Angkor Wat is a Buddhist temple complex in Cambodia and is the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring 162.6 hectares. Constructed as a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, it was transformed into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century, it was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu; as the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture, it has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, it is the country's prime attraction for visitors. Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the galleried temple, it is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat more than 5 kilometres long and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next.
At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; the temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, for the numerous devatas adorning its walls. The modern name, Angkor Wat, means "Temple City" or "City of Temples" in Khmer. Wat is the Khmer word for "temple grounds" derived from Sanskrit vāṭa, meaning "enclosure"; the original name of the temple was Vrah Viṣṇuloka or Parama Viṣṇuloka, which means the sacred dwelling of Vishnu. Angkor Wat lies 5.5 kilometres north of the modern town of Siem Reap, a short distance south and east of the previous capital, centred at Baphuon. In an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures, it is the southernmost of Angkor's main sites. According to legend, the construction of Angkor Wat was ordered by Indra to serve as a palace for his son Precha Ket Mealea. According to the 13th-century Chinese traveller Zhou Daguan, some believed that the temple was constructed in a single night by a divine architect.
The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, during the reign of Suryavarman II. Dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the king's state capital city; as neither the foundation stela nor any contemporary inscriptions referring to the temple have been found, its original name is unknown, but it may have been known as "Varah Vishnu-lok" after the presiding deity. Work seems to have ended shortly after the king's death, leaving some of the bas-relief decoration unfinished. In 1177 27 years after the death of Suryavarman II, Angkor was sacked by the Chams, the traditional enemies of the Khmer. Thereafter the empire was restored by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who established a new capital and state temple a few kilometres to the north. Towards the end of the 12th century, Angkor Wat transformed from a Hindu centre of worship to Buddhism, which continues to the present day. Angkor Wat is unusual among the Angkor temples in that although it was neglected after the 16th century it was never abandoned.
Fourteen inscriptions dated from the 17th century discovered in Angkor area testify to Japanese Buddhist pilgrims that had established small settlements alongside Khmer locals. At that time, the temple was thought by the Japanese visitors as the famed Jetavana garden of the Buddha, which located in the kingdom of Magadha, India; the best-known inscription tells of Ukondayu Kazufusa, who celebrated the Khmer New Year at Angkor Wat in 1632. One of the first Western visitors to the temple was António da Madalena, a Portuguese friar who visited in 1586 and said that it "is of such extraordinary construction that it is not possible to describe it with a pen since it is like no other building in the world, it has towers and decoration and all the refinements which the human genius can conceive of."In the mid-19th century, the temple was rediscovered by the French naturalist and explorer Henri Mouhot in 1860, who popularised the site in the West through the publication of travel notes, in which he wrote: Mouhot, like other early Western visitors, found it difficult to believe that the Khmers could have built the temple and mistakenly dated it to around the same era as Rome.
His reports inspired the French government an established presence in Indochina, to study the ruins. The true history of Angkor Wat was pieced together from stylistic and epigraphic evidence accumulated during subsequent clearing and restoration work. There were no ordinary dwellings or houses or other signs of settlement, including cooking utensils, weapons, or items of clothing found at ancient sites. Instead there is only the evidence of the monuments themselves. An exploration commission began drawing up a list of principal monuments. Subsequent missions copied inscriptions written on Angkor buildings so scholars might translate them and learn something of Angkor's history. B
Benjamin "Ben" Weider, was the co-founder of the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness along with brother Joe Weider. He was a Canadian businessman from Montreal, well known in two areas: Bodybuilding and Napoleonic history. Benjamin Weider was born on February 1, 1923 in Montréal, Québec, Canada, to Louis and Anna Weider, Polish Jewish emigrants from the town of Kurów in Poland, he served in the Canadian Army during World War II. In bodybuilding he ran a physical fitness and sporting goods company bearing his name, he was IFBB president until October 2006, when he announced his retirement. In Napoleonic circles, Weider was known as a forceful advocate of the theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his entourage during his exile in Saint Helena, he co-authored several books, Assassination at St. Helena and Assassination at St. Helena Revisited, with Sten Forshufvud and The Murder Of Napoleon, with David Hapgood about this. Weider founded the International Napoleonic Society, of which he was the President, wrote numerous articles for this organization.
