A stage name is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers, such as actors, comedians and musicians. Such titles are adopted for a wide variety of reasons and may be similar or nearly identical to an individual's birth name. In some situations, a performer will adopt his or her title as a legal name, although this is not the case. Personal names or nicknames that make up the professional name should not be considered as a "fake name" like Lady Gaga: for example: Miley Cyrus: born Destiny Hope Cyrus, uses her personal nickname "Miley" and her maiden name "Cyrus" as her professional name, in 2018 she changed to Miley Ray Hemsworth. A performer will take a stage name because his/her real name is considered unattractive, dull, or unintentionally amusing, is difficult to pronounce or spell, has been used by another notable individual, or projects an undesired image. Sometimes a performer adopts a name, unusual or outlandish to attract attention. Other performers use a stage name; the equivalent concept among writers is called a nom de pen name.
In radio, the term "radio name" or "air name" is used. Some individuals who are related to a celebrity take a different last name so they are not perceived to have received undue advantage from their family connection. Examples of these include Joan Fontaine, Luka Bloom, Mike McGear. Sisters Loretta and Brenda Webb adopted the names Loretta Lynn, Peggy Sue, Crystal Gayle, respectively. Actor Nicolas Cage, born Nicolas Coppola, chose a new last name to avoid comparisons with his uncle, director Francis Ford Coppola, who gave him his big break in the movie Peggy Sue Got Married. Conversely, individuals who wish to receive benefit from their family connections may take that person's first or last name. For example, Lon Chaney Sr.’s son Creighton spent a number of years appearing in minor roles before renaming himself Lon Chaney, Jr. Actress Rebecca Isabelle Laemmle rechristened herself Carla Laemmle in reference to her uncle, Universal Studios head Carl Laemmle. Emilio Estevez and his sister Renee chose not to take their father Martin Sheen’s professional name and use their birth names.
Women who achieve fame after marriage use their married name as part of their professional name, ie. Kris Jenner while women who achieved fame before marriage continue to use their maiden name or a Hyphenated surname like Mariah Carey and Courteney Cox-Arquette. In some cases, the individual may adopt a stage name to avoid confusion with other family members who have similar names. Actor Mark Harmon uses his middle name professionally to avoid confusion with his father Heisman Trophy winner and former broadcaster Tom Harmon. Guilds and associations that represent actors, such as the Screen Actors Guild in the United States and British Actors' Equity Association in the United Kingdom, stipulate that no two members may have identical working names. An actor whose name has been taken must choose a new name. Notable examples include: David Tennant, born David McDonald, who said in an interview that he adopted the surname "Tennant" after seeing Neil Tennant in a copy of Smash Hits. Diane Keaton, whose birth name is Diane Hall, took her mother's maiden name as a stage name after learning that there was a registered actress named Diane Hall in the Actors' Equity Association.
Ugly Betty actress Vanessa Williams uses "Vanessa L. Williams" due to SAG guidelines, although the other actress with same first and last name is arguably less notable. David Walliams changed one letter in his surname due to there being another "David Williams". Terry O'Quinn of Lost fame changed his surname from Quinn to O'Quinn as another registered actor had the name Terrance Quinn. Long-time Simpsons writer and Futurama executive producer David X. Cohen changed his middle initial from S to X because there was a David S. Cohen registered with the Writer's Guild of America. In other cases, a middle name may be adopted in preference to changing a name. Examples include comedian Hugh Dennis born Peter Hugh Dennis, actor-comedian Hugh Laurie born James Hugh Calum Laurie, actor Timothy Carlton born Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch. In some cases, attaching a generational suffix is sufficient for guild rules. A person hoping to become successful as an entertainer who has a name identical to a name familiar to the public may change his/her name in order to avoid having his/her name evoke the other person with the same name.
