Justinian I, traditionally known as Justinian the Great and Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empires greatness, because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the last Roman in modern historiography. This ambition was expressed by the recovery of the territories of the defunct western Roman Empire. His general, swiftly conquered the Vandal kingdom in North Africa, the prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empires annual revenue by over a million solidi, during his reign Justinian subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis. His reign marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia, a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendour.
Justinian was born in Tauresium around 482, a native speaker of Latin, he came from a peasant family believed to have been of Illyro-Roman or Thraco-Roman origins. The cognomen Iustinianus, which he later, is indicative of adoption by his uncle Justin. During his reign, he founded Justiniana Prima not far from his birthplace and his mother was Vigilantia, the sister of Justin. Justin, who was in the guard before he became emperor, adopted Justinian, brought him to Constantinople. As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, Justinian served for some time with the Excubitors but the details of his early career are unknown. Chronicler John Malalas, who lived during the reign of Justinian, tells of his appearance that he was short, fair skinned, curly haired, round faced, another contemporary chronicler, compares Justinians appearance to that of tyrannical Emperor Domitian, although this is probably slander. When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new emperor, during Justins reign, Justinian was the emperors close confidant.
As Justin became senile near the end of his reign, Justinian became the de facto ruler, Justinian was appointed consul in 521 and commander of the army of the east. Upon Justins death on 1 August 527, Justinian became the sole sovereign, as a ruler, Justinian showed great energy. He was known as the emperor who never sleeps on account of his work habits, nevertheless, he seems to have been amiable and easy to approach. Around 525, he married his mistress, Theodora, in Constantinople and she was by profession a courtesan and some twenty years his junior
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. This support may be strong or weak, the strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions. In law, rules of evidence govern the types of evidence that are admissible in a legal proceeding, types of legal evidence include testimony, documentary evidence, and physical evidence. The parts of a case which are not in controversy are known, in general. Beyond any facts that are undisputed, a judge or jury is usually tasked with being a trier of fact for the issues of a case. Evidence and rules are used to decide questions of fact that are disputed, Evidence in certain cases must be more compelling than in other situations, which drastically affects the quality and quantity of evidence necessary to decide a case. In philosophy, the study of evidence is tied to epistemology.
The burden of proof is the obligation of a party in an argument or dispute to provide sufficient evidence to shift the other partys or a third partys belief from their initial position, the burden of proof must be fulfilled by both establishing confirming evidence and negating oppositional evidence. Conclusions drawn from evidence may be subject to criticism based on a failure to fulfill the burden of proof. Two principal considerations are, On whom does the burden of proof rest, to what degree of certitude must the assertion be supported. The latter question depends on the nature of the point under contention, in a criminal trial in the United States, for example, the prosecution carries the burden of proof since the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Similarly, in most civil procedures, the plaintiff carries the burden of proof, other legal standards of proof include reasonable suspicion, probable cause, prima facie evidence, credible evidence, substantial evidence, and clear and convincing evidence.
In a philosophical debate, there is a burden of proof on the party asserting a claim. Each party in a debate will therefore carry the burden of proof for any assertion they make in the argument, although some assertions may be granted by the other party without further evidence. If the debate is set up as a resolution to be supported by one side and refuted by another, in scientific research evidence is accumulated through observations of phenomena that occur in the natural world, or which are created as experiments in a laboratory or other controlled conditions. Scientific evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis, one must always remember that the burden of proof is on the person making a contentious claim. Within science, this translates to the burden resting on presenters of a paper and this paper is placed before a panel of judges where the presenter must defend the thesis against all challenges
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a service announcement.
Advertising may be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful, in 2015, the world spent an estimate of US$592.43 billion on advertising. Its projected distribution for 2017 is 40. 4% on TV,33. 3% on digital, the largest advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Publicis, and WPP. In Latin, ad vertere means to turn toward, egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell candy, advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons, the first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in Les Crieries de Paris, a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in newspapers in England. However, false advertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, thomas J. Barratt from London has been called the father of modern advertising. Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an advertising campaign for the company products. One of his slogans, Good morning, have you used Pears soap. was famous in its day and into the 20th century. Barratt introduced many of the ideas that lie behind successful advertising
A psychologist is a professional who evaluates and studies behavior and mental processes. In order to become a psychologist, a person must complete either a degree or a doctorate degree. This definition of a psychologist is non-exclusive, in most jurisdictions, members of other professions can evaluate, treat, there are many types of psychologists, as is reflected by the 56 divisions of the American Psychological Association. Psychologists are generally described as applied or research-orientated, the training models endorsed by the APA require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, and that they possess advanced degrees. People often think of the discipline as involving clinical or counseling psychology, while counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just one branch in the larger domain of psychology. Under the national law, registration of psychologists is administered by the Psychology Board of Australia, before July 2010, professional registration of psychologists was governed by various State and Territory Psychology Registration Board.
The Australian Psychology Accreditation Council oversees education standards for the profession of psychology, endorsement within a specific area of practice requires additional qualifications. These notations are not specialist titles, membership with Australian Psychological Society differs from registration as a psychologist. The standard route to membership of the APS technically requires a masters or doctorate in psychology from an accredited course. An alternate route is available for academics and practitioners who have gained appropriate experience, Association membership requires four years of APAC-accredited undergraduate study. Restrictions apply to all individuals using the title psychologist in all states and territories of Australia, the terms psychotherapist, social worker, and counselor are currently self-regulated with several organizations campaigning for government regulation. Since 1933, the title psychologist has been protected by law in Belgium and it can only be used by people who are on the National Government Commission list.
The minimum requirement is the completion of five years of university training in psychology, the title of psychotherapist is not legally protected. In Finland, the title psychologist is protected by law, the restriction for psychologists is governed by National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. It takes 330 ECTS-credits to accomplish the university studies, there are about 6200 licenced psychologists in Finland. Originally, a degree in psychology awarded in Germany included the subject of clinical psychology. With the Bologna-reform, this degree was replaced by a masters degree, the academic degree of Diplom-Psychologe or M. Sc. does not include a psychotherapeutic qualification, which requires three to five years of additional training. The psychotherapeutic training combines in-depth theoretical knowledge with supervised patient care, after having completed the training requirements, psychologists take a state-run exam, upon successful completion, confers the official title of psychological psychotherapist
In promotion and of advertising, a testimonial or show consists of a persons written or spoken statement extolling the virtue of a product. The term testimonial most commonly applies to the attributed to ordinary citizens. Testimonials can be part of communal marketing, social media such as Twitter have become increasingly popular mediums for celebrities to endorse brands and to attempt to influence purchasing behavior. According to Bloomberg News, social-media-ad spending was expected to reach a total of $4.8 billion at the end of 2012, advertising and marketing companies sponsor celebrities to tweet and influence thousands of their followers to buy brand products. For example, Ryan Seacrest gets paid to promote Ford products, companies that pay celebs to tweet for them subscribe to the Malcolm Gladwell theory of influence. Celebrity endorsements have proven successful in China, where increasing consumerism makes the purchase of an endorsed product into a status symbol. On August 1,2007, laws were passed banning healthcare professionals, testimonials from customers who are not famous have been effectively used in marketing for as long as marketing has existed. A past or current customer will present a word of mouth testimonial that a business can use in marketing.
Testimonials have reached a high in importance as the internet is now a plethora of reviews. Google+, TripAdvisor, and many more have become go to places for individuals who are seeking other customers reviews/testimonials about a particular business. To put the growth of industry into perspective, for example, Yelp. coms growth alone can be noted. Instagram especially has increasingly been useful in distributing testimonials on products and it is done by making use of the tagging feature that directly links to the original brand or the particular location that the picture was taken. Moreover, the description of the pictures are used to write either the review or sentences that compliments the product or place. However, it can only be called an endorsement deal when the company or label contacts the user directly to create such testimonial post, and the user receives commission. This is becoming a trend in Indonesia, especially amongst users with at least one thousand followers, the downside to such explosive importance in this arena is the massive amount of fraud in the form of fake reviews or opinion spam, testimonials that are not authentic.
Often, an owner will open multiple email addresses and corresponding Yelp. Accounts and write a multitude of testimonials seemingly by many customers of said business, the same owner may write negative reviews of competitors. From a NY Times article about the topic, On another forum, Digital Point
The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning, experiments need to be designed to test hypotheses. The most important part of the method is the experiment. The scientific method is a process, which usually begins with observations about the natural world. Human beings are naturally inquisitive, so often come up with questions about things they see or hear. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways, in general, the strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled and replicated experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well the tests match the predictions, the hypothesis may require refinement. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported a theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features are shared in common between them.
The overall process of the method involves making conjectures, deriving predictions from them as logical consequences. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while formulating the question, the hypothesis might be very specific or it might be broad. Scientists test hypotheses by conducting experiments, the purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take anywhere from a college lab to CERNs Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is presented as a fixed sequence of steps. Not all steps take place in scientific inquiry, and are not always in the same order. Some philosophers and scientists have argued there is no scientific method, such as Lee Smolin. Nola and Sankey remark that For some, the idea of a theory of scientific method is yester-years debate
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans and some other species of primate, consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system. It is a response to external or internal stimuli. Laughter can arise from activities as being tickled, or from humorous stories or thoughts. Most commonly, it is considered an expression of a number of positive emotional states, such as joy, happiness, relief. On some occasions, however, it may be caused by emotional states such as embarrassment, apology. Age, education and culture are all factors as to whether a person will experience laughter in a given situation. Laughter is a part of human behavior regulated by the brain, helping humans clarify their intentions in social interaction, Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group—it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seen as contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback and this may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows.
The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the body, is called gelotology. Laughter might be thought of as an expression or appearance of excitement. It may ensue from jokes and other completely unrelated to psychological state. Laughter researcher Robert Provine said, Laughter is a mechanism everyone has, there are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way. Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak, children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. Provine argues that Laughter is primitive, an unconscious vocalization, Provine argues that it probably is genetic. They reported this even though both had been brought together by their adoptive parents, who they indicated were undemonstrative and dour. He indicates that the twins inherited some aspects of their sound and pattern, readiness to laugh. Norman Cousins developed a program incorporating megadoses of Vitamin C, along with a positive attitude, faith, hope. I made the discovery that ten minutes of genuine belly laughter had an anesthetic effect
Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient Western world, apart from his own writings, the main source for Procopius life is an entry in the Suda, a Byzantine encyclopaedia, written sometime after 975, which tells everything about his early life. He was a native of Caesarea in the Roman Province Palaestina Prima and he evidently knew Latin, as was natural for a man with legal training. In 527, the first year of Eastern Roman Emperor Justinians reign, he became the adsessor for Belisarius, Procopius was with Belisarius on the eastern front until the latter was defeated at the Battle of Callinicum in 531 and recalled to Constantinople. Procopius witnessed the Nika riots of January,532, which Belisarius, Procopius recorded a few of the extreme weather events of 535–536, although these were presented as a backdrop to Roman military activities, such as a mutiny, in and near Carthage. He rejoined Belisarius for his campaign against the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy and experienced the Gothic siege of Rome that lasted a year and nine days and he witnessed Belisarius entry into the Gothic capital, Ravenna, in 540.
Book Eight of the Wars of Justinian, and the Secret History, suggest that his relationship with Belisarius seems to have cooled thereafter. When Belisarius was sent back to Italy in 544 to cope with a renewal of the war with the Goths, now led by the able king Totila, Procopius appears to have no longer been on Belisarius staff. As magister militum, Belisarius was a vir illustris, and Procopius, as his adsessor, must and he thus belonged to the middle-ranking group of the ordo senatorius. However, the Suda, which is well informed in such matters. Should this information be correct, Procopius had a seat in the senate of Constantinople and it is not known when Procopius himself died, and many historians date his death to 554, but in 562 there was an urban prefect of Constantinople who happened to be called Procopius. In that year, Belisarius was implicated in a conspiracy and was brought before this urban prefect, the writings of Procopius are the primary source of information for the rule of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian.
Procopius Wars of Justinian is clearly his most important work, although it is not as known as the Secret History. The first two deal with the conflict between the Romans and Sassanid Persia in Mesopotamia, Armenia and Caucasian Iberia. They cover the early career of the Roman general Belisarius, Procopius patron, the next two books, the Vandal War, cover Belisarius successful campaign against the Vandal kingdom in Roman Africa. The remaining books cover the Gothic War, the campaigns by Belisarius and others to recapture Italy and this includes accounts of the sieges of Naples and Rome. Later, Procopius added a book, which brings the history to 552/553. This eighth book covers both in Italy and on the Eastern frontier
Humour or humor is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the medicine of the ancient Greeks. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour, most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour. The hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would likely find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, for example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context. Many theories exist about what humour is and what social function it serves, the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humours existence. The theory says humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, Humour can be used as a method to easily engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions.
Others believe that the use of humour can facilitate social interactions. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained, white once said, Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind. Counter to this argument, protests against offensive cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and this process of dissecting humour does not necessarily banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy, both humour and comic are often used when theorising about the subject. The connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual, the paradigmatic case being Shakespeares Sir John Falstaff. The French were slow to adopt the term humour, in French, non-satirical humour can be specifically termed droll humour or recreational drollery.
As with any art form, the acceptance of a style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm. Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that the more you know humour, later, in Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage, due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as simply the art of reprehension and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings, after the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, the Roman Republic, and as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.
The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format