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International Bureau of Education

The International Bureau of Education is a UNESCO category 1 institute mandated as the Centre of Excellence in curriculum and related matters. Consistent with the declaration of the decision of the 36th session of the General Conference and to ensure a higher effectiveness and a sharper focus, the IBE has defined the scope of its work as pertaining to: curriculum, learning and assessment; the IBE-UNESCO provides tailored technical support and expertise to all UNESCO Member States facilitating the provision and delivery of equitable, high quality education within the framework of Education 2030 Agenda. The current mandate and program areas of the IBE are of significance and relevance to the Education 2030 and the fourth Sustainable Development Goal that commit UNESCO Member States to "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all"; the IBE is, strategically positioned to support Member States’ efforts at the optimal achievement of SDG4, by implication, the realization of the other 16 SDGs that depend on provision and delivery of equitable and development-relevant quality education and lifelong learning opportunities.

The IBE was a private organization created in 1925 by prominent psychologists and pedagogues in Geneva, including Edouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière and Pierre Bovet, the latter of whom served as the Director of the IBE from 1925-1929. The IBE was a small non-governmental organization focused on public and private education, scientific research. During this time, an external initiative committee consisting of notable academics and thinkers of the day, including Albert Einstein, provided support to the organization. In 1929, it became the first intergovernmental organization dedicated to the field of education. Accordingly, in 1929, the well known epistemologist and professor Jean Piaget was appointed director of the organization. Piaget stayed on as Director until 1967. In 1939, the IBE created the Service of Intellectual Assistance to Prisoners of War, based on Article 39 of the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. SIAP was initiated with the intention of sending books and providing intellectual services to prisoners during World War II.

The IBE collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross, who provided intelligence for the service. The project grew in scale, by the end of the war the IBE had provided over half a million books to prisoners. SIAP organized so-called “Internment Universities” and study groups in prison camps; the service was funded by the Swiss Federal Council, but increased demand required the search for other funding alternatives. As a result, the IBE began to issue postal stamps in 1940, which were sold in order to raise money to fund the project; the IBE was an independent organization for the first 44 years of its existence. When UNESCO was created in 1945, the IBE helped develop its education programs, thus establishing the first of many collaborations with the nascent UN agency. By 1952, a permanent joint commission was established to ensure effective cooperation between the IBE and UNESCO, they began to jointly organize the International Conference on Public Education. After 20 years of collaboration, an agreement was signed which would integrate the IBE with UNESCO.

In 1969, the IBE joined UNESCO. The IBE is the oldest of UNESCO's category 1 institutes; the IBE was developed to provide support and research regarding all aspects of education. Today, under the direction of Dr. Mmantsetsa Marope, the main initiative of the IBE is to set the global standard for quality curricula in the context of promoting education for development. Other areas of focus include neuroscience of future competencies; the IBE works in 6 programmatic areas in the context of the IBE's three main areas of focus: Curriculum and Assessment. Those 6 programmes are: Leadership. From 1934-2008, the IBE organized the International Conference on Public Education. Jean Piaget and Deputy Director Pedro Rosselló developed the conference in order to bring together Ministers of Education with researchers and practitioners in the field of education. A total of 48 sessions took place with themes including Inclusive Education, quality education, strengthening teachers. Since 1970, the IBE has edited the academic comparative journal Prospects, which focuses on curriculum and assessment in the domains of culture, economics, gender, politics, sociology and education.

It is published by Springer Netherlands, available in English and Mandarin Chinese. The IBE Library has serviced educators and researchers for nine decades. Located in the rue des Maraichers, it was quartered in the historic Palais Wilson in Geneva; the Library was initiated when the IBE began transferring educational journals to the former Library of the League of Nations in the late 1930s. Notable collections of the IBE Library include the IBE Historical Textbook Collection and the IBE Historical Archives 1925-1969; the IBE Historical Textbook Collection consists of over 20,000 primary and secondary education textbooks and atlases from as early as the 18th century, from over 1

New Salem, Fayette County, Pennsylvania

New Salem is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in Menallen Township, Fayette County, United States. It was part of the New Salem-Buffington CDP, before it was split into two separate CDPs for the 2010 census; the population of New Salem was 579 as of the 2010 census. New Salem is located in the southwest part of Menallen Township, it is bordered across Dunlap Creek, by German Township. New Salem Road leads southeast 7 miles to Uniontown, the county seat, northwest 3 miles to Pennsylvania Route 166 south of Republic. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the New Salem CDP has an area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land

