|Chancellor of Germany|
22 November 2005
|Vice Chancellor||Franz Müntefering
|Preceded by||Gerhard Schröder|
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union|
10 April 2000
Ursula von der Leyen
|General Secretary||Ruprecht Polenz
|Preceded by||Wolfgang Schäuble|
|Chair of the CDU/CSU Parliamentary Group|
22 September 2002 – 18 September 2005
|Preceded by||Friedrich Merz|
|Succeeded by||Volker Kauder|
|General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union|
7 November 1998 – 10 April 2000
|Preceded by||Peter Hintze|
|Succeeded by||Ruprecht Polenz|
|Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety|
17 November 1994 – 26 October 1998
|Preceded by||Klaus Töpfer|
|Succeeded by||Jürgen Trittin|
|Federal Minister for Women and Youth|
18 January 1991 – 17 November 1994
|Preceded by||Ursula Lehr|
|Succeeded by||Claudia Nolte|
|Member of the Bundestag|
22 September 2013
|Constituency||Vorpommern-Rügen – Vorpommern-Greifswald I|
18 January 1991 – 22 September 2013
|Constituency||Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen|
|Born||Angela Dorothea Kasner
17 July 1954
Hamburg, West Germany
(now Hamburg, Germany)
|Political party||Democratic Awakening
Christian Democratic Union
|Spouse(s)||Ulrich Merkel (1977–1982)
Joachim Sauer (1998–present)
|Alma mater||Leipzig University|
Revolution of 1989
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
First Ministry and Term
Second Ministry and Term
Third Ministry and Term
Angela Dorothea Merkel (/ /; German: [aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛʶkl̩];[a] née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She has also been the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 10 April 2000.
A former research scientist with a doctorate in physical chemistry, who moved from West Germany to East Germany when she was an infant with her family, Merkel entered East German politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been reelected ever since. Merkel was appointed as the Minister for Women and Youth in the federal government under Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 1991, and became the Minister for the Environment in 1994. After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.
Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female Chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the support of the Free Democratic Party (FDP), at the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag.
In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more recently her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is currently the senior G7 leader. On 20 November 2016, Merkel announced she would seek re-election to a fourth term in the 2017 federal election.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Chancellor of Germany
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Honours and awards
- 6 Comparisons
- 7 Controversies
- 8 In the arts and media
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011; né Kaźmierczak), a Lutheran pastor and a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind (née Jentzsch), born in 1928 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), a teacher of English and Latin. She has two younger siblings, her brother Marcus Kasner, a physicist, and her sister Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist; in her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi", derived from her last name Kasner.
Merkel is of Polish and German descent, her paternal grandfather, Ludwik Kaźmierczak, was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century. He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German from Berlin, and relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police; in 1930 they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch, and Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Merkel has mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography.
Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration from West Germany to East Germany. Merkel's paternal grandfather was originally Catholic but the entire family converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her father, who later studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and afterwards in Hamburg; in 1954, when Angela was just three months old, her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow (a quarter of Perleberg in Brandenburg), which was then in East Germany. The family moved to Templin and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km (56 mi) north of East Berlin.
Like most young people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Merkel was a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ), the official youth movement sponsored by the ruling Socialist Unity Party. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education. She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. Later, at the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. Merkel has stated that she was secretary for culture, which involved activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet authors.
At school, she learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics. Merkel was educated at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus, such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig; however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed.
Near the end of her studies at the University of Leipzig, Merkel sought an assistant professorship at an engineering school, as a condition for getting the job, Merkel was told she would need to agree to report on her colleagues to the Stasi, the GDR's secret police. Merkel declined, using the excuse that she could not keep secrets well enough to be an effective spy. Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry in 1986, she worked as a researcher and published several papers.
Early political career
The fall of the Berlin Wall served as the catalyst for Merkel's political career, although she did not participate in the crowd celebrations the night the wall came down, one month later Merkel became involved in the growing democracy movement, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) multi-party election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière. Merkel had impressed de Maiziere with her adept dealing with journalists questioning the role of a party leader, Wolfgang Schnur, as a secret informant for police; in April 1990, the Democratic Awakening merged with the East German CDU, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification.
