno – three Italian races in the week after the World Championship late September: Giro dell'Emilia – one week before the Giro di Lombardia, one of the hardest Classics on the calendar, with the famous San Luca, Bologna circuit. Milano–Torino – first run in 1876, the race had some continuity problems due to financial problems but has returned to the UCI calendar in 2012. Giro del Piemonte – first run in 1906 Giro di Lombardia – known as the "Race of the Falling Leaves", first held in 1905 as Milano–Milano. Considered the biggest Autumn Classic in cycling Japan Cup – held since 1992, at the end of October, around Utsunomiya Season openers are not regarded as as other classics, but receive a lot of attention because of their position early in the season in February.
Omloop Het Nieuwsblad – opening the Belgian cycling season, forming a double header with Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne, held the following day Grand Pri
Bernard Hinault is a French former professional cyclist. With a large number of victories, including five in the Tour de France, he is named among the greatest cyclists of all time. Hinault started cycling as an amateur in his native Brittany, his amateur career was successful and he signed with the Gitane–Campagnolo team to turn professional in 1975. Entering smaller races during his first two seasons, he took breakthrough victories at both the Liège–Bastogne–Liège classic and the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré stage race in 1977. In 1978, he won the Vuelta a España and the Tour de France. In the following years, he was the most successful professional cyclist, adding another Tour victory in 1979 and a win at the 1980 Giro d'Italia. A knee injury forced him to quit the 1980 Tour de France while in the lead, but he returned to win the World Championship road race in the year, he added another Tour victory in 1981, before completing his first Giro–Tour double in 1982. After winning the 1983 Vuelta a España, a return of his knee problems forced him to miss the Tour de France, won by his teammate Laurent Fignon.
Tensions within the Renault team led to his departure and he joined La Vie Claire. With his new team, he raced the 1984 Tour de France, he recovered the following year, winning another Giro–Tour double with the help of teammate Greg LeMond. In the 1986 Tour de France, he engaged in an inter-team rivalry with LeMond, who won his first of three Tours. Hinault retired shortly thereafter, he remains the most recent French winner of the Tour de France. After his cycling career, Hinault turned to farming, while fulfilling representative duties for the organisers of the Tour de France, a position he held until 2016. Throughout his career, Hinault was known by the nickname le blaireau, a term translated in English as "badger", while the original French can mean "shaving brush", he associated himself with the animal on the grounds of its aggressive and fightful nature, a trait he embodied on the bike. Within the cycling field, Hinault filled the role of patron, meaning that he exercised authority over races that he took part in.
Hinault was born on 14 November 1954 in the Breton village of Yffiniac to Lucie Hinault. Bernard was the second oldest of four children; the family lived on a cottage named La Clôture, built shortly. His parents were farmers and the children had to help out during harvest time, his father worked as a platelayer for the national rail company SNCF. Hinault was described as a "hyperactive" child, with his mother nicknaming him "little hooligan". Hinault was not a good student, but visited the technical college in Saint-Brieuc for an engineering apprenticeship, it was here that he started athletics, becoming a runner and finishing tenth in the French junior cross-country championship in 1971. In December 1974, just before turning professional, Hinault married Martine, who he had met at a family wedding the year before, their first son, was born in 1975, with a second, Alexandre, in 1981. Hinault and his family lived in Quessoy, close to Yffiniac. After his retirement, they moved to a farm 64 km away in Brittany.
Hinault had bought the 48 ha property near Calorguen in 1983. Martine would serve as mayor of Calorguen. Hinault came to cycling through his cousin René. At first, he had to use the shared family bike, he received his own bike when he was 15, as a reward for passing his school examinations and used it for his trips to college. During the summer of 1971, he made training rides with René, a second-class amateur and had problems keeping up with the sixteen-year old. Hinault received his racing licence from Club Olympique Briochin in late April 1971 and entered his first race on 2 May in Planguenoual. Advised to try to stay with the other riders, Hinault won the event. Hinault would go on to win his first five races, amassing twelve wins from twenty races by the end of the year. During the summer of 1971, Hinault was at odds with his father about his choice to pursue cycling as a career. Joseph Hinault only relented after his son ran away from home for three days to stay with his cousins, sleeping between straw in the barn.
