click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Angkor

Angkor was the capital city of the Khmer Empire. The city and empire flourished from the 9th to the 15th centuries; the city houses one of Cambodia's most popular tourist attractions. The word Angkor is derived from the Sanskrit nagara, meaning "city"; the Angkorian period began in AD 802, when the Khmer Hindu monarch Jayavarman II declared himself a "universal monarch" and "god-king", lasted until the late 14th century, first falling under Ayutthayan suzerainty in 1351. A Khmer rebellion against Siamese authority resulted in the 1431 sacking of Angkor by Ayutthaya, causing its population to migrate south to Longvek; the ruins of Angkor are located amid forests and farmland north of the Great Lake and south of the Kulen Hills, near modern-day Siem Reap city, in Siem Reap Province. The temples of the Angkor area number over one thousand, ranging in scale from nondescript piles of brick rubble scattered through rice fields to the Angkor Wat, said to be the world's largest single religious monument.

Many of the temples at Angkor have been restored, together, they comprise the most significant site of Khmer architecture. Visitors approach two million annually, the entire expanse, including Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom is collectively protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the popularity of the site among tourists presents multiple challenges to the preservation of the ruins. In 2007, an international team of researchers using satellite photographs and other modern techniques concluded that Angkor had been the largest pre-industrial city in the world, with an elaborate infrastructure system connecting an urban sprawl of at least 1,000 square kilometres to the well-known temples at its core. Angkor is considered to be a "hydraulic city" because it had a complicated water management network, used for systematically stabilizing and dispersing water throughout the area; this network is believed to have been used for irrigation in order to offset the unpredictable monsoon season and to support the increasing population.

Although the size of its population remains a topic of research and debate, newly identified agricultural systems in the Angkor area may have supported between 750,000 and one million people. The Angkorian period may have begun shortly after 800 AD, when the Khmer King Jayavarman II announced the independence of Kambujadesa from Java and established his capital of Hariharalaya at the northern end of Tonlé Sap. Through a program of military campaigns, alliances and land grants, he achieved a unification of the country bordered by China to the north, Champa to the east, the ocean to the south and a place identified by a stone inscription as "the land of cardamoms and mangoes" to the west. In 802, Jayavarman articulated his new status by declaring himself "universal monarch" and, in a move, to be imitated by his successors and that linked him to the cult of Siva, taking on the epithet of "god-king". Before Jayavarman, Cambodia had consisted of a number of politically independent principalities collectively known to the Chinese by the names Funan and Chenla.

In 889, Yasovarman ascended to the throne. A great king and an accomplished builder, he was celebrated by one inscription as "a lion-man. Near the old capital of Hariharalaya, Yasovarman constructed a new city, called Yasodharapura. In the tradition of his predecessors, he constructed a massive reservoir called baray; the significance of such reservoirs has been debated by modern scholars, some of whom have seen in them a means of irrigating rice fields, others of whom have regarded them as religiously charged symbols of the great mythological oceans surrounding Mount Meru, the abode of the gods. The mountain, in turn, was represented by an elevated temple, in which the "god-king" was represented by a lingam. In accordance with this cosmic symbolism, Yasovarman built his central temple on a low hill known as Phnom Bakheng, surrounding it with a moat fed from the baray, he built numerous other Hindu temples and ashrams, or retreats for ascetics. Over the next 300 years, between 900 and 1200, the Khmer Empire produced some of the world's most magnificent architectural masterpieces in the area known as Angkor.

Most are concentrated in an area 15 miles east to west and 5 miles north to south, although the Angkor Archaeological Park, which administers the area, includes sites as far away as Kbal Spean, about 30 miles to the north. Some 72 major temples or other buildings are found within this area, the remains of several hundred additional minor temple sites are scattered throughout the landscape beyond; because of the low-density and dispersed nature of the medieval Khmer settlement pattern, Angkor lacks a formal boundary, its extent is therefore difficult to determine. However, a specific area of at least 1,000 km2 beyond the major temples is defined by a complex system of infrastructure, including roads and canals that indicate a high degree of connectivity and functional integration with the urban core. In terms of spatial extent, this makes it the largest urban agglomeration in recorded history prior to the Industrial Revolution surpassing the nearest claim by the Mayan city of Tikal. At its peak, the city occupied an area greater than modern Paris, its buildings use far more stone than all of the Egyptian structures combined.