For example, the actor/writer/director Albert Brooks was born Albert Einstein and changed his surname to avoid associations with the renowned physicist with the same name. Singer Katy Perry, born Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson, released her self-titled album under the name Katy Hudson, but used her mother's maiden name to avoid confusion with
A goaltender mask referred to as a goalie mask or a hockey mask, is a mask worn by ice hockey, inline hockey, field hockey goaltenders to protect the head from injury. Jacques Plante was the first goaltender to create and use a practical mask in 1959. Plante's mask was a piece of fiberglass, contoured to his face; this mask evolved into a helmet/cage combination, single piece full fiberglass mask. Today, the full fiberglass mask with the birdcage facial protector is the more popular option because it is safer and offers better visibility; the first goaltender mask was a metal fencing mask donned in February 1927 by Queen's University netminder Elizabeth Graham to protect her teeth. In 1930, the first crude leather model of the mask was worn by Clint Benedict to protect his broken nose. After recovering from the injury, he abandoned the mask. At the 1936 Winter Olympics, Teiji Honma wore a crude mask, similar to the one worn by baseball catchers; the mask was made of leather, had a wire cage which protected the face, as well as Honma's large circular glasses.
It was not until 1959. On November 1, 1959, in the first period of a game between the Montreal Canadiens and New York Rangers of the National Hockey League at Madison Square Garden, Canadiens goaltender Jacques Plante was struck in the face by a shot from Andy Bathgate. Plante had worn his mask in practice, but head coach Toe Blake refused to allow him to wear it in a game, fearing it would inhibit his vision. After being stitched up, Plante gave Blake an ultimatum, refusing to go back out onto the ice without the mask, to which Blake obliged not wanting to forfeit the game since NHL teams did not have back-up goaltenders at the time. Montreal continued on an 18-game unbeaten streak, which went through November. In preparation for the playoffs, Plante was asked by Blake to remove it for a game on March 8, a 3–0 loss. Plante donned the mask the next night, for the remainder of his career; when he introduced the mask into the NHL, many questioned his bravery. Although Plante faced some laughter, the face-hugging fiberglass goaltender mask soon became the standard.
Since the invention of the fiberglass hockey mask, professional goaltenders no longer play without a mask. The last goaltender to play without a mask was Andy Brown, who played his last NHL game in 1974, he would go to the Indianapolis Racers of the World Hockey Association and play without a mask till his retirement in 1977. The face-hugging fiberglass, the type, worn first by Jacques Plante, is a longtime symbol of ice hockey as typified by the famous painting At the Crease, by Ken Danby; the goaltender mask evolved further from the original face-hugging fiberglass mask designed by Plante. Although this mask does not seem protective now, at the time it was, based on the style of game, played. Gerry Cheevers' use of the face-hugging mask for the Boston Bruins was among the first to be "decorated" in a custom manner. Cheevers adopted the "stitch mask" as his own, went on to set a NHL record of 32-straight wins during the Bruins' 1971–72 season; this style of mask is no longer used by hockey leagues, yet its fame continues because of its use by horror movie icon Jason Voorhees of the Friday the 13th film series.
Casey Jones of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise wears a stylized version of the mask, as did D-Roc the Executioner, the late guitarist of the heavy metal band Body Count. The members of Hollywood Undead are always seen wearing signature masks based on this design; the robbers in Heat and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City wore face-hugging hockey masks as part of their disguise during a heist. In the 1970s, a helmet/cage combination became popular, popularized by Vladislav Tretiak, the noted Russian goaltender who competed against Canada in the 1972 Summit Series and against the USA in the 1980 winter Olympics known as the "Miracle On Ice". Like the original fiberglass design, the helmet/cage combination has been criticized for not providing adequate facial/cranial protection. Dan Cloutier switched from this type of mask to the more popular full fiberglass citing safety reasons upon the advice of the Los Angeles Kings. Dominik Hašek, a Hart Memorial Trophy and Vezina Trophy-winner in the late 1990s, used this type of mask.