For 1972, Hinault was allowed to race with the over-18s. At a race in Hillion, he and René escaped from the field to take a dominant victory, shared as they crossed the finish line together, to the dismay of the race organisers; the young Hinault was influenced by his trainer at the Club Olympique Briochin, Robert Le Roux, who had earlier worked with 1965 World Champion Tom Simpson. Hinault won nineteen races in his second season as an amateur, including the national junior championship against opposition a year older than him, such as future professional Bernard Vallet, he was conscripted into the military at age 18, did not race thoroughout 1973. He was unable to join the army's training centre for young athletes and instead served in Sissonne with the 21st Marine Infantry Regiment. Returning to competition overweight, Hinault still managed to win his first race of 1974; this was his last season as an amateur and again successful, including a victory in his hometown of Yffiniac towards the end of the year, where an alliance formed by four other riders was unable to hold him back.
He competed in track cycling, winning the national pursuit championship. On the road, he took part in the Étoile des Espoirs, a race open to amateurs and young professionals. Hinault finished fifth overall, second on the time trial stage behind reigning pursuit world champion Roy Schuiten. Towards the end of the season, Hinault turned
2013 Tour de Suisse
The 2013 Tour de Suisse was the 77th running of the Tour de Suisse cycling stage race. It started on 8 June with an individual time trial in Quinto and ended on 16 June after another individual time trial in Flumserberg, it was the seventeenth race of the 2013 UCI World Tour season. The race was won for the second successive year by Movistar Team rider Rui Costa, who claimed the leader's yellow jersey after winning the final stage – a time trial, with a 10 km climb to a summit finish – overturning a 13-second deficit to previous race leader Mathias Frank of the BMC Racing Team. Costa was the winner of the race's queen stage two days prior, winning into La Punt. Costa's winning margin over runner-up Bauke Mollema of Blanco Pro Cycling – a stage winner during the race, winning the second stage – was sixty-two seconds, while the podium was completed by Saxo–Tinkoff's Roman Kreuziger, eight seconds down on Mollema and seventy behind Costa. In the race's other classifications, Euskaltel–Euskadi rider Robert Vrečer was the winner of both the mountains and the sprints classifications, having featured in several breakaways during the nine-day race.
Peter Sagan again won the points classification, was the only other rider to win multiple stages during the event. Astana finished for the second successive year; as the Tour de Suisse was a UCI World Tour event, all UCI ProTeams were invited automatically and obligated to send a squad. Eighteen ProTeams were scheduled to be invited to the race, with two other squads – IAM Cycling, Sojasun – given wildcard places, as such, would have formed the event's 20-team peloton. Team Katusha subsequently regained their ProTour status after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. With Team Katusha not invited to the race, race organisers announced their inclusion to the race, bringing the total number of teams competing to twenty-one; the 21 teams that competed in the race were: Among the 167-rider starting peloton – each team entered eight riders with the exception of Vacansoleil–DCM, who entered seven – were four previous winners of the race. 2008 winner Roman Kreuziger was the designated team leader for Saxo–Tinkoff, while 2009 winner Fabian Cancellara occupied a similar role for RadioShack–Leopard.
The Movistar Team had two previous riders among their octet. 8 June 2013 — Quinto, 8.1 km, individual time trial After three years of opening with an individual time trial stage around the city of Lugano, the municipality of Quinto played host to the opening salvo of the 2013 edition of the Tour de Suisse. Starting and finishing at Ambri Airport, the 8.1 km parcours was set to favour the time trial specialists more so than the 2012 race-opening stage, with less undulation on the route. From the climb, the route descended back down towards the airport, with a run-in including a finishing straight of 300 metres. Race organisers expected the best time for the stage to be beneath the ten-minute barrier, with a time of 9' 55". Sojasun rider Yannick Talabardon was the first rider into the stage, he recorded a time of 10' 32", instantaneously beaten by the next rider on the road, Reto Hollenstein of the IAM Cycling team. However, Hollenstein was not to win with such a time, as after half an hour with the best time, Alex Rasmussen knocked a second off the best time.
Rasmussen held the fastest time for around fifteen minutes until Cameron Meyer comfortably beat that time for Orica–GreenEDGE. Although not the fastest through the intermediate time-check, Meyer crossed the line in a time of 9' 39", beating Rasmussen's time by fifteen seconds over the course. A shift in wind direction aided Meyer's bid to win the stage, after two hours passed, Meyer was able to take the stage victory, the first yellow jersey. Several of the main contenders for the stage were caught out by the wind. 9 June 2013 — Ulrichen to Crans-Montana, 117.2 km After being scheduled to be held over a distance of 170.7 km, race organisers announced prior to the race that the stage would be shortened to 161.3 km. A further amendment was made the night before the stage was due to be run, reducing the stage yet further, to 117.2 km. The amendment was due to heavy snow on what was due to be the first categorised climb of the race, the Nufenen Pass, which had made the roads impassable; the stage start was moved to Ulrichen, due to be the first town in which the peloton would have passed on the descent from the climb.
The new parcours was downhill to start, before flattening out. A 16 km long climb, the ascent averaged over 6%, was featuring in the race after a year's absence in 2012. After a quick opening to the stage, the breakaway was formed inside the opening 20 km of racing. Movistar Team rider Enrique Sanz was joi
Vuelta a España
The Vuelta a España is an annual multi-stage bicycle race held in Spain, while occasionally making passes through nearby countries. Inspired by the success of the Giro d'Italia and the Tour de France, the race was first organized in 1935; the race was prevented from being run by the Spanish Civil War and World War II in the early years of its existence. As the Vuelta gained prestige and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend all around the globe. Since 1979, the event has been staged and managed by Unipublic, until in 2014, when Amaury Sport Organisation acquired control, with both working together; the peloton expanded from a Spanish participation to include riders from all over the world. The Vuelta is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are UCI ProTeams, with the exception of the wild card teams that the organizers can invite. Along with the Tour de France and Giro d'Italia, the Vuelta makes up cycling's prestigious, three-week-long Grand Tours.
While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of at least two time trials, the passage through the mountain chain of the Pyrenees, the finish in the Spanish capital Madrid. The modern editions of the Vuelta a España consist of 21 day-long segments, over a 23-day period that includes 2 rest days. All of the stages are timed to the finish, after finishing the riders' times are compounded with their previous stage times; the rider with the lowest aggregate time gets to don the red jersey. While the general classification garners the most attention there are other contests held within the Vuelta: the points classification for the sprinters, the mountains classification for the climbers, combination classification for the all-round riders, the team classification for the competing teams. First held in 1935 and annually since 1955, the Vuelta runs for three weeks in a changing route across Spain; the inaugural event saw 50 entrants face a 3,411 km course over only 14 stages, averaging over 240 km per stage.
It was inspired by the success of the Tours in France and Italy, the boost they brought to the circulations of their sponsoring newspapers. It was held in the spring late April, with a few editions held in June in the 1940s. In 1995, the race moved to September to avoid direct competition with the Giro d'Italia, held in May; as a result, the Vuelta is now seen as an important preparation for the World Championships, which moved to October the same year. A Vuelta was organized in August and September 1950; the course includes up to three time trials, a number of mountain stages. Since 1994, before, the Vuelta finished in the Spanish capital, although Bilbao and San Sebastián were long both recurring finish cities. Behind Madrid, three cities share second place for the most Vuelta departures: Gijón, one time finish city Jerez de la Frontera. In 1997, the Vuelta started abroad in Lisbon, Portugal; the first Vuelta to start outside the Iberian Peninsula took place in 2009, when the Dutch city of Assen hosted the prologue of the 64th Vuelta.
In 1999, for the first time, the course crossed the Alto de L'Angliru in Asturias, which climbs 1,573 meters over 12.9 km with grades as steep as 23.6 percent, making it one of the steepest climbs in Europe. Credit for the discovery of this climb and its addition to the Vuelta goes to Miguel Prieto; the overall leader at present wears a red jersey, although it has been the "Maillot amarillo" and the "Jersey de Oro" — the Spanish counterpart to the yellow jersey of the Tour de France. Other jerseys honor leader of the points competition. Other cycling jerseys are awarded, such as for points leaders in the "Metas Volantes" and for the combination category; the record for most wins is held by Roberto Heras of Spain, winner in 2000, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Spaniards have dominated. France, Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Kazakhstan, the United States and Great Britain have had first-place finishers; the first races were run at the national level and were promoted by the bicycle manufacturers from Eibar.