The principal temple of the Angkoria

All3Media

All3Media is a British worldwide independent television and digital production and distribution company. The All3Media group comprises 28 production and distribution companies from across the United Kingdom and all other parts of Europe, New Zealand and the United States; the company was formed in 2003 after the Chrysalis Group's television arm was acquired by a consortium led by ex-Granada chief Steve Morrison, former ITV Head of Programming, David Liddiment and former Operations MD at Granada, Jules Burns. In 2013, it was named top UK independent producer, with a turnover of £473m. On 8 May 2014, it was announced that Discovery, Inc. and Liberty Global would acquire All3Media, in a joint venture valued at US$930 million. All3Media America Main Event Media All3Media Deutschland All3Media International Aurora Media Worldwide Bentley Productions Ltd. betty Bullion Productions Caravan Company Pictures IDTV Lime Pictures Lion Television Little Dot Studios Maverick Television Neal Street Productions New Pictures North One Television Objective Media Group Objective Fiction OMG America OMG Scotland Panda Television Second Star Productions Optomen Optomen Entertainment Optomen International Raw Seven Stories South Pacific Pictures Kura Productions Satellite Media Story Films Studio Lambert Tower Productions Two Brothers Pictures Two Halves Pictures Unstoppable Film and TV List of shows produced by All3Media "All3Media".

The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 January 2014. Official website

Bonanza

Bonanza is an American western television series that ran on NBC from September 12, 1959, to January 16, 1973. Lasting 14 seasons and 431 episodes, Bonanza is NBC's longest-running western, ranks overall as the second-longest-running western series on U. S. network television, within the top 10 longest-running, live-action American series. The show continues to air in syndication; the show is set in the 1860s and it centers on the wealthy Cartwright family who live in the vicinity of Virginia City, bordering Lake Tahoe. The series starred Lorne Greene, Pernell Roberts, Dan Blocker and Michael Landon and featured Guy Williams, David Canary, Mitch Vogel and Tim Matheson; the show is known for presenting pressing moral dilemmas. The title "Bonanza" is a term used by miners in regard to a large vein or deposit of silver ore, from Spanish bonanza and refers to the 1859 revelation of the Comstock Lode of rich silver ore mines under the town of Virginia City, not far from the fictional Ponderosa Ranch that the Cartwright family operated.

The show's theme song titled "Bonanza", became a hit song. Only instrumental renditions, absent Ray Evans' lyrics, were used during the series's long run. In 2002, Bonanza was ranked No. 43 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 TV Guide included it in its list of The 60 Greatest Dramas of All Time. The time period for the television series is between 1861 and 1867 during and shortly after the American Civil War. During the summer of 1972, NBC aired reruns of episodes from the 1967–1970 period in prime time on Tuesday evening under the title Ponderosa; the show chronicles the weekly adventures of the Cartwright family, headed by the thrice-widowed patriarch Ben Cartwright. He had three sons, each by a different wife: the eldest was the urbane architect Adam Cartwright who built the ranch house. Via exposition and flashback episodes, each wife was accorded a different ancestry: English and French Creole respectively; the family's cook was Chinese immigrant Hop Sing. Greene, Roberts and Landon were billed equally.

The family lived on a thousand square-mile ranch called the Ponderosa on the eastern shore of Lake Tahoe in Nevada opposite California on the edge of the Sierra Nevada range. The vast size of the Cartwrights' land was revised to "half a million acres" on Lorne Greene's 1964 song, "Saga of the Ponderosa." The ranch name refers to common in the West. The nearest town to the Ponderosa was Virginia City, where the Cartwrights would go to converse with Sheriff Roy Coffee, or his deputy Clem Foster. Bonanza was considered an atypical western for its time, as the core of the storylines dealt less about the range but more with Ben and his three dissimilar sons, how they cared for one another, their neighbors, just causes. "You always saw stories about family on comedies or on an anthology, but Bonanza was the first series, week-to-week about a family and the troubles it went through. Bonanza was a period drama; that was difficult to do on television. Most shows that tried to do it failed because the sponsors didn't like it, the networks were nervous about getting letters", explains Stephen Battaglio, a senior editor for TV Guide magazine.

Episodes ranged from high drama, to broad comedy, addressed issues such as the environment, substance abuse, domestic violence, anti-war sentiment, illegitimate births. The series sought to illustrate the cruelty of bigotry against: Asians, African-Americans, Native Americans, Jews,; the Cartwrights tended to be depicted as put-off by outsiders. Lorne Greene objected to this, pointing out that as the area's largest timber and livestock producer, the family should be less clannish; the producers changed the Cartwrights to be more amiable. Though not familiar stars in 1959, the cast became favorites of the first television generation; the order of billing at the beginning of the broadcast appeared to be shuffled randomly each week, with no relation whatsoever to the current episode featured that week. The main cast of actors portraying Cartwrights is listed here in the order of their characters' ages, followed by an array of recurring supporting players: Born in Ottawa, Canada, to Russian-Jewish parents, Lorne Gree