Rick DiPietro, last with the New York Islanders in 2013, was one of the last NHL goaltenders to use this type of mask. Following Clint Malarchuk's life threatening injury in 1989, more goaltender masks have adopted a plastic extension to guard the neck hanging loose for more maneuverability. On March 4, 2014, Tim Thomas took the ice for the Florida Panthers wearing an old Cooper helmet painted dark blue with a modern Bauer cage and white Itech neck guard attached. During the game, the cage would break from a slapshot and Thomas would return with a red Mage-style helmet with a similar Bauer cage. Goaltenders at lower levels of hockey who choose to use this design cite reasons such as the plastic helmet used is lighter than the fiberglass or composite materials used in other designs, that the helmet has a wider opening than a traditional mask for a less claustrophobic feeling and better sight of the puck; the second type of goaltender mask is a
A hoodie is a sweatshirt or a jacket with a hood. Hoodies include a muff sewn onto the lower front, a drawstring to adjust the hood opening. Hooded garments have been a documented part of women's wear for centuries; the word hood derives from the Anglo-Saxon word hōd of the same root as English hat. The garment's style and form can be traced back to Medieval Europe when the normal clothing for monks included a hood called a cowl attached to a tunic or robes, a chaperon or hooded cape was commonly worn by any outdoors worker, its appearance was known in England at least as early as the 12th century an import with the Norman conquest of England, as the capa was "a short hooded cloak, common in Normandy." The hooded sweatshirt was first produced in the United States starting in the 1930s. The modern clothing style was first produced by Champion in the 1930s and marketed to laborers working in freezing temperatures in upstate New York; the term hoodie entered popular usage in the 1990s. The hoodie took off with several factors contributing to its success.
Hip hop culture developed in New York City around this time, high fashion contributed during this era, as Norma Kamali and other high-profile designers embraced and glamorized the new clothing. Most critical to the hoodie's popularity during this time was its iconic appearance in the blockbuster Rocky film. At the same time, hoodies started emerging in the Geek culture when Mark LoGiurato introduced them at companies such as the Software Bottling Company; the rise of hoodies with university logos began around this time. By the 1990s, the hoodie had evolved into a symbol of isolation, a statement of academic spirit, several fashion collections; the association with chavs or neds in the UK developed around this time, as their popularity rose with that specific demographic. Young men skateboarders or surfers, sported the hoodie and spread the trend across the western United States, most in California. Tommy Hilfiger, Giorgio Armani, Ralph Lauren, for example, used the hoodie as the primary component for many of their collections in the 1990s.
A crystal-studded hoodie made by rapper Sean "Diddy" Combs was acquired by the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. In June 2011, police in Wynnum, launched a "Hoodie Free Zone" initiative, with shopkeepers encouraged to ask hoodie-wearers to leave; the zone is part of an initiative to educate businesses on how they can avoid armed robberies, in which the hoodie type of clothing is worn. Across Canada, hoodies are a popular clothing item sometimes worn under a coat or jacket to provide an extra layer of clothing during the winter. In the province of Saskatchewan, hoodies without zippers are "bunny hugs." The "Hoodies on Parliament—politicians challenge youth stereotypes" campaign was launched in May 2008 in New Zealand as part of the annual national Youth Week event, a pro-youth initiative organized to challenge youth stereotypes. To launch the campaign, NZ politicians, including National MP Nicky Wagner, Green Party MPs Sue Bradford, Nandor Tanczos and Metiria Turei, Maori party MP Hone Harawira, wore hoodies while standing on the steps of the country's parliament.
Archbishop David Moxon, Archbishop of the Anglican Dioceses, Brian Turner President of the Methodist Church of NZ participated in the campaign. Support and criticism were raised by politicians. One strong response was drawn from a local government council member, Dale Evans, who donned a Ku Klux Klan outfit in protest, citing the hoodie as "not an appropriate article of clothing to celebrate.""Goodie in a Hoodie" day was run in 2009 by New Zealand Adolescent Health and Development in partnership with Age Concern—the organisations used the campaign to highlight the stereotypes that both young people and the elderly face in New Zealand. Liz Baxendine, president of Age Concern at the time, said to the media: Older people and young people have a lot in common. We both face stereotypes based on our age rather than our real achievements and outlook on life... we've got to destigmatise the hoodie and see it for what it is. Everyone wears them. We need to take the hoodie back! In the UK, hoodies have been the subject of much criticism.
The hoodie became a popular clothing item by the 1990s. By the 21st century, it had gained a negative image, being associated with trouble-making teens and anti-social behaviour, it became one of the items associated with "chavs", or Neds. Angela McRobbie, professor of communications at Goldsmiths College in the UK, says the appeal of the hoodie is its promise of anonymity and anxiety. "The point of origin is black American hip-hop culture, now mainstream and a key part of the global economy. Leisure and sportswear adopted for everyday wear suggests a distance from the world of office suit or school uniform. Rap culture celebrates defiance. Musically and stylistically, it projects danger as well as anger and rage; the hooded top is one in a long line of garments chosen by young people boys, to which are ascribed meanings suggesting that they are'up to no good'. In the past, such appropriation was restricted to membership of specific youth cultures—leather jackets, bondage trousers—but nowadays it is the norm among young people to flag up their music and cultural preferences in this way, hence the adoption of the hoodie by boys across the boundaries of age and class."In May 2005, Bluewater shopping centre in Kent caused outrage by launching a code of conduct which bans its
Masters of Hardcore
Masters of Hardcore is the name of a Dutch hardcore music label and of its related music festival events. Masters of Hardcore music label was founded in 1995 in the Hemkade in Zaandam by DJ Outblast and King Matthew. Bass-D & King Matthew teamed up with other famous DJs like Buzz Fuzz. In 1998, after a low profile period, the label Masters of Hardcore started to organize their parties as an independent and Bass-D & King Matthew decided to continue to produce Hardcore Music on the Masters of Hardcore label, their first party was successful. Masters of Hardcore organized a lot of parties in big music festival locations in the Netherlands. There were parties in Germany and in Switzerland. Angerfist Bass D Bodyshock Neophyte Catscan Crossfiyah DaY-már Decipher & Shinra Destructive Tendencies Drokz Dyprax Javi Boss Korsakoff Miss K8 Outblast Predator Re-Style State of Emergency Triax Wasted Mind DJ Mad Dog Official Site Official Site Australia
Sensation is an indoor electronic dance music event which originated in Amsterdam and organized by ID&T. The original event, which ran in the Amsterdam Arena for a period of five years until 2005, is now located throughout Belgium, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Latvia, the Netherlands, Ukraine, the United States, Brazil, Denmark, South Korea, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand and the United Arab Emirates. In 2000 and 2001, it was made up of one edition, just called Sensation, but it has now been split up into two editions: Sensation Black and Sensation White; this was done to differentiate the music and feeling more than would have been possible if it were one event. Sensation Black focuses more on'darker' music, like Hardstyle and Hardcore, whereas Sensation White focuses more on trance music; every year, Sensation releases two doublediscs and two singles they call the Anthem. 2008 the names of both events have been changed: "Sensation", "Black". The first edition of Sensation, in 2000, did not sell out.
The media announced that it was sold out in order to boost interest in the event, which attracted 20,000 people. In this first edition, the DJs only used one side of the Amsterdam Arena as the stage. Editions have the stage in the middle; this Sensation was the only one. All subsequent editions of Sensation White have sold out well in advance. Sensation Black has not been as successful, but is either close to selling out, or sold out a few days before the event. In 2005, Sensation White was held in Belgium and Germany. In 2006, ID&T started Sensation International, an international tour, based on the simplified version which could be seen in the Amsterdam ArenA, in 2005; the first edition was held in the Antwerp Sportpaleis. In 2008 Sensation White was held at SCC Peterburgsky in Saint Petersburg, a New Year version was held at the Telstra Dome in Melbourne on the 31 December 2008. Sensation White's new anthem put place in 2014 is "Tremor" by Martin Garrix, Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike and Sensation White's official slogan is "Be part of the night, dress in white".