The tour was Eibar – Madrid – Eibar, called the Grand Prix of the Republic. In the early 1935, former cyclist Clemente Lopez Doriga, in collaboration with Juan Pujol, director of the daily newspaper Informaciones, organized the Vuelta a España, with a distance 3431 km, in a total of 14 stages; the first stage took the riders from Madrid to Valladolid. That year saw the first great duel in the history of the Vuelta, between Belgium's Gustaaf Deloor, who won, Mariano Cañardo, Spanish runner-up; the second edition of the Vuelta held despite the delicate political situation, was marked by the Deeloor repeat, who this time held the lead from the first day to th
1967 Tour de France
The 1967 Tour de France was the 54th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It took place between 23 July, with 22 stages covering a distance of 4,779 km. Thirteen national teams of ten riders competed, with three French teams, two Belgian, two Italian, two Spanish, one each from Germany, United Kingdom and the Netherlands, a Swiss/Luxembourgian team; the Tour was marred by the fatal collapse of Tom Simpson on the slopes of Mont Ventoux. The previous years, the Tour had been contested by trade teams. Tour director Félix Lévitan held the team sponsors responsible for the riders' strike in the 1966 Tour de France, therefore the formula was changed, the national teams returned; the Tour started with 130 cyclists, divided into 13 teams of 10 cyclists. The teams entering the race were: National teams Secondary national teams The 1967 Tour de France started on 29 June, was the first to have a prologue, a short individual time trial prior to stage racing, held in the evening, adding to the occasion.
There were had two rest days, in Sète. Whereas in previous years the trend had been that the Tour became shorter, in 1967 it was longer, with 4779 km; the prologue was won by Spanish José María Errandonea, with Raymond Poulidor in second place, six seconds behind. In the next few stages, the lead in the general classification changed hands several times, but the margins between the top favourites were small. In the first part of the fifth stage, in Belgium, a group of fourteen cyclists including some Belgian cyclists escaped early in the stage. On the advice of his teammate Jean Stablinski, Roger Pingeon bridged the gap and joined the escaped group; the group stayed away, Pingeon escaped 60 km before the finish, riding alone until the end of the stage. Pingeon won the stage, became the leader of the general classification. Pingeon's lead was not challenged in the sixth stage, but he lost it in the seventh stage to his team mate Raymond Riotte, after Riotte was in a group that escaped. In the eighth stage, Riotte lost considerable time, Pingeon was back in the lead.
On that stage, Raymond Riotte lost more than 11 minutes because of a fall and mechanical problems, announced that he would ride the rest of the Tour in support of Pingeon. Pingeon gained a few seconds in the ninth stage after a split in the peloton. In the tenth stage, Poulidor helped Pingeon over the major climbs, after that stage Pingeon had a margin of more than four minutes over the next rider, Désiré Letort from the Bleuets team. There were few changes in the general classification in the next two stages; the thirteenth stage was run in hot weather, featured high climbs. During the climb of the Ventoux, Tom Simpson died. Unaware of what happened behind them, Jan Janssen won the stage followed by Roger Pingeon, who extended his lead; the riders in the peloton decided to ride the fourteenth stage in dedication of Tom Simpson, let his team mate Barry Hoban win the stage. In the sixteenth stage in the Pyrenees, Julio Jiménez won back a few minutes, was now in second place behind Pingeon, 123 seconds behind.
In the twentieth stage, with a finish on top of the Puy de Dôme, Jiménez won back some more time, was now 1 minute and 39 seconds behind Pingeon. This was not enough to put Pingeon's victory in danger. After the death of Tom Simpson on stage 13, there were accusations of doping use; the organisation decided to increase the doping controls, not only in the Tour but in the run Tour de l'Avenir. The Tour de France gave no positive tests, but several riders from the Tour de l'Avenir were disqualified. There were several classifications in the 1967 Tour de France, two of them awarding jerseys to their leaders; the most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey. Additionally, there was a points classification. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints; the cyclist with the most points lead the classification, was identified with a green jersey.
There was a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, third, or fourth-category; the cyclist with the most points was not identified with a jersey. For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps. The combativity award was given to Désiré Letort by a jury. Augendre, Jacques. Guide historique. Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016. Media related to 1967 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons
2009 Tour de France
The 2009 Tour de France was the 96th edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It started on 4 July in the principality of Monaco with a 15 kilometres individual time trial which included a section of the Circuit de Monaco; the race visited six countries: Monaco, Spain, Andorra and Italy, finished on 26 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. The total length was sfn including 93 kilometres in time-trials. There were seven mountain stages, three of which had mountaintop finishes, one medium-mountain stage; the race had a team time trial for the first time since 2005, the shortest distance in individual time trials since 1967, the first penultimate-day mountain stage in the Tour's history. 2007 winner Alberto Contador won the race by a margin of 4′11″, having won both a mountain and time trial stage. His Astana team took the team classification, and supplied the initial third-place finisher, Lance Armstrong. Armstrong's achievement was voided by the UCI in October 2012 following his non-dispute of a doping accusation by USADA, fourth place Bradley Wiggins was promoted to the podium.
Andy Schleck, second overall, won the young riders' competition. Franco Pellizotti won the polka dot jersey as the King of the Mountains, but had that result stripped by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2011 due to his irregular values in the UCI's biological passport program detected in May 2010. Mark Cavendish won six stages, including the final stage on the Champs-Élysées, but was beaten in the points classification by Thor Hushovd, who won the green jersey. 20 teams were invited to take part in the race. They include 17 of the 18 UCI ProTour teams and three other teams: Skil–Shimano, Cervélo TestTeam and Agritubel; each team started with 9 riders. The teams entering the race were:UCI ProTour teams Invited teams Favorites for the race included 2008 winner Carlos Sastre, 2007 winner Alberto Contador, 2009 Giro d'Italia winner Denis Menchov and two time runner-up Cadel Evans. Lance Armstrong competed in the race on the same team as Contador. Menchov and Evans performed far below the levels expected of them, finishing 51st and 30th and Sastre only showed among the leaders on the mountain stages that would have provided his best chance of making a bid for victory, coming 17th overall.
Alejandro Valverde, the team leader of Caisse d'Epargne, was not selected by his team for the Tour de France, because the race travelled through Italy on stage 16 and he had received a ban in May 2009 from the Italian Olympic Committee, prohibiting him from competing in Italy. He had finished in the top ten of the general classification of the Tour in the two previous years and was considered one of the favourites for overall victory. News about a positive retest of a 2007 out-of-competition control concerning Thomas Dekker broke three days before the start; the race started in Monaco with a 15 kilometres individual time trial, won by Olympic time trial champion Fabian Cancellara, who retained the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification throughout the first week, dominated by stages suited to sprinters, with Mark Cavendish establishing himself as the strongest finisher. The significant action of the first week in relation to the overall classification was restricted to a split in the field on stage 3, a team time trial the following day.
The second weekend saw the Tour in the Pyrenees, the first attack on the field by eventual winner Alberto Contador, while the leadership was taken over by Rinaldo Nocentini. Thor Hushovd showed an ability to take points in stages that did not include flat sprint finishes that would be key to the contest for the points classification, the main contenders for the mountains classification emerged; the journey towards the Alps the following week had a second pair of successive stage wins for Cavendish and a series of wins from riders in breakaways that held no threat to the general classification. An infringement in the sprint finish to stage 14 saw Cavendish relegated in finishing position, Hushovd gaining the upper hand in the points classification; the first alpine stage was the occasion of Contador's assumption of the race leadership, the emergence of Andy Schleck as the only rider to challenge him in the mountains, as the top young rider, giving Schleck the right to wear the white jersey.
Franco Pellizotti focussed on collecting points on the climbs early in stages to overhaul Egoi Martínez in the race for the mountains classification, without threatening the race leaders. By the end of the three stages in the Alps, after Contador's victory in the final time trial, it was only the minor placings that were realistically under question in the last mountain stage, held for the first time on the penultimate day of the tour on Mont Ventoux; the UCI introduced a ban on radio communication between team management and riders on stage 10, but the riders responded with a conservative style of racing for most of the stage and the intended repetition of the experiment on stage 13 was abandoned. At the victory ceremony, the national anthem of Denmark was mistakenly played instead of that of Spain. Contador described the incident as an "enormous blunder" at a post-Tour press conference in Madrid. At the victory ceremony for teams, the anthem of Spain was yet played, because Contador was part of the winning team, Astana.
In the 2009 Tour, Doping controls were conducted by the UCI, with the French body AFLD shadowing the process. Of
Gregory James "Greg" LeMond is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Road Race World Championship twice, the Tour de France three times and is considered by many to be the greatest American cyclist of all time. He is an entrepreneur and anti-doping advocate. LeMond was born in Lakewood and raised in ranch country on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, near Reno, he is married and has three children with his wife Kathy, with whom he supports a variety of charitable causes and organizations. In 1986, LeMond became the first non-European professional cyclist to win the Tour de France, he remains the only American cyclist to have won the Tour. LeMond was accidentally shot with multiple pellets while hunting in 1987 and missed the next two Tours, he returned to the 1989 Tour, completing an improbable comeback by winning in dramatic fashion on the race's final stage. He defended his title the following year, claiming his third and final Tour victory in 1990, which made LeMond one of only seven riders who have won three or more Tours.
He retired from competition in December 1994. He was inducted into the United States Bicycling Hall of Fame in 1996. LeMond was the first American to win the elite Road World Championship, the first professional cyclist to sign a million-dollar contract, the first cyclist to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated when the magazine named him as its Sportsman of the Year in 1989. During his career, LeMond championed several technological advancements in pro cycling, including the introduction of aerodynamic "triathlon" handlebars and carbon fiber bicycle frames, which he marketed through his company LeMond Bicycles, his other business interests have included restaurants, real estate, consumer fitness equipment. LeMond is a vocal opponent of performance-enhancing drug use, at times his commercial ventures have suffered for his anti-doping stance—as in 2001, when he first accused Lance Armstrong of doping and sparked a conflict that led to the dissolution of his Lemond Bicycles brand in 2008, licensed by Armstrong's primary sponsor Trek Bicycles.
As the lone American winner of cycling's most prestigious race, LeMond has not enjoyed the public stature that might be expected of such a figure, but he continues to campaign publicly against doping and ineffective leadership by the UCI, the International Federation for Cycling. In December 2012, LeMond articulated a willingness to replace the UCI president on an interim basis if called to do so. In December 2013, the LeMond brand was revived, manufactured in partnership with TIME Sport International. Greg LeMond was born in Lakewood and raised in the Washoe Valley, ranch country on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range between Reno and Carson City, Nevada, his parents are Bob LeMond and Bertha, he has two sisters and Karen. LeMond lived too far away to participate in team sports. LeMond's introduction to cycling came in 1975 thanks to freestyle skiing pioneer Wayne Wong, who recommended the bike as an ideal off-season training aid. LeMond started competing in 1976, after dominating the Intermediate category and winning the first 11 races he entered, he received permission to ride against older, more seasoned competitors in the Junior category.
In 1977, while still only 15, LeMond finished second in the Tour of Fresno to John Howard the United States's top road cyclist and the 1971 Pan American Games champion. LeMond caught the attention of Eddie Borysewicz, the US Cycling Federation's national team coach, who described LeMond as "a diamond, a clear diamond." LeMond represented the United States at the 1978 Junior World Championships in Washington, D. C. where he finished ninth in the road race, again in the 1979 Junior World Championships in Argentina, where he won gold and bronze medals—the highlight being his victory in the road race. At age 18, LeMond was selected for the 1980 U. S. Olympic cycling team, the youngest to make the U. S. team. However, the U. S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from competing there. Borysewicz, whom LeMond described as his "first real coach," wanted to retain his protégé through the next Olympic cycle and discouraged him from turning pro, but LeMond was determined. While he was the reigning Junior World Road Champion in 1980, LeMond received no professional offers, so in the spring of 1980, he joined the U.
S. National cycling team for a 6-week European racing campaign. There, he finished third overall in the Circuit des Ardennes before winning the 1980 Circuit de la Sarthe stage race in France, thereby becoming the first American and youngest rider of any nationality "in the history of the sport to win a major pro-am cycling event." That victory, the subsequent press coverage, raised LeMond's profile in Europe and he was scouted at his next event by Cyrille Guimard, the Renault–Elf–Gitane team's directeur sportif. Guimard said he was impressed with LeMond's spirit, told him, "You have the fire to be a great champion," before offering him a professional contract for 1981 with Renault. After he returned to the United States, LeMond won the 1980 Nevada City Classic, considered to be one of the most historic and challenging professional cycling races in United States. Despite receiving several other offers to turn professional besides Guimard's, LeMond did not consider them and he signed with Renault in Paris on the day the 1980 Tour de France finished.
LeMond was a standout amateur rider "of superlative quality" and "exceptionally gifted," who establishe