Merkel stood for election at the 1990 federal election, the first since reunification, and was elected to the Bundestag for the constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen, which is in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. She has won re-election for this constituency at the six federal elections since. After her first election, she was almost immediately appointed to the Cabinet, serving as Minister for Women and Youth under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In 1994, she was promoted to becoming Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform from which to build her political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl").
Leader of the Opposition
After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU, a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU — including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble — Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000, her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.
Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and polls indicated that many Germans wanted to see her become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. However, she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder, he went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.
Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda for Germany's economic and social system, and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU), she advocated German labour law changes, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive, because companies could not easily control labour costs when business is slow.
Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship; in the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.
2005 national election
On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections, her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.
Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel's proposal to increase VAT to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax, the SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.
On the eve of the election, Merkel was still favored to win a decisive victory based on opinion polls, on 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.2% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%. The result was so close, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag. A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.
Chancellor of Germany
On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005. Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.
Reports at the time indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differed from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor, the coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.
When announcing the coalition agreement, Merkel stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it was this issue on which her government would be judged.
Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP; in the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU parties emerged as winners, but formed another grand coalition with the SPD due to the FDP's failure to obtain the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament.
In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed", stating that: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it" does not work and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here." She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values, this has added to a growing debate within Germany on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.
Refugee and Migration Policy
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)|
In the wake of the 2015 European migrant crisis the number of people coming from African nations as well as from the Middle East, particularly Syria, rose significantly. Angela Merkel pledged to give general refuge to Syrians in Germany fleeing from the civil war, subsequently discontinuing the enforcement of EU regulations for asylum seekers.
Merkel's foreign policy has focused on strengthening European cooperation and international trade agreements. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor.
One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations, she signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. Merkel enjoyed good relations with former U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama. Obama described her in 2016 as his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.
On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.
In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005, the same year, in March, China's President Xi Jinping visited Germany.
In 2015, with the absence of Stephen Harper, Merkel became the only leader to have attended every G20 meeting since the very first in 2008, having been present at a record eleven summits as of 2016. She hosted the twelfth meeting at the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit.
Following major falls in worldwide stock markets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.
On 4 October 2008, a Saturday, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised, Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same, the following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all. However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation. Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2013, she said that Europe had only 7% of the global population and produced only 25% of the global GDP, but that it accounted for almost 50% of global social expenditure, she went on to say that Europe could only maintain its prosperity by being innovative and measuring itself against the best. Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches, the international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with The Economist saying that:
If Mrs Merkel's vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it, it can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world's population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous.
The Financial Times commented:
Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.[b]
The first Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005, on 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as party chairman, which he did in November. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005, the second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 28 October 2009.
In 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957. However, with their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, the CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership, the third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013.
At the beginning of August 2015, Der Spiegel reported that Merkel had "evidently decided to run again in 2017".
Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party. An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%. However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014. Merkel's approval rating dropped to 54% in October 2015, during the European migrant crisis, the lowest since 2011. According to a poll conducted after terror attacks in Germany Merkel's approval rating dropped to 47% (August 2016). Half of Germans did not want her to serve a fourth term in office compared to 42% in favor. However, according to a poll taken in October 2016, her approval rating had been found to have risen again, 54% of Germans were found to be satisfied with work of Merkel as Chancellor. According to another poll taken in November 2016, 59% were to found to be in favour of a renewed Chancellor candidature of Merkel in 2017. According to a poll carried out just days after the 2016 Berlin Attack, in which it was asked which political leader(s) Germans trust to solve their country's problems; 56% named Merkel, 39% Seehofer (CSU), 35% Gabriel (SPD), 32% Schulz (SPD), 25% Özdemir (Greens), 20% Wagenknecht (Left party), 15% Linder (FDP), and just 10% for Petry (AfD).
Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union throughout her tenure as Chancellor. Merkel has twice been named the world's second most powerful person following Vladimir Putin by Forbes magazine, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union; in December 2015, Merkel was named as Time magazine's Person of the Year, with the magazine's cover declaring her to be the "Chancellor of the Free World". In May 2016, Merkel was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record tenth time by Forbes. Following the election of Donald Trump to the U.S. presidency in November 2016, Merkel was described by The New York Times as "the Liberal West's Last Defender"; Timothy Garton Ash was "tempted" to call Merkel the new leader of the free world", and other commentators echoed this. She is currently the senior G7 leader.