In 2017, it was announced that July's event was to be the last Sensation to take place in Amsterdam, with all future editions to be held outside of Holland. Titled'The Final', the last Amsterdam event took place on Saturday the 8th of July and attracted a sold-out capacity crowd of over 50,000 party people. At the time of writing it's not clear how much longer the Sensation brand will continue outside of Holland, but there are parties booked toward the end of 2017 in Australia and Dubai. Sensation White used to be a trance event, but in years it has become a pure house event. All the attendees are required to wear white and the Amsterdam ArenA itself is decorated to match. Sensation White's slogan is "Be Part Of The Night - Dress in White"; every event has around 40,000-45,000 tickets available. The Amsterdam ArenA event takes place every year on the first Saturday in July while the German event in the LTU Arena in Düsseldorf is held on New Year's Eve. In 2009 it was organized for the first time on two subsequent nights on 3 and 4 July in the Amsterdam Arena where the opening of the Wicked Wonderland took place.
Notable DJs that have appeared at Sensation include Tiësto, Armin van Buuren, Swedish House Mafia, Martin Garrix, Nicky Romero, André Tanneberger, Darren Emerson, David Guetta, NERVO, Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike, Erick E, Erick Morillo, Ferry Corsten, Marco V, Paul van Dyk, Sven Väth, Johan Gielen, Sander Kleinenberg, Steve Angello, Fedde Le Grand, Sebastian Ingrosso, Sander van Doorn, Felix Da Housecat, Laidback Luke, Rank 1, DJ Jean, Judge Jules, Carl Cox, Martin Solveig and Dada Life. The event has been criticized by trance fans who think there is too much house and electro and too few trance DJs in the recent events. However, in the eyes of the organizers, the popularity of trance has been receding in the past few years, therefore Sensation White has adapted to this by altering its programming to add house and electro house. Nonetheless, the popularity of trance and indeed the DJs associated with the genre still seem to be a major force in Europe. Trance Energy, with over 30,000 people, has been selling out faster than before.
In the 2008 edition of Sensation, there was only one trance DJ present in the line-up: Marco V. In 2009, trance was left out in favor of house and techno, however the music of the 2009 Amsterdam event turned out to be more trance like again. In 2010, Sensation, to enforce the notion that they are now a House event, came up with the theme "Celebrate Life with House", it featured performances by Chuckie, Swedish House Mafia, Sunnery James and Ryan Marciano, Joris Voorn & 2000 And One. The event became a party for house music; this change in genre caused that for the first time since 2000, the tickets did not sell out the same day they went on sale, as audiences are much more demanding. In the end, about 35,000 people attended. To create interest in the now House event, Sensation came up with a contest where the fans, via the social networks, would vote for their favorite theme and make it the anthem for 2010; the competing songs, featuring a selection of house and minimal themes, were not well received by Sensation followers and the competition was cancelled
Damian Robert Nesta "Jr. Gong" Marley is a Jamaican reggae recording artist. Damian is the youngest son of reggae singer Bob Marley. Damian was 2 years old. Damian's nickname Junior Gong is derived from his father's nickname of Tuff Gong. Damian has been performing since the age of 13. At age 13, he formed a musical group by the name of the Shephards, which included the daughter of Freddie McGregor and son of Third World's Cat Core; the group opened the 1992 Reggae Sunsplash festival. The band fell apart in the early 1990s and Damian started his solo career. With the backing of his father's label, Tuff Gong, he released his 1996 debut album Mr. Marley which surprised many who were unaccustomed to hearing a Marley deejaying rather than singing. Marley released his second studio album Halfway Tree; the name "Halfway Tree" comes from his mother, Cindy Breakspeare, being from the rich part of town, his father, Bob Marley, coming from the poor part of town, thus him being "a tree halfway in between the'rich' world and'poor' world."