One Tampa City Center

One Tampa City Center known as GTE Center and Verizon Building, is an office skyscraper in Tampa, Florida. It was the tallest building in the state for three years and the tallest building in the city until the completion of the Bank of America tower in 1986. At 39 stories tall, it is the third tallest structure in the city at 537 feet tall. One Tampa City Center opened in 1981 as the GTE Building, it was the second skyscraper built after the Park Tower just a few blocks away. On November 13, 2012, PNC Bank acquired the naming rights for the building from Verizon Communications, which began effective in May 2013. On October 30, 2014, the building was sold for $128 million dollars to Alliance Partners HSP. Alliance Partners subsequently split the ownership of the land and the building, selling the building in October 2018 for $110 million to Banyan Street Capital and Oaktree Capital Management. HSBC provided an $84 million acquisition loan for the purchase; the building is among Tampa's tallest buildings, as well as among Florida's tallest.

When it topped out in 1981, One Tampa City Center was the tallest building in Florida for four years, from 1981 to 1984, when it was surpassed by the Wachovia Financial Center, which today is the Southeast Financial Center. The building was the tallest in Tampa from 1981 to 1986, until it was surpassed by neighboring office building the Bank of America Plaza. Today, the building remains the third tallest building in the city; the building holds offices for major companies and law firms, including: CDW Cushman & Wakefield Merrill Lynch PNC Bank Verizon List of tallest buildings in Tampa Downtown Tampa Tampa City Center's official website

U.S. Route 366 (1927–1932)

U. S. Route 366 or US 366 was the designation of two child routes of the former U. S. Route 66 in New Texas during the late 1920s and 1930s. Both alignments of US 366 were original U. S. Routes created in 1927; the first alignment was a route from El Paso, Texas to Amarillo, Texas crossing through New Mexico that existed until 1931. The second was a route from Albuquerque, New Mexico to Willard, New Mexico, assigned a different route number before 1932; that alignment was canceled in 1939. US 366 was one of the original routes of the network of United States Numbered Highways as published by the American Association of State Highway Officials in 1927; the route branched off from its parent route US 66 in Amarillo and was defined as passing through Canyon before crossing the New Mexico state line west of Farwell. The route passed through Clovis, Roswell, Hondo and Orogrande before reentering Texas south of Newman; the route continued through El Paso to the U. S.-Mexico border for a total length of 416 miles.

Texas portions of the route were part of Texas State Highway 33 along both portions within the state. US 366 followed or replaced portions of New Mexico State Road 50, NM 3, NM 16, NM 13, NM 2, NM 18, NM 15; the route was realigned in 1931 effective with the following year's route log and was replaced by US 54 from El Paso to Tularosa, NM, US 70 from Alamogordo to Farwell, US 60 from Clovis to Amarillo, US 84 between Clovis and Farwell in 1935. The original alignment of US 366 began at the international border between the U. S and Mexico in El Paso County; the route intersected US 80 in El Paso. US 366 went northeast to Newman where it crossed the state line. In New Mexico, US 366 passed through Orogrande in Otero County and merged with NM 3 in Alamogordo and intersected NM 83 further north; the route intersected NM 52 and separated from NM 3. The highway went to the northeast intersecting NM 24; the route crossed into Lincoln County where it intersected NM 37 and turned west intersecting US 566 in Hondo.

In Chaves County, the highway turned north along NM 2 and intersected NM 13. A short distance north of Roswell the route passed through Acme. In Kenna, the highway entered Roosevelt County where it intersected NM 92 and merged with NM 18 in Portales; the route turned north and entered Curry County. In Clovis, the route turned east off of NM 18 and on to US 70 and crossed the state line back into Texas. At the state line, US 366 reacquired its secondary SH 33 and entered Farwell in Parmer County where it separated from US 70 and headed northeast; the route intersected SH 86 and passed through Friona before crossing into Deaf Smith County where it passed through Hereford. In Randall County, the highway joined the combined route of US 385 and SH 9. US 366 went north to Amarillo where it entered Potter County. In Amarillo, the route merged with the combined route of US 370 and SH 5 before ending at US 66 and SH 13; the segment of US 366 from El Paso to the state line was paved. In New Mexico, the route was classified in 1930 as a first class road for use all year.