In 1975 he was made a Member of the Order of Canada and was promoted to Officer in 2006. In 2000, he was made a Knight of the National Order of Quebec. On October 12, 2000, he received the French Legion of Honor, that country's highest honour, established by Bonaparte himself. Weider was a 1984 nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize, a member of the Quebec Sports Hall of Fame, a Commander of the Venerable Order of St. John, he had several honorary doctorate degrees. The Institute on Napoleon and the French Revolution at the Florida State University History Department has created the Ben Weider Chair in Revolutionary Studies. In total, Ben accumulated over honours during his lifetime. From 1998 to 2005, Ben Weider was Honorary Lieutenant Colonel of the 62nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA. In 2005, he was promoted to Honorary Colonel of that military unit. In October 2006, Ben Weider unexpectedly retired as president of the IFBB. In 2008, he was given the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 20th Anniversary Arnold Classic.
Weider owned one of the most extensive collections of Napoleon memorabilia, including one of the bicorne hats worn by Napoleon during the invasion of Russia in 1812, of which only 12 are known to still exist today. Three weeks before his death, he donated his entire set of Napoleonic artifacts, over 60 pieces in all, to the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, making it one of the largest collections of its kind in the world. Prince Charles Napoleon, great-great-grandson of Napoleon's youngest brother Jerome, was on hand to inaugurate the museum's new permanent gallery on Oct. 23, 2008. Weider died on October 2008, at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal. A movie called Bigger was released in 2018 on the life of his brother Joe Weider. Tyler Hoechlin played Joe Weider, while Julianne Hough plays Betty Weider, his wife, Aneurin Barnard acted in the role of Ben Weider and Calum Von Moger portrayed Arnold Schwarzenegger. Franceschi, General Michel and Ben Weider. 2007. Wars Against Napoleon: Debunking the Myth of the Napoleonic Wars.
Savas Beatie. Weider. Ben, Joe Weider, Daniel Gastelu. 2002. The Edge. Avery Publishing. Weider, Ben. 2000. Louis Cyr: Amazing Canadian. Ironmind Enterprises. Weider and Sten Forshufvud. 1995. Assassination at St. Helena Revisited. Wiley. Weider and Robert Kennedy. 1986. Superpump!: Hardcore Women's Bodybuilding. Sterling Pub Co Inc. Weider. Ben and David Hapgood. 1982. The Murder of Napoleon. New York: Congdon & Lattes: Distributed by St. Martin's Press. Weider and Sten Forshufvud. 1978. Assassination At St. Helena: The Poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte. Mitchell Press. Media related to Ben Weider at Wikimedia Commons Ben Weider's last interview with Carol Off of CBC Radio'As It Happens', discussing his multi-million dollar donation of Napoleon artifacts to the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, broadcast September 25, 2008 IFBB Professional League for interest in professional bodybuilding and fitness International Napoleonic Society website Mexico-France Napoleonic Institute official website Ben Weider Memorial of the Fellow-Members of Honor of the International Napoleonic Society Brothers of Iron: How the Weider Brothers Created the Fitness Movement and Built a Business Empire by Joe Weider and Ben Weider, with Mike Steere, published by Sports Publishing L.
Howard Ray Johnson is a Jamaican born American former cricketer. A right-handed batsman and right-arm medium-fast bowler, he played for the United States national cricket team from 2002 until 2005 and played two One Day Internationals during the 2004 ICC Champions Trophy. Born in Jamaica in 1964, Howard Johnson first played for the USA in the 2002 Americas Championship in Buenos Aires, he made his List A debut in 2004 when he played in the ICC 6 Nations Challenge in the United Arab Emirates and his first-class debut in the year when he played in the ICC Intercontinental Cup against Canada and Bermuda. In between the two matches in the Intercontinental Cup, he played in the Americas Championship in Bermuda, winning the man of the match award against the Cayman Islands when he took 5/12, he last played for the USA in the 2005 ICC Trophy in Ireland. After playing a warm-up game against Namibia he played three matches in the tournament proper, against the UAE, Bermuda and Oman; those three matches represent the end of his List A career