In 1977 at the age of 23, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel and took his surname, the marriage ended in divorce in 1982. Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight, they first met in 1981, became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage, she is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to attend games of the national team in her official capacity.
Merkel has a fear of dogs after being attacked by one in 1995. Vladimir Putin, in a move reminiscent of Germany's first chancellor, brought in his pet Labrador during a press conference in 2007. Putin claims he did not mean to scare her, though Merkel later observed, "I understand why he has to do this – to prove he's a man. ... He's afraid of his own weakness."
Angela Merkel is a Lutheran member of the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia (German: Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz – EKBO), a United Protestant (i.e. both Reformed and Lutheran) church body under the umbrella of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). The EKBO is a church of the Prussian Union, before the 2004 merger of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Church in Silesian Upper Lusatia (both also being a part of the EKD), she belonged to the former.
In 2012, Merkel said, regarding her faith: "I am a member of the evangelical church. I believe in God and religion is also my constant companion, and has been for the whole of my life. We as Christians should above all not be afraid of standing up for our beliefs." She also publicly declared that Germany suffers not from "too much Islam" but "too little Christianity".
|Ancestors of Angela Merkel|
Honours and awards
- Germany: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Special Class
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Order of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Special Class
- Bulgaria: Grand Cross of the Order of the Balkan Mountains
- Israel: Recipient of the President's Medal
- Italy: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Lithuania: Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Vytautas the Great
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit
- Peru: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
- Portugal: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Infante Henry
- Saudi Arabia: Grand Officer of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud
- United States of America: Commander of the Order of Freedom[c]
- In 2007, Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
- In June 2008, she was awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University.
- University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008 and Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania on 12 October 2010 for her historical contribution to the European unification and for her global role in renewing international cooperation.
- On 23 May 2013, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Radboud University Nijmegen.
- In November 2013, she was awarded the Honorary Doctorate (Honoris Causa) title by the University of Szeged.
- In November 2014, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Comenius University in Bratislava.
- In September 2015, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Bern.
- In January 2017, she was awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa jointly by the Ghent University and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
- In May 2017, Merkel was awarded the title of Doctrix Honoris Causa by the University of Helsinki.
- India: Recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
- In 2006, Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.
- She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.
- In March 2008, she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit.
- Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016.
- New Statesman named Angela Merkel in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.
- On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.
- On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Angela Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.
- On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.
- Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009; she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014
- On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany.
- India: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013)
- In December 2015, she was named Time magazine's Person of the Year.
- For the Year 2017, she received the Elie Wiesel Award, from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau," all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady" (Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University in chemistry). Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar. Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"), said by Der Spiegel to refer to an idealised mother figure from the 1950s and 1960s, she has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck. Stateside, both Donald Trump and Business Insider writer Josh Barro have described Merkel as being similar to Hillary Clinton.
In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences, she studied physics; her predecessors studied law, business or history, among other professions.
Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration, at the same time she condemned a planned burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany and the Left Party (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party[d] criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far." Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.
Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin's approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.
The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable, the expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.
In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades", during a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is uncharted territory for us all". (German: Das Internet ist Neuland für uns alle.) This statement led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.
Merkel compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency; in response Susan Rice pledged that the USA will desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.
In July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks, she reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally.
Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015 induced criticism within her party, the parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.
In October 2015, Horst Seehofer, Bavarian State Premier and leader of CSU, the sister party of Merkel's CDU, criticised Merkel's policy of allowing in hundreds of thousands of migrants from the Middle East: "We're now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision." Seehofer attacked Merkel policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voices dissatisfaction with Merkel. Chancellor Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take.
At the conclusion of the May 2017 Group of Seven's leaders in Sicily, Merkel criticised American efforts to renege on earlier commitments on climate change. According to Merkel, the discussions were difficult and marred by dissent. "Here we have the situation where six members, or even seven if you want to add the EU, stand against one.”
In the arts and media
Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up the Europeans Trilogy ("Bruges", "Antwerp", "Tervuren") by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde: "Bruges" (Edinburgh Festival, 2014) and "Tervuren" (2016). A character named Merkel, accompanied by a sidekick called Schäuble, also appears as the sinister female henchman in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence.
On the British sketch-comedy Tracey Ullman's Show, comedian Tracey Ullman has parodied Merkel to international acclaim with German media dubbing her impersonation as the best spoof of Merkel in the world.
- The English pronunciation of her first name is /, -/, and that of her last name //. In German, her last name is pronounced [ˈmɛʶkl̩]. There are different ways to pronounce the name Angela in German, the Duden Pronunciation Dictionary lists [ˈaŋɡela] and [aŋˈɡeːla]. According to her biographer, Merkel prefers the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable ([aŋˈɡeːla] with a long /eː/).
- The economist Arno Tausch from Corvinus University in Budapest, in a paper published by the Social Science Research Network in New York has contended that a re-analysis of the Merkel hypothesis about the distribution of global social expenditure based on 169 countries for which we have recent ILO Social Protection data and World Bank GNI data in real purchasing power reveals that the 27 EU countries with complete data spend only 33% of global world social protection expenditures, while the 13 non-EU-OECD members, among them the major other Western democracies, spend 40% of global social protection expenditures, the BRICS 18% and the Rest of the World 9% of global social protection expenditures. Most probably, the author claims, Merkel's 50% ratio is the product of a mere, simple projection of data for the OECD-member countries onto the world level <http://www.oecd.org/social/expenditure.htm>. Tausch also claims that the data reveal the successful social Keynesianism of the Anglo-Saxon overseas democracies, which are in stark contrast to the savings agenda in the framework of the European "fiscal pact", see Tausch, Arno, Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in Der Welt, Der Anteil Europas Und Die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World, Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency) (4 September 2015). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2656113
- The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors
- Grüne/Bündnis 90 Spokesman Renate Künast: "I wouldn't have done it", said Green Party floor leader Renate Künast. It was true that the right to freedom of expression also applies to cartoons, she said. "But if a chancellor also makes a speech on top of that, it serves to heat up the debate."
- Wells, J. C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Pearson Education Limited.
- "Merkel". Collins English Dictionary.
- Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 548. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
- Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian; et al., eds. (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (1st ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 739. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6.
- Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 156. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.
Angela ˈaŋɡela auch: aŋˈɡeːla.
- Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: dtv. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
Merkel wollte immer mit der Betonung auf dem 'e' Angela genannt werden. (Merkel always wanted her first name pronounced with the stress on the 'e'.)
- "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "German Chancellor Angela Merkel makes a hat-trick win in 2013 Elections". Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel faces outright rebellion within her own party over refugee crisis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Angela Merkel' German Chancellor' to seek fourth term". BBC.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel. DTV (in German). p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkels Vater gestorben – Termine abgesagt" (in German). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). "In the Shadow of the Berlin Wall". Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 9781468314083.
- "Picturing the Family: Media, Narrative, Memory - Research".
- Kornelius, Stefan (March 2013). Angela Merkel: Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt (in German). Hoffmann und Campe. p. 7. ISBN 978-3455502916.
- Stefan Kornelius (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "The German chancellor's Polish roots". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- "Ahnenforschung: Kanzlerin Angela Merkel ist zu einem Viertel Polin". Die Welt.
- Boyes, Roger (25 July 2005). "Angela Merkel: Forged in the Old Communist East, Germany's Chancellor-in-Waiting Is Not like the Others". New Statesman.
- Werner, Reutter (1 December 2005). "Who's Afraid of Angela Merkel?: The Life, Political Career, and Future of the New German Chancellor". International Journal. 61.
- Vasagar, Jeevan (1 September 2013). "Angela Merkel, the girl who never wanted to stand out, to win big again". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Patterson, Tony (17 November 2015). "Angela Merkel's journey from Communist East Germany to Chancellor". The Independent. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Jackson, Guida M. (2009). Women Leaders of Europe and the Western Hemisphere: A Biographical Reference. Xlibris Corporation. p. 178. ISBN 9781441558459.
- Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: dtv. pp. 106–7. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
Angela Merkel war allerdings kein 'einfaches Mitglied', sondern gehörte zum FDJ-Sekretariat des Instituts. Osten [Hans-Jörg Osten] kann sich nicht an die genaue Funktion seiner damaligen Kollegin erinnern. ... Er kann sich nicht definitiv daran erinnern, aber auch nicht ausschließen, dass Angela Merkel die Funktion eines Sekretärs für Agitation und Propaganda wahrnahm. [Angela Merkel was not just an 'ordinary member', but belonged to the FDJ secretariat of the institute. Osten cannot remember the exact function of his erstwhile colleague. ... He cannot remember definitely whether she performed the function of a secretary for agitation and propaganda, but he cannot exclude that possibility.]
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). DTV. p. 50. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle". Der Spiegel (in German). 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Crawford, Alan; Czuczka, Tony (20 September 2013). "Angela Merkel's Years in East Germany Shaped Her Crisis Politics". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in German). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 109. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry)
- "Scopus preview – Scopus – Author details (Merkel, Angela)". www.scopus.com. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Huggler, Justin (9 October 2015). "10 moments that define German chancellor Angela Merkel". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) . Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Merkel wirbt für gute Finanzausstattung der Kommunen". FOCUS Online (in German). 6 January 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Astonishing Rise of Angela Merkel". The New Yorker. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Vick, Karl (2015). "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". TIME.com. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen". Der Spiegel (in German). 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Qvortrup, Matthew (2016). Angela Merkel: Europe's Most Influential Leader. The Overlook Press. ISBN 9781468314083.
- Barry Turner (ed.) The Statesman's Yearbook 2015: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World, Springer 2014 p.516
- "Opposition meltdown: The great disintegration act". Der Spiegel. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 May 2003. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "Merkel: Nuclear phase-out is wrong". World Nuclear News. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Marlies Casier and Joost Jongerden, eds. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey (2010) p 110
- Saunders, Doug (14 September 2005). "Popular flat-tax movement hits brick wall in Germany". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Volkery, Carsten (3 August 2005). "CDU-Panne: Brutto, netto, Merkel". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- Crawford, Alan; Czuczka, Tony (12 June 2013). Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118641095.
- Harding, Luke (11 July 2005). "Merkel unveils tax-raising manifesto". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Germany votes in close election". news.bbc.co.uk. 18 September 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "German election ends in stalemate". news.bbc.co.uk. 19 September 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009.
- "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2005.
- "German coalition poised for power". BBC News. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
- "Merkel defends German reform plan". BBC News. 12 November 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2006.
- "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010.
- "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed". Yahoo! News. 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch". Südwestrundfunk (in German). Retrieved 21 October 2010.
Wir fühlen uns dem christlichen Menschenbild verbunden, das ist das, was uns ausmacht. Wer das nicht akzeptiert, der ist bei uns fehl am Platz[dead link]
- "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010.
- Bajekal, Naina (9 September 2015). "The 5 Big Questions About Europe's Migrant Crisis". Time. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Holehouse, Matthew; Huggler, Justin; Vogt, Andrea (24 August 2015). "Germany drops EU rules to allow in Syrian refugees". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Enterprise policies" (PDF). European Council. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Germany has 'given up' on Donald Trump acting like a President". 23 January 2017.
- "Obama: Merkel was my closest ally". The Local. 15 November 2016.
- "Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama". Euronews. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries". The Christian Science Monitor. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
- "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- "G20-Gipfel in Hamburg: Merkel nennt erstmals Themen". Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- "Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned US sanctions on Russia". Deutsche Welle. June 16, 2017.
- Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Dougherty, Carter. "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- Whitlock, Craig (6 October 2008). "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares". BBC News. 6 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
- "Bundesregierung | Rede von Bundeskanzlerin Merkel beim Jahrestreffen 2013 des World Economic Forum" (in German). Bundesregierung.de. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the University of Szeged in Hungary, see http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Rede/2015/02/2015-02-02-merkel-budapest.html.
- "The Merkel plan". The Economist. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Peel, Quentin (16 December 2012). "Merkel warns on cost of welfare". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Penfold, Chuck (30 October 2009). "Merkel's new cabinet sworn in". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Connolly, Kate; Oltermann, Philip (2013-09-23). "German election: Angela Merkel secures historic third win". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-03-26.