Additionally, Halfway Tree is a well-known landmark that marks the cultural center of Half-Way-Tree, the clock tower that stands where the historical eponymous cotton tree once stood is featured prominently behind Marley on the cover of the album. The album was released on 11 September 2001 and received the 2002 Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album, it was co-produced by Damian Marley and his brother Stephen Marley, who had produced Damian's debut album, Mr Marley. Marley released his third studio album Welcome to Jamrock, released on 12 September 2005 in the United States and 13 September 2005 in the United Kingdom; the album sold 86,000 copies in its first week of release, was certified gold after selling 500,000 copies in the United States. Other notable singles from the album include "The Master Has Come Back", "Road to Zion" featuring Nas, "Khaki Suit" featuring Bounty Killer and Eek-A-Mouse. Damian's half-brother, Stephen Marley, was a producer and co-writer of the hugely successful song of the same name.
The lyrics to the single "Welcome to Jamrock", performed over a riddim produced by Sly and Robbie for Ini Kamoze some 20 years earlier, centred around poverty and crime in Jamaica. While the single was controversial at home over its perceived negative viewpoint of the island, many praised the content of the song. Dr. Clinton Hutton, professor at the University of the West Indies, said of the single, "'Jamrock' uses the icon of the inner city, of alienation, of despair, of prejudice, but of hope, of Jamaican identity, to remind us of the fire of frustration, the fire of creativity, the fire of warning to open up our eyes and look within to the life we are living, and still some of us don't want to hear and to look and say enough is enough." The single reached No. 13 on No. 55 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. It was No. 100 on the Top 100 Songs of the Decade listing by Rolling Stone. At the 2006 Grammy Awards, he won Best Reggae Album and Best Urban/Alternative Performance for Welcome to Jamrock.
He is the only Jamaican reggae artist in history to win two Grammy Awards on the same night. He is the only reggae artist to win in the Best Urban/Alternative Performance category at the Grammy Awards. At the 2009 Grammy Awards news of a collaborative album between Marley and Nas was announced, when Nas told MTV reporters "Right now, I'll tell you first, I'm working on an album with Damian Marley. We tryin' to build some schools in Africa with this one, trying to build empowerment. We're tryin' to show stuff with this album. So, the record's... all about the'hood and Africa as well."On 17 May 2010, Marley released Distant Relatives, a collaborative album with Nas. The album title refers not only to the bond between the artists but the connection to their African ancestry, which inspired the album both musically and lyrically, they have collaborated on "Road to Zion", on Marley's Welcome to Jamrock album. The album joins two different flavours of music with Nas' flow. Damian and Stephen produced much of the album.
The proceeds of this album will go to building schools in the Congo. The album debuted at number five on the US Billboard 200 chart with first-week sales of 57,000 copies, it serves as Marley's second top-ten album in the United States. The album entered at number four on Billboard's Digital Albums, at number one on its R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, Rap Albums, Reggae Albums charts. Internationally, Distant Relatives attained some chart success, it entered at number 33 on the European Top 100 Albums chart. In the United Kingdom, it debuted at number 30 on the UK Albums Chart and at number four on the R&B Albums Chart. In Canada, the album entered at number 9 on the Top 100 Albums chart. In Germany, it debuted at number 38 on the Media Control Charts; the first single, "As We Enter", was released on iTunes on 23 February 2010. It has so far peaked at No. 10 on the iTunes Hip Hop/Rap charts and No. 41 on the iTunes Music charts. The single debuted at number 39 on the UK Singles Chart. At a sold-out panel discussion on the African diaspora and its relation to music, sponsored by National Geographic and Stephen Marley and Nas were among the several hip-hop and reggae musicians voicing their solidarity.
The discussion focused on the collaborations between artists of the two genres, highlighted the Distant Relatives project. The existence of SuperHeavy was secret until May 2011. Mick Jagger, English musician and the lead vocalist of rock band The Rolling Stones, announced its formation on 20 May 2011. SuperHeavy was Dave Stewart's idea. Inspired by