Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Jasper County, Texas
Jasper County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 35,710, its county seat is Jasper. The county was created as a municipality in Mexico in 1834, in 1837 was organized as a county in the Republic of Texas, it is named for an American Revolutionary War hero. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 970 square miles, of which 939 square miles is land and 31 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 96 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 62 State Highway 63 Recreational Road 255 San Augustine County Sabine County Newton County Orange County Hardin County Tyler County Angelina County Angelina National Forest Big Thicket National Preserve Sabine National Forest As of the census of 2000, 35,604 people, 13,450 households, 9,966 families resided in the county; the population density was 38 people per square mile. The 16,576 housing units averaged 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.24% White, 17.81% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.04% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
About 3.89% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 13,450 households, 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 12.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.90% were not families. About 23% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was distributed as 26.50% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 15.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,902, for a family was $35,709. Males had a median income of $31,739 versus $19,119 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,636. About 15.00% of families and 18.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.40% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over.
County Judge - Judge Mark W. Allen Commissioner, Pct. #1 - Charles Shofner, Jr. Commissioner, Pct. #2 - Roy Parker Commissioner, Pct. #3 - Willie Stark Commissioner, Pct. #4 - Vance Moss County Sheriff - Mitchel Newman Tax Assessor/Collector - Bobby Biscamp County Clerk - Debbie Newman County Treasurer - René Kelley County Auditor - Renee Weaver Tax Appraiser - David Luther Emergency Management Coordinator - Billy Ted Smith District Judge - Judicial District 1 - Judge Craig M. Mixson District Judge - Judicial District 1A - DeLinda Gibbs-Walker District Clerk - Kathy Kent District Attorney - Steven M. Hollis Justice of the Peace, Pct. #1 - Ronny Billingsley Justice of the Peace, Pct. #2 - Freddie Miller Justice of the Peace, Pct. #3 - Mike Smith Justice of the Peace, Pct. #4 - Daniel Whitton Justice of the Peace, Pct. #5 - Brett Holloway Justice of the Peace, Pct. #6 - Steve Conner Constable, Pct. #1 - Jimmy Hensarling Constable, Pct. #2 - Niles Nichols Constable, Pct. #3 - Ronnie Hutchison Constable, Pct. #4 - Gene Hawthorne Constable, Pct. #5 - Michael Poindexter Constable, Pct. #6 - Joe Sterling Browndell Jasper Kirbyville Buna Evadale Sam Rayburn Zavala Zeirath National Register of Historic Places listings in Jasper County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Jasper County Jasper-Newton-Sabine Counties - Office of Emergency Management & Homeland Security Jasper County Government Website Jasper Newton County Public Health District Public Health Website for Jasper County The Deep East Texas Council of Governments Jasper County from the Handbook of Texas Online Jasper County, TXGenWeb Focuses on genealogical research in Jasper County
Angelina National Forest
Angelina National Forest is a United States National Forest, one of four located in Texas. The 153,180-acre Angelina National Forest is located in East Texas in parts of San Augustine, Angelina and Nacogdoches counties, it is managed together with the three other National Forests in Texas from Forest Service offices in Lufkin, Texas. There are local district offices located in Zavalla; the forest lies in the Neches River Basin and on the north and south shores of Sam Rayburn Reservoir. Longleaf pine is the predominant cover type in the southern portion of the forest, while loblolly and shortleaf pine are dominant species in the northern portion and abundant throughout. Hundreds of wildlife species exist in the forest. Principal game species include white-tailed deer, wild turkey, American woodcock, bobwhite quail, mourning dove and wood duck; the forest provides wintering habitat for the bald eagle. The red-cockaded woodpecker, an endangered species, is found throughout the forest. Humans came to the area around 8,000 years ago.
