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Andy Williams

Howard Andrew Williams was an American singer. He recorded 43 albums in his career, of which 15 have been 3 platinum-certified, he was nominated for six Grammy Awards. He hosted The Andy Williams Show, a television variety show, from 1962 to 1971, numerous TV specials; the Andy Williams Show won three Emmy awards. The Moon River Theatre in Branson, Missouri is named after the song for which he is best known—Johnny Mercer and Henry Mancini's "Moon River", he sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including more than 10 million certified units in the United States. Williams was active in the music industry for 74 years until his death in 2012. Williams was born in Wall Lake, Iowa, to Florence and Jay Emerson Williams, who worked in insurance and the post office. While living in Cheviot, Williams attended Western Hills High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, he finished high school at University High School, in West Los Angeles, because of his family's move to California. Williams had three older brothers—Bob and Dick Williams.

His first performance was in a children's choir at the local Presbyterian church. He and his brothers formed the Williams Brothers quartet in late 1938, they performed on radio in the Midwest, first at WHO, in Des Moines, at WLS, in Chicago, WLW, in Cincinnati. Moving to Los Angeles in 1943, the Williams Brothers sang with Bing Crosby on his 1944 hit record "Swinging on a Star", they appeared in four musical films: Janie, Kansas City Kitty, Something in the Wind and Ladies' Man. A persistent myth alleges that as a teenager, the future singing star dubbed the singing for Lauren Bacall's character in the 1944 feature film To Have and Have Not. According to authoritative sources, including Howard Hawks and Bacall herself, this was not true. Williams and some female singers were tested to dub for Bacall, because of fears that she lacked the necessary vocal skills, but those fears were overshadowed by the desire to have Bacall do her own singing despite her imperfect vocal talent. This myth is refuted in Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide in the entry for this film.

The Williams Brothers were signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to appear in Anchors Aweigh and Ziegfeld Follies but, before they went before the cameras, the oldest brother, was drafted into military service and the group's contract was canceled. Kay Thompson, a former radio star, now head of the vocal department at MGM, had a nose for talent and hired the remaining three Williams brothers to sing in her large choir on many soundtracks for MGM films, including The Harvey Girls; when Bob completed his military service, Kay hired all four brothers to sing on the soundtrack to Good News. By Thompson was tired of working behind the scenes at MGM so, with the four Williams boys as her backup singers and dancers, she formed a nightclub act, Kay Thompson and the Williams Brothers, they became an overnight sensation. Within a year, they were the highest paid nightclub act in the world, breaking records wherever they appeared. Williams revealed in his memoir, Moon River and Me, that he and Thompson became romantically involved while on tour, despite the age difference.

The act broke up in 1949 but reunited for another hugely successful tour from the fall of 1951 through the summer of 1953. After that, the four brothers went their separate ways. A complete itinerary of both tours is listed on the Kay Thompson biography website. Williams and Thompson, remained close and professionally, she mentored his emergence as a solo singing star. She coached him, wrote his arrangements, composed many songs that he recorded, including his 1958 Top 20 hit "Promise Me, Love" and "Kay Thompson's Jingle Bells" on his 1964 No. 1 The Andy Williams Christmas Album. Using her contacts in the business, Thompson helped Williams land his breakthrough television gig as a featured singer for two and a half years on Tonight Starring Steve Allen. Thompson got Williams his breakthrough recording contract with Cadence Records, whose owner, Archie Bleyer, had gotten early career breaks because of Kay and owed her a favor. Meanwhile, Williams sang backup on many of Thompson's recordings through the 1950s, including her Top 40 hit Eloise, based on her bestselling books about the mischievous little girl who lives at the Plaza Hotel in New York.

Thompson served as a creative consultant and vocal arranger on Williams's three summer replacement network television series in 1957, 1958, 1959. In the summer of 1961, Thompson traveled with Williams and coached him throughout his starring role in a summer stock tour of the musical Pal Joey, their personal and professional relationship ended in 1962, when Williams met and married Claudine Longet, Thompson moved to Rome. Williams's solo career began in 1953, he recorded six sides for RCA Victor's label "X". After landing a spot as a regular on Tonight Starring Steve Allen in 1954, Williams was signed to a recording contract with Cadence Records, a small label in New York, run by conductor Archie Bleyer. Williams's third single, "Canadian Sunset", reached No. 7 in the Top Ten in August 1956. "Butterfly" was No. 1 for two weeks on the UK Singles Chart in May 1957. More hit records followed, including "The Hawaiian Wedding Song", "Are You Sincere?", "The Village of St. Bernadette", "Lonely Street" (US #5 in September

Tom Kimber-Smith

Tom Kimber-Smith is a British race car driver. He is driving the No. 52 PR1/Mathiasen Motorsports Oreca FLM09 in the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship PC class with Robert Alon. He has enjoyed success in sportscars, winning both the Le Mans 24 Hours and Le Mans Series LMP2 class for Greaves Motorsport in 2011, he won the LMP2 class again in the 2012 race, driving for Starworks Motorsport with Ryan Dalziel and Enzo Potolicchio in Starworks Motorsport's HPD ARX-03b. He won the 2015 24 hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Petit Le Mans in the PC class, nearly sweeping the Tequila Patron North American Endurance Cup of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship in 2015, he is the son of a former driver in the British Touring Car Championship. Official website Tom Kimber-Smith career summary at DriverDB.com

Jupiter trojan

The Jupiter trojans called Trojan asteroids or Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun. Relative to Jupiter, each Trojan librates around one of Jupiter's two stable Lagrange points: L4, lying 60° ahead of the planet in its orbit, L5, 60° behind. Jupiter trojans are distributed in two elongated, curved regions around these Lagrangian points with an average semi-major axis of about 5.2 AU. The first Jupiter trojan discovered, 588 Achilles, was spotted in 1906 by German astronomer Max Wolf. A total of 7,040 Jupiter trojans have been found as of October 2018. By convention, they are each named from Greek mythology after a figure of the Trojan War, hence the name "Trojan"; the total number of Jupiter trojans larger than 1 km in diameter is believed to be about 1 million equal to the number of asteroids larger than 1 km in the asteroid belt. Like main-belt asteroids, Jupiter trojans form families; as of 2004, many Jupiter trojans showed to observational instruments as dark bodies with reddish, featureless spectra.

No firm evidence of the presence of water, or any other specific compound on their surface has been obtained, but it is thought that they are coated in tholins, organic polymers formed by the Sun's radiation. The Jupiter trojans' densities vary from 0.8 to 2.5 g·cm−3. Jupiter trojans are thought to have been captured into their orbits during the early stages of the Solar System's formation or later, during the migration of giant planets; the term "Trojan Asteroid" refers to the asteroids co-orbital with Jupiter, but the general term "trojan" is sometimes more applied to other small Solar System bodies with similar relationships to larger bodies: for example, there are both Mars trojans and Neptune trojans, as well as a discovered Earth trojan. The term "Trojan asteroid" is understood to mean the Jupiter trojans because the first Trojans were discovered near Jupiter's orbit and Jupiter has by far the most known Trojans. In 1772, Italian-born mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange, in studying the restricted three-body problem, predicted that a small body sharing an orbit with a planet but lying 60° ahead or behind it will be trapped near these points.

The trapped body will librate around the point of equilibrium in a tadpole or horseshoe orbit. These leading and trailing points are called the L5 Lagrange points; the first asteroids trapped in Lagrange points were observed more than a century after Lagrange's hypothesis. Those associated with Jupiter were the first to be discovered. E. E. Barnard made the first recorded observation of a trojan, 1999 RM11, in 1904, but neither he nor others appreciated its significance at the time. Barnard believed he had seen the discovered Saturnian satellite Phoebe, only two arc-minutes away in the sky at the time, or an asteroid; the object's identity was not understood until its orbit was calculated in 1999. The first accepted discovery of a trojan occurred in February 1906, when astronomer Max Wolf of Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory discovered an asteroid at the L4 Lagrangian point of the Sun–Jupiter system named 588 Achilles. In 1906–1907 two more Jupiter trojans were found by fellow German astronomer August Kopff.

Hektor, like Achilles, belonged to the L4 swarm, whereas Patroclus was the first asteroid known to reside at the L5 Lagrangian point. By 1938, 11 Jupiter trojans had been detected; this number increased to 14 only in 1961. As instruments improved, the rate of discovery grew rapidly: by January 2000, a total of 257 had been discovered; as of October 2018 there are 4,601 known Jupiter trojans at L4 and 2,439 at L5. The custom of naming all asteroids in Jupiter's L4 and L5 points after famous heroes of the Trojan War was suggested by Johann Palisa of Vienna, the first to calculate their orbits. Asteroids in the leading orbit are named after Greek heroes, those at the trailing orbit are named after the heroes of Troy; the asteroids 617 Patroclus and 624 Hektor were named before the Greece/Troy rule was devised, resulting in a Greek spy in the Trojan node and a Trojan spy in the Greek node. Estimates of the total number of Jupiter trojans are based on deep surveys of limited areas of the sky; the L4 swarm is believed to hold between 160–240,000 asteroids with diameters larger than 2 km and about 600,000 with diameters larger than 1 km.

If the L5 swarm contains a comparable number of objects, there are more than 1 million Jupiter trojans 1 km in size or larger. For the objects brighter than absolute magnitude 9.0 the population is complete. These numbers are similar to that of comparable asteroids in the asteroid belt; the total mass of the Jupiter trojans is estimated at 0.0001 of the mass of Earth or one-fifth of the mass of the asteroid belt. Two more recent studies indicate that the above numbers may overestimate the number of Jupiter trojans by several-fold; this overestimate is caused by the assumption that all Jupiter trojans have a low albedo of about 0.04, whereas small bodies may have an average albedo as high as 0.12. According to the new estimates, the total number of Jupiter trojans with a diameter larger than 2 km is 6,300 ± 1,000 and 3,400 ± 500 in the L4 and L5 swarms, respectively; these numbers would be reduced by a factor of 2 if small Jupiter trojans are more reflective than large on