Most of the roadway in New Mexico was gravel. Most of the roadway between Ruidoso and Hondo was graded as were two short segments between Acme and Kenna and between Elida and Portales; as late as 1933, most of the route in the Texas Panhandle was only graded, although the portion between the Deaf Smith-Randall county line to Amarillo was paved

Synthesiomyia nudiseta

Synthesiomyia nudiseta is one of the largest flies in the family Muscidae. The fly has a pair of forewings. Key characteristics of this species include plumose segmented aristae, well-developed calypters, sternopleural bristles. Synthesiomyia nudiseta is a forensically important species because it is necrophilous and can therefore help determine the time of colonization for the post mortem interval with its known life cycle; the species Synthesiomyia nudiseta, was named by Frederik Maurits van der Wulp in 1883. Synthesiomyia nudiseta is a kind of necrophagous fly. Larvae of S. nudiseta were found in a cadaver in Costa Rica, the larvae have been shown to be important on decomposition of carcasses in Malaysia. S. nudiseta are said to be useful in the recognition of the range of post-death, of importance to forensic entomology. In Brazil, S. nudiseta is common in Rio de Janeiro, where it is synanthropic. The Synthesiomyia nudiseta fly is one of the largest muscids 7 to 10 mm in length; as an adult fly, its abdomen is gray with a pattern resembling a checkerboard, similar to the type found on flesh flies.

This species can be misidentified as a small sarcophagid. The antennae and palpi are orange or yellow in color. In more detail, the posterior spiracles on the adult fly have s- shaped slits, which allow for air to enter the insect’s trachea, it contains a chitinized and complete peritreme. More significant characteristics of S. nudiseta are its large and predacious larvae which can consume C. rufiffacies. Spiracular buttons are present in the premature third instar; the anterior spiracles contain five to seven papillae each. The puparia are enclosed in a silky white substance for protection, it is closely related to Muscina differing in the precise details of larval and adult morphology and in its location. Furthermore, some significant identifying characteristics for the adult flies in the family musicdae include a pair of antennae, three segmented plumose aristae, a frontal suture, well developed calypters, hypo pleura without bristles, more than one sternopleural bristles; the distinct parastomal sclerite in the second instar larva can be known as its most unusual identifying characteristic.

Larvae prefer carrion as their primary source of food but have been found in feces, rotting vegetable materials, garbage. These larvae only feed on the surface of their food instead of burrowing in like other larvae in the same order, it has been found that the larvae of S. nudiseta are large and predacious. They are known to devour the larvae of Chrysomya Rufifacies known as the hairy maggot blow fly; the S. nudiseta flies are one of the first to arrive on the source of their food and lay their eggs, which are about 1.3 mm long. The larvae however, develop more when compared to the larvae of the flies that arrive with S. nudiseta. Pupatation occurs later with the larvae of the arriving fly species; the life cycle of S. nudiseta from egg to adult lasts anywhere between 22–30 days and includes 3 instars. The species survives best in room temperature and warm environments, the optimal range for survival is anywhere from 25-31 degrees Celsius. S. nudiseta can introduce from four to nine generations per year.

The higher the temperature is the larger the generation number will be. The entire larval stage for S. nudiseta lasts for 13–15 days. Through research and experimentation, it has been found that the developmental period for the first instar is about 24 hours, the period is greater for the second instar 48 hours and the third instar has the longest developmental period at 230 hours; the first instar of the larval stage is between 1.5–3 mm long. These larvae have been found to have a high mortality rate when compared to other larvae at this stage of development. There is only a 65% survival rate after this instar. At the second instar, the larvae are 3–7 mm long and have a high level of viability. During the third instar level, the larvae are 7-19.5 mm. This level is broken down into two stages; the first stage is when the larvae continue to collect nutrients needed during pupation. The second stage of development is when the third instar larvae begin the search for a suitable place to pupate where it can begin the pre-pupal stage.

During the pre-pupal stage, the larvae begin to excrete a silk-like white liquid from their salivary glands which solidifies into a sort of scleritized protective film from which the puparium will form. The puparium is 7 -- 8 mm in a brown-red color; the puparium is covered by a dirty white cocoon. Pupation occurs close to the food source of the S. nudiseta larvae because they tend to not migrate far. S. nudiseta larvae are one of the few species that can pupate in a confined location. Besides the encasing cocoon, the outside environment is helpful to the protection of this puparium since dust and soil particles have been found coating the outside surface. Synthesiomyia nudiseta is found in subtropical regions. In the United States it is collected from California to Texas and from North Carolina to Florida. Adult flies prefer direct sunlight and can be found outdoors. In Europe it is an introduced species and has only been recorded in Portugal and Italy. Synthesiomyia nudiseta is a species, found to be quite necrophilous