Archeological sites document the evidence of man's presence over the entire period since then. In 1934, the Texas Legislature approved a resolution to urge federal purchase of land to create National Forests in Texas. In 1935, acquisition began on the Davy Crockett, Sam Houston and Angelina National Forests. There are two designated wilderness areas lying within Angelina National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Turkey Hill Wilderness Upland Island Wilderness Texas Forest Trail List of U. S. National Forests Angelina National Forest USDA Forest Service - National Forests & Grasslands in Texas Christopher Long: Angelina National Forest from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved December 23, 2008
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Tyler County, Texas
Tyler County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 21,766, its seat is Woodville. Tyler County is named for the tenth President of the United States. Despite its name, Tyler County does not contain the city of Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 936 square miles, of which 925 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 69 U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 287 Recreational Road 255 Angelina County Jasper County Hardin County Polk County Big Thicket National Preserve As of the census of 2000, there were 20,871 people, 7,775 households, 5,675 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 10,419 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.0% White, 12.0% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 3.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,775 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.5 and the average family size was 2.9. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,808, the median income for a family was $35,195. Males had a median income of $31,797 versus $19,594 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,367. About 12.6% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
Colmesneil Ivanhoe Woodville Chester Warren Wildwood Doucette Fred Hillister Spurger National Register of Historic Places listings in Tyler County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Tyler County Allan Shivers Library and Museum Tyler County government's website Tyler County from the Handbook of Texas Online Tyler County, TXGenWeb Focuses on genealogical research in Tyler County. Dry counties in Texas Tyler County Airport
Polk County, Texas
Polk County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,413, its county seat is Livingston. The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation of the federally recognized tribe is in Polk County, where the people have been since the early 19th century, after migrating from the Southeast; the 2000 census reported a resident population of 480 persons within the reservation. The tribe reports 1100 enrolled members. Polk County, named for His Excellency James Knox Polk of Tennessee, President of the United States, was by act of the First Legislature of the State of Texas, approved on March 30, 1846, created out of Liberty County and embraced that portion thereof known and designated as the "Northern Division" of said Liberty County, it was one of the first of a series of 23 counties, formulated and established by the State of Texas, after annexation with the United States. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Allan B. Polunsky Unit is located in West Livingston.
This has been the location of the State of Texas death row since 1999. As of the census of 2000, there were 41,133 people, 15,119 households, 10,915 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,177 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.64% White, 13.17% Black or African American, 1.74% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.74% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. 9.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,119 households out of which 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 108.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,495, the median income for a family was $35,957. Males had a median income of $30,823 versus $21,065 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,834. About 13.30% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.10% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,110 square miles, of which 1,057 square miles are land and 53 square miles are covered by water. Angelina County Tyler County Hardin County Liberty County San Jacinto County Trinity County Big Thicket National Preserve Polk County College / Commerce Center was completed in 2013 and is located on the U. S. Highway 59 Bypass. Angelina College offers advanced curriculum study and technical training at this location; the facility may be used as a mass shelter in a disaster event.
U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 throughout most of Polk County. U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 146 Farm to Market Road 350 Farm to Market Road 356 Farm to Market Road 357 Farm to Market Road 942 Farm to Market Road 943 Farm to Market Road 1745 Greyhound Lines operates the Livingston Station at the Super Stop Food Mart in Livingston. West Livingston has the Livingston Municipal Airport, operated by the City of Livingston. Goodrich Onalaska Seven Oaks Corrigan Livingston Big Thicket Lake Estates Cedar Point Indian Springs Pleasant Hill West Livingston Laurelia Percy Foreman: notable criminal defense attorney John Wesley Hardin: Old West gunslinger William P. Hobby: Governor of Texas, publisher of Houston Post Sam Houston: general of the revolution to achieve independence and President of the Republic of Texas, spent much time in Polk County, including making peace treaties with the Alabama-Coushata Indians. Margo Jones: stage director who launched the careers of Tennessee Williams and Ray Walston and directed Williams' The Glass Menagerie on Broadway René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle: noted French explorer of the 17th century.
Livingston named a street in her honor. Mark Moseley: professional football player. Captain Isaac Newton Moreland Turner: Confederate captain who joined the Civil War from Polk County, with units called the "Texas Brigade". List of counties in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Polk County Media related to Polk County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Official website Polk County Polk County from the Handbook of Texas Online