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Anglesey

Anglesey is an island off the north-west coast of Wales. It forms the principal area and historic county of that name, which includes Holy Island to the west and some islets and skerries. Anglesey island, at 260 square miles, is by far the largest island in Wales, seventh largest in the British Isles, largest in the Irish Sea and second most populous after the Isle of Man; the local-government area of Isle of Anglesey County Council measures 276 square miles, with a 2011 census population of 69,751, of whom 13,659 live on Holy Island. The Menai Strait between Anglesey and mainland Wales is spanned by the Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, the Britannia Bridge, built in 1850 and replaced in 1980; the largest town is Holyhead. The next largest is seat of the county council. From 1974 to 1996 Anglesey was run as part of Gwynedd. Most Anglesey inhabitants are Welsh speakers; the name Ynys Môn is used for the UK National Assembly constituencies. The island forms the LL postcode area.

The name of the island may be derived from the Old Norse. No record of such an Ǫngli survives, but the place name was used by Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd; the traditional folk etymology reading the name as the "Island of the Angles" may account for its Norman use but has no merit, although the Angles' name itself is a cognate reference to the shape of the Angeln peninsula. All of these derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank-. Through the 18th and 19th centuries and into the 20th, it was spelt Anglesea in documents. Ynys Môn, the island's Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources, it was known to the Saxons as Monez. The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant "Island of the Cow"; this view is untenable according to modern scientific philology, the etymology remains a mystery. Poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn for its royal courts.

There are numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory. Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs; the Welsh Triads claim. Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. In AD 60 the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the power of the druids, attacked the island using his amphibious Batavian contingent as a surprise vanguard assault and destroying the shrine and the nemeta. News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest; the island was brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper; the foundations of Caer Gybi, a fort in Holyhead, are Roman, the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was a Roman road. The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland rather than with Britain. British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered by the 19th-century antiquarian William Owen Stanley.

After the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey and the nearby Llŷn Peninsula. In response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out; this was continued by grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion. As an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Apart from a devastating Danish raid in 853 it remained the capital until the 13th century, when improvements to the English navy made the location indefensible. Anglesey was briefly the most southerly possession of the Norwegian Empire. After the Irