Angel Falls

Angel Falls is a waterfall in Venezuela. It is the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, with a height of 979 metres and a plunge of 807 m; the waterfall drops over the edge of the Auyán-tepui mountain in the Canaima National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site in the Gran Sabana region of Bolívar State. The height figure, 979 m consists of the main plunge but includes about 400 metres of sloped cascade and rapids below the drop and a 30-metre high plunge downstream of the talus rapids; the falls are along a fork of the Rio Kerepacupai Meru which flows into the Churun River, a tributary of the Carrao River, itself a tributary of the Orinoco River. The waterfall has been known as the Angel Falls since the mid-20th century. Angel's ashes were scattered over the falls on 2 July 1960; the common Spanish name Salto Ángel derives from his surname. In 2009, President Hugo Chávez announced his intention to change the name to the purported original indigenous Pemon term, on the grounds that the nation's most famous landmark should bear an indigenous name.

Explaining the name change, Chávez was reported to have said, "This is ours, long before Angel arrived there... this is indigenous land." However, he said that he would not decree the change of name, but only was defending the use of Kerepakupai Vená. Sir Walter Raleigh in his expedition to find the fabled city of El Dorado described what was a tepui, he is said to have been the first European to view Angel Falls, although these claims are considered far-fetched; some historians state that the first European to visit the waterfall was Fernando de Berrío, a Spanish explorer and governor from the 16th and 17th centuries. Other sources state that the first westerner to see the waterfall was the Spanish explorer Fèlix Cardona in 1927, they were not known to the outside world until American aviator Jimmie Angel, following directions given by the Cardona, flew over them on 16 November 1933 on a flight while he was searching for a valuable ore bed. Returning on 9 October 1937, Angel tried to land his Flamingo monoplane El Río Caroní atop Auyán-tepui, but the plane was damaged when the wheels sank into the marshy ground.

Angel and his three companions, including his wife Marie, were forced to descend the tepui on foot. It took them 11 days to make their way back to civilization by the sloping back side, but news of their adventure spread and the waterfall was named Angel Falls in his honor; the name of the waterfall—"Salto del Ángel"—was first published on a Venezuelan government map in December 1939. Angel's plane remained on top of the tepui for 33 years before being lifted out by helicopter, it was restored at the Aviation Museum in Maracay and now sits outdoors on the front of the airport at Ciudad Bolívar. The first recorded European to reach the base of the falls was the Latvian explorer Aleksandrs Laime known as Alejandro Laime to the native Pemon tribe, he reached the falls alone in 1946. He was the first to reach the upper side of falls in the late 1950s, by climbing on the back side where the slope is not vertical, he reached Angel's plane 18 years after the crash landing. On 18 November 1955, Latvian independence day, he announced to the Venezuelan newspaper El Nacional that this stream without any known local name should be called after a Latvian river, Gauja.

The same year, this name was registered in the National Cartographic Institution of Venezuela. There is no convincing proof that the indigenous Pemon people had named the local streams, as Auyán-tepui was considered to be a dangerous place and was not visited by the indigenous people; however the Pemon name Kerep is used as well. Laime was the first to clear a trail that leads from the Churun River to the base of the falls. On the way is a viewpoint used to capture the falls in photographs, it is named Mirador Laime in his honor. This trail is used now for tourists, to lead them from the Isla Ratón camp to the small clearing; the official height of the falls was determined by a survey carried out by an expedition organized and financed by American journalist Ruth Robertson on 13 May 1949. Robertson's expedition, which began on April 23, 1949, was the first to reach the foot of the falls; the first known attempt to climb the face of the cliff was made in 1968 during the wet season. It failed because of slippery rock.

In 1969, a second attempt was made during the dry season. This attempt was thwarted by an overhang 120 metres from the top; the first climb to the top of the cliff was completed on 13 January 1971. The climbers required nine and a half days to one and a half days to rappel down. Angel Falls is one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, though a trip to the falls is a complicated affair; the falls are located in an isolated jungle. A flight from Puerto Ordaz or Ciudad Bolívar is required to reach Canaima camp, the starting point for river trips to the base of the falls. River trips take place from June to December, when the rivers are deep enough for use by the Pemon guides. During the dry season, there is less water seen than in the other months. Media related to Kerepakupai merú at Wikimedia Commons

Richard Ansch├╝tz

Carl Johann Philipp Noé Richard Anschütz FRSE was a German organic chemist. Anschütz received his PhD at the University of Bonn for his work with August Kekulé, he became Kekulé's assistant and in 1898, his successor as Professor of Chemistry at the University of Bonn. His biography of Kekulé opened a view on the claims of Archibald Scott Couper as an independent co-discoverer of the ability of carbon atoms to link to each other to form chains. Richard Anschütz, August Kekulé, 2 volumes Dobbin, L.. "The Couper Quest". Journal of Chemical Education. 11: 331–338. Bibcode:1934JChEd..11..331D. Doi:10.1021/ed011p331. Meerwein, Hans. "Richard Anschütz Zum Gedächtnis". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 74: A29–A74. Doi:10.1002/cber.19410740318

James S. Carson

James S. Carson was chairman of Colonial Trust Company, corporate executive and Spanish–American War veteran. James Carson started his career as a college professor but became a reporter with the San Francisco Chronicle joined the Associated Press and established its first Latin American bureau, it was headquartered in Mexico City, where his family lived for 11 years. He ran for State Senator of California at one point After a successful career in the newspaper and reporting business, Carson used his international experience to become a success in business, he was an executive of the American and Foreign Power Company prior to joining the Colonial Trust Company. He was a advocate for open trade between the US and Latin American countries. Carson was one of the three US executives who organized the World Two-Way Trade Fair in 1937, he was one of the originators of World Trade Week in New York City and served as its chairman for many years. While a vice president at American and Foreign Power, Carson was the chairman of the Foreign Trade Education Committee of the National Foreign Trade Council.

Additionally, Carson was involved with creating and running organizations that would help countries and their immigrants do business in the United States. He was one of the founding member and on the board of directors of the Venezuelan American Association, in 1936. In 1939, along with John L. Merrill, Central & South American Telegraph Company predecessor to the Atlantic Cable and Undersea Communications, Robert De F. Boomer from the Authority on Latin America and Herman G. Brock, VP Guaranty Trust Company all who established the VAA, founded the Peruvian-American Association and Carson served on its board of directors. Carson served was the president of the Ecuadorian American Association from 1954-55. Carson was a writer of position papers on doing business with Latin America, his work and reports have been cited in several books including Uneven Encounters: Making Race and Nation in Brazil and the United States, by Micol Seigel. and Beyond National Identity: Pictoral Indigenism as a modernest strategy in Andean art by Michele Greet.

For the 1939 New York World's Fair, Carson pitched Grover Whalen on the idea of having a "Pan America" exhibit. He was the father of long time Ladies' Home Journal executive editor, Mary Bass and the father-in-law of New York Post editor Joseph Cookman. New York Times Obituary August 10, 1960