Seabridge Gold

Seabridge Gold is a Toronto-based North American resource exploration company. It owns Kerr Sulphurets Mitchell, a copper-gold-silver-molybdenum porphyry project in northern British Columbia. KSM's proven-probable reserves amount to 38.8 million ounces of gold, 183 million ounces of silver, 10.2 billion pounds of copper and 207 million pounds of molybdenum. The property is part of a bigger deposit containing another gold project known as Snowfield; the KSM project will cost more than $4.7 billion to build and funding is not yet in place. Gold reserves at the Courageous Lake deposit total 6.5 million ounces. The company was incorporated as Chopper Mines Incorporated on September 14, 1979, it was renamed Dragoon Resources Ltd on November 9, 1984, Seabridge Resources Ltd on May 20, 1998, before adopting its current name on June 20, 2002. In July 2002, Seabridge purchased 100% of its second largest gold property, Courageous Lake in the NWT from Newmont Mining and Total Resources for $5.5 million plus a 2% NSR royalty.

The project at that time reported an historical resource of 5.9 million ounces of gold. The 100% owned Courageous Lake project located in Northwest Territories comprises 59 mining leases totalling more than 67,000 acres covering 85% of Matthews Lake Greenstone Belt and containing one of the largest undeveloped gold deposits in Canada; the 2017 drill program confirmed the presence of a gold-bearing formations. Subsequent work has found the potential for a large porphyry system below the lithocap which will be targeted in 2020 drilling. In conjunction with its exploration program, Seabridge is undertaking environmental work to carry out remediation programs to mitigate impacts of historical mining activity as well as community engagement. In June 2001 Seabridge purchased the Kerr Sulphurets Mitchell property from Placer Dome for 500,000 common shares, 5000 warrants and royalty payments capped at C$4.5 million. The project consisted of two contiguous claim blocks in the Iskut-Stikine region in British Columbia 20 kilometres southeast of the Eskay Creek Mine.

When Seabridge acquired it, the project hosted two distinct deposits which were modelled separately by Placer Dome Limited. At the two deposits, Placer Dome had estimated an historical indicated gold resource of 2.1 million ounces, with an additional 1.3 million ounces of gold in the inferred resource category as well as 2.8 billion pounds of copper resources. KSM's resources stand at 38.8 million ounces of gold, 183 million ounces of silver, 10.2 billion pounds of copper and 207 million pounds of molybdenum. The 100% owned KSM project located in north-western British Columbia has proven and probable reserves of 38.million ounces of gold and 10.2 billion pounds of copper, making it the largest gold reserve in Canada and one of the largest in the world. The project's EA Application received provincial government approval in July, 2014. Final federal approval was received in December, 2014. Seabridge purchased a 100% interest in Snowstorm from PFR Gold Holdings for 700,000 Seabridge common shares and 500,000 common share purchase warrants exercisable for four years.

Additional payments of $2.5 million are due on condition of exploration activities and $5 million upon delineation of additional gold resources. An initial drill program in 2019 has targeted a possible Getchell Trend type of high grade gold deposit

Honour of Clitheroe

The Honour of Clitheroe is an ancient grouping of manors and royal forests centred on Clitheroe Castle in Lancashire, England. In the case of Clitheroe, this complex was loosely clustered around the ancient wapentake of Blackburnshire. Before the Norman Conquest, the lands of Blackburnshire were held by Edward the Confessor, while Bowland was held by Tostig, son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex. In 1092, Roger de Poitou acquired a large part of what is now Lancashire, including the hundred of Blackburnshire. By the end of the 11th century, Poitou's landholdings had been confiscated and came into the possession of the De Lacys, Barons of Pontefract and Lords of Bowland. In 1102, Henry I granted the fee of Blackburnshire and further holdings in Hornby, the vills of Chipping and Dutton in Amounderness to Robert de Lacy, 2nd Baron of Pontefract, while confirming his possession of Bowland; these lands formed the basis of. In 1205, Roger de Lacy purchased the barony of Penwortham and by 1212, he had added the manor of Rochdale.

In 1235, his son John de Lacy, acquired the fee of Tottington from Henry de Monewden. The Honour passed by marriage from the De Lacys to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster in 1311 and subsequently, was incorporated into the Duchy of Lancaster; the honour had been among the lands acquired by Queen Isabella in 1327, after she deposed Edward II. In 1507, King Henry VII's Act of Disafforestation was a response to growing encroachment on the Royal Forests and paved the way for increased settlement within the Forests of Accrington, Pendle and Trawden. In 1625, Charles I sold Rochdale to trustees for the Earl of Holderness, in 1628, the manor of Penwortham was sold. In 1661, King Charles II granted the Honour to General George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, in recognition of his support during the Restoration, it followed the inheritance of the Dukes of Albemarle, Dukes of Montagu and the Dukes of Buccleuch. In 1827,the 5th Duke of Buccleuch inherited the Honour through his grandmother, the 3rd Duchess, but this was entailed upon his uncle, Henry James Montagu-Scott, 2nd Baron Montagu of Boughton.