- Kirschbaum, Erik (1 August 2015). "Merkel to run for fourth term in 2017: Der Spiegel". Reuters. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
- Pidd, Helen (21 February 2011). "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls". France 24. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Union dank Merkel im Umfrage-Aufwind". Stern (in German). 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Merkel Approval Rating Drops to Four-Year Low on Refugee Crisis". Bloomberg. 2 October 2015,
- tagesschau.de. "ARD-Deutschlandtrend: Mehrheit gegen EU-Beitritt der Türkei". tagesschau.de (in German). Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Turner, Zeke; Fairless, Tom (28 August 2016). "Half of Germans Oppose Fourth Term for Angela Merkel, Survey Finds". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- "ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel überwindet ihr Tief" [ARD-DeutschlandTrend: Merkel overcomes her low point.] (in German). ARD-tagesschau. 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- "Forsa-Umfrage: Mehrheit für erneute Kanzlerkandidatur Merkels" [Forsa Poll: Majority for renewed chancellor candidature of Merkel]. N24.de (in German). Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Gaugele, Jochen; Kammholz, Karsten (2016-12-27). "Flüchtlingskrise wird 2017 die größte Herausforderung" [Refugee crisis to be biggest challenge in 2017]. Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- Balasubramanyam, Ranjitha (16 September 2013). "All Eyes on Berlin". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Gayle, Damien (18 July 2012). "50 Shades of Angela Merkel: German Chancellor's outfits recreated as Pantone colour chart (but none of them are very sexy)". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Francis, David (22 September 2013). ""Mama" Merkel May Win Germany, But Not the Euro Zone". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Wagele, Elizabeth (16 July 2012). "What Personality Type is Angela Merkel?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 August 2011.
- "Profile Angela Merkel". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Gibbs, Nancy (9 December 2015). "Why Angela Merkel is TIME's Person of the Year". Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Angela Merkel". Forbes. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- Smale, Alison, and Steven Erlanger (12 November 2016). "As Obama Exits World Stage, Angela Merkel May Be the Liberal West’s Last Defender". The New York Times.
- Ash, Timothy Garton (11 November 2016). "Populists are out to divide us". The Guardian.
The phrase 'leader of the free world' is usually applied to the president of the United States, and rarely without irony. I’m tempted to say that the leader of the free world is now Angela Merkel.
- "Angela Merkel branded new 'leader of the free world' as Trump and Brexit preoccupy Western powers". 16 November 2016."Angela Merkel is now the leader of the free world, not Donald Trump". 1 February 2017."How Angela Merkel, a conservative, became the ‘leader of the free world’"."Angela Merkel’s new job: global savior". 17 November 2016."Merkel: From austerity queen to 'leader of free world'".
- "Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954". DHM. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Joachim Sauer, das Phantom an Merkels Seite". Die Zeit (in German). 14 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- "Das diskrete Gluck". Bild (in German). 28 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- James M Klatell (9 August 2006). "Germany's First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany's Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out of the Spotlight". CBS News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Angela Merkel im Fußballfieber". Focus (in German). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Kanzlerin Merkel kommt erst wieder zum Finale". Handelsblatt (in German). 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- CNN, Tim Hume. "Putin: I didn't mean to scare Angela Merkel with dog". CNN. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Bundeskanzlerin Merkel ohne fertige Antworten in Templin". Archived from the original on 2016-11-23.
- Nick Spencer (2016-01-06). "Angela Merkel: How Germany's Iron Chancellor is shaped by her Christianity | Christian News on Christian Today". Christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2017-04-05.
"Video Podcast of the German Chancellor #37/2012" (PDF) (in German). 3 November 2012.
Ich bin Mitglied der evangelischen Kirche. Ich glaube an Gott, und die Religion ist auch mein ständiger Begleiter – eigentlich in meinem ganzen Leben – gewesen.
- "Bericht der Vorsitzenden der CDU Deutschlands Bundeskanzlerin Dr. Angela Merkel MdB" [Report of the Chairwoman of the German CDU Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel] (PDF) (in German). 9 September 2011.
Es ist doch nicht so, dass wir ein Zuviel an Islam haben, sondern wir haben ein Zuwenig an Christentum.
- "Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel". Tagesschau (in German). Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (25 February 2014). "President Peres awards Germany's Merkel Medal of Distinction". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014.
- "Merkel Dott.ssa Angela". Quirinale (in Italian). Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer". Kongehuset (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.
- "Russell among 15 Presidential Medal of Freedom honorees". National Basketball Association. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Executive Order 11085". Wikisource. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
The Medal may be awarded by the President as provided in this order to any person who has made an especially meritorious contribution to (1), the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.
- "Honorary Doctorates". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008.
- "Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig" (in German). Universität Leipzig. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Doktorat honoris causa dla Merkel". RP (in Polish). 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Universitatea Babes-Bolyai". Web.ubbcluj.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universităţii Babeş-Bolyai". Realitatea TV. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Cancelarul Germaniei, Angela Merkel, a primit titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al UBB Cluj". România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Belgien: Ehrendoktor für Angela Merkel". Euronews (in German). 12 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Ervasti, Anu-Elina (2017-03-07). "Angela Merkel vihitään Helsingin yliopiston kunniatohtoriksi". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2017-05-30.
- "List of the Recipients of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award". Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Latham, Mark (5 January 2008). "Angela Merkel awarded the Charlemagne Prize". Aachen. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Riccardi, Andrea. "Der Karlspreisträger 2009" (in German). Karlspreis.de. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008.
- John P. Reeves. "B'nai B'rith Europe grants Award of Merit to Dr. Angela Merkel". B'nai B'rith Europe. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
... Dr Angela Merkel Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany was the recipient of a Gold Medal for outstanding services, the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit, being the highest accolade of BBEurope
- Serafin, Tatiana (31 August 2006). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009. Serafin, Tatiana (30 August 2007). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
Serafin, Tatiana (27 August 2008). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
"Merkel most powerful woman in world: Forbes". Euronews. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.https://www.forbes.com/profile/angela-merkel/?list=power-women
- "Angela Merkel – 50 People Who Matter 2010". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Chancellor Angela Merkel Receives Global Leadership Award". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Baeck, Leo (22 August 2010). "LBI Presents Leo Baeck Medal to Chancellor Angela Merkel". New York: Leo Baeck Institute. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Angela Merkel Receives Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding". ABC News. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Angela Merkel". Time. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "German Chancellor Merkel to Receive Museum’s 2017 Elie Wiesel Award". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2017-03-23. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- Risen, Clay (5 July 2005). "Is Angela Merkel the next Maggie Thatcher?". Slate. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009.
- Kurbjuweit, Dirk (11 March 2009). "Merkel's Dream of a Place in the History Books". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009.
- "The new iron chancellor". The Economist. 26 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011.
- Barro, Josh (18 August 2016). "Hillary is America's Merkel, but not in the way Trump thinks". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Langguth, Gerd (August 2005). Angela Merkel (in German). Munich: DTV. p. 10. ISBN 3-423-24485-2.
- "Angela Merkel's historic error on immigration". The Daily Telegraph. 15 March 2016.
- "Merkel honours Mohammad cartoonist at press award". Reuters. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
- "The Sarrazin Debate: Germany Is Becoming Islamophobic". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Connor, Richard (8 September 2010). "Merkel defends 'Muhammad' cartoonist, condemns Koran-burning". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- BBC: Germany's Central Muslim Council (Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland) criticised Mrs. Merkel for attending the award ceremony. 8 September 2010. A ZMD spokesman, Aiman Mazyek, told public broadcaster Deutschlandradio that the Chancellor was honouring someone "who in our eyes kicked our prophet, and therefore kicked all Muslims", he said giving Mr Westergaard the prize in a "highly charged and heated time" was "highly problematic".
- "Merkel honours Danish Muhammad cartoonist Westergaard". BBC News. 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.