In 1835, the Bowland portion was sold to Peregrine Towneley. Lord Henry Douglas-Scott-Montagu, great-nephew of the 2nd Baron Montagu of Boughton, second son of the 5th Duke of Buccleuch, inherited the Honour in 1845. In 1896, he set up the Clitheroe Estate Company as a vehicle for the exploitation of coal and other mineral wealth, within the lands of the Honour. In 1939 the Towneley family sold the Bowland portion back to the Duchy of Lancaster; the 1938 Coal Act and subsequent nationalisation of the British coal industry led to the voluntary winding-up of the Company in 1945. In April that year, Tory MP Ralph Assheton 1st Baron Clitheroe, bought the residue of the land holdings from the Company for £12,500. Since 1945, the Barons Clitheroe have styled themselves Lords of the Honour of Clitheroe. Before the Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, which introduced the concept of freehold into English law, the Lord of the Honour was Lord Paramount over all the mesne lords of the Honour, he exercised governance of the Honour through forest courts.

The Great Court Leet for Blackburnshire was held every three weeks at Clitheroe Castle, with the Steward of the Honour presiding. It had jurisdiction over the mesne manors of the Wapentake of Blackburn and within the Borough of Clitheroe, but not within the demesne manors, such as Slaidburn in the Forest of Bowland, which convened their own halmote courts; the forest areas within the Honour were governed under forest law and jurisdiction was exercised through woodmote and swainmote courts. In the main, these appear to have been held at the demesne manor closest to the forest in question; the Forest of Bowland was a notable exception. In Bowland, for historic reasons, a strict jurisdictional divide was observed between governance of the Forest of Bowland, centred on Whitewell and governance of the Liberty of Bowland centred on Slaidburn; this was a consequence of the shift of the caput of the Lordship of Bowland from Grindleton to Slaidburn in the second half of the fourteenth century. Manorial courts fell into disuse in the early 1920s.

Through subinfeudation, the manorial structure of the Honour shifted over the course of nine centuries. Whitaker in Chapter 2 of his 1872 History of Whalley, Vol 1, p. 238, claims there were 28 manors within the Honour on the basis that these were all the manors of Blackburnshire. Slaidburn sold in 1835. Rochdale purchased 1212.

Andrey Shestakov

Andrey Vasilievich Shestakov was a Soviet historian, a specialist in the agrarian history of Russia. Professor, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, he graduated from the 5th grade school in Arkhangelsk became a factory worker. In 1897 he joined one of the working circles, he studied in the years 1897–1888 on the Prechistensky workers' courses in Moscow, where in 1898 he was arrested without completing the course. Since 1898 in the revolutionary movement. In 1903 he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, became a Bolshevik. One of the founders of the first social democratic organization in the Donbass and the Bolsheviks' Moscow district organization. In December 1905, one of the leaders of the armed uprising on the Moscow-Kazan railroad, a member of the Moscow Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1906–13 he worked in trade unions. In 1913–14 he emigrated abroad. In 1918–1921 at the party and Soviet work in Moscow, Ryazan.

In 1922 he worked in the Main Political and Educational Committee of the People's Commissariat of Education of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, from the same year he taught at the Moscow Provincial Party School. After graduating from the Institute of Red Professorship in 1924, where he entered in 1921, he became Head of the Department of History of the Soviet Union at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East, Faculty of Ethnology of the 1st Moscow State University, 2nd Moscow State University, department of the Voronezh State University, he taught at the Institute of Nationalities of the USSR, Institute of Red Professors, Military Political Academy. He was one of the leaders of the Society of Marxist Historians. In 1930 he was elected a full member of the Communist Academy under the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union. In 1930–1935 he was deputy director for science, acting director of the Museum of the Revolution of the Soviet Union. In 1935, the Committee on Scientists and Educational Institutions was approved by a full member of the Institute of Nationalities and was awarded the title of professor.

In 1937, the All-Union Committee for Higher Education awarded him the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences. In 1939 he was the head of the 19th–20th centuries Soviet Union history sector, in 1939–1941 he was a senior researcher at the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, his main works are devoted to the agrarian history of Russia of the 1861–1917 period. He led the team of authors of the textbook "A Short Course in the History of the Soviet Union" for the 3-4th grades of the secondary school, it is noted. Shestakov Andrey Vasilyevich in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969–1978 Profile of Andrey Vasilyevich Shestakov on the official website of the Russian Academy of Sciences History reference on the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences Elena Duschenko. Andrey Vasilyevich Shestakov and the formation of historical education in the universities of the Soviet Union