- Buchholz, Christine (9 September 2010). "Merkel's affront to Muslims" (in German). Die linke. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Award for Danish Muhammad Cartoonist: Merkel Defends Press Freedom, Condemns Koran-Burning". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Ehrung des Mohammed-Karikaturisten: Angela Merkels Risiko". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Merkel: Sarrazin spaltet Gesellschaft" (in German). N24 News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Sprachkritik: "Alternativlos" ist das Unwort des Jahres". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- Prantl, Heribert (24 September 2013). "Alternative dank Merkel". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies". Der Spiegel. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Germany's Merkel rejects NSA-Stasi comparison". Associated Press. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Strange, Hannah (20 June 2013). "Angela Merkel refers to internet as 'virgin territory'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Frickel, Claudia (20 June 2013). "Merkel beim Besuch von Obama: Das Netz lacht über Merkels "Internet-Neuland"". Der Focus (Online Version) (in German). Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Traynor, Ian (17 December 2013). "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Merkel defends German intelligence cooperation with NSA". Reuters. 4 May 2015.
- "Sensible talks urged by Merkel to restore trust with US". Germany News.Net. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Gehört der Islam zu Deutschland? Kauder widerspricht Merkel", Idea (news agency), 19 January 2015 (in German)
- "Kauder: 'Der Islam gehört nicht zu Deutschland'" [Kauder: "Islam does not belong to Germany"] (in German). dpa/T-Online. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Viktor Orbán, Bavaria's hardline hero". Politico. 23 September 2015.
- "Merkel splits conservative bloc with green light to refugees". Reuters. 6 September 2015.
- "Germany: 'No Limit' To Refugees We'll Take In". Sky News. 5 September 2015.
- Fouquet, Helene; Delfs, Arne; and Wingrove, Josh (May 27, 2017). "Trump Goes His Own Way as G-7 Cobbles Together an Awkward Truce". Bloomberg.
- Paraskos, Michael, In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Press, 2016).
- Grossman, Samantha. "See the Best of Kate McKinnon's Hilarious Angela Merkel Impression". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- Editor, Lee Moran Trends; Post, The Huffington (11 December 2016). "‘SNL’ Version Of Angela Merkel Is Not Happy Donald Trump Is Time’s ‘Person Of The Year’". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- "SNL Archives - Impressions - Angela Merkel". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- „True total hottie Frau“: Die bislang beste Merkel-Parodie kommt von der BBC, Buzzer, 21 January 2016.
- Plickert, Philip (Editor) (2017) "Merkel: Eine kritische Bilanz", FinanzBuch Verlag, ISBN 978-3959720656.
- Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0
- Margaret Heckel: So regiert die Kanzlerin. Eine Reportage. Piper, München 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05331-0.
- Volker Resing: Angela Merkel. Die Protestantin. Ein Porträt. St.-Benno-Verlag, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-7462-2648-4.
- Gertrud Höhler: Die Patin. Wie Angela Merkel Deutschland umbaut. Orell Füssli, Zürich 2012, ISBN 978-3-280-05480-2.
- Stefan Kornelius]: Angela Merkel. Die Kanzlerin und ihre Welt. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-455-50291-6.
- Nikolaus Blome: Angela Merkel – Die Zauderkünstlerin. Pantheon, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-570-55201-8.
- Stephan Hebel: Mutter Blamage – Warum die Nation Angela Merkel und ihre Politik nicht braucht. Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-86489-021-5.
- Stephan Hebel: Die zwei Gesichter der Angela M., Frankfurter Rundschau, 21. Februar 2013.
- Günther Lachmann, Ralf Georg Reuth: Das erste Leben der Angela M. Piper, München 2013, ISBN 978-3-492-05581-9.
- Judy Dempsey: Das Phänomen Merkel – Deutschlands Macht und Möglichkeiten. Edition Körber-Stiftung, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-89684-097-4.
- Dirk Kurbjuweit: Alternativlos – Merkel, die Deutschen und das Ende der Politik. Hanser, München, 2014, ISBN 978-3-446-24620-1.
- Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Merkel's personal website (in German)
- Merkel on her party's website
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Angela Merkel on IMDb
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes
- "Angela Merkel collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time
- Packer, George (1 December 2014). "The Quiet German". The New Yorker: 46–63.
|Federal Minister for Women and Youth
|Federal Minister for the Environment,
Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
|Chancellor of Germany
|Party political offices|
|General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union
|Chair of the CDU/CSU Parliamentary Group
|Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
|Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe
|Order of precedence|
as President of the Bundestag
|Order of precedence of Germany
as President of the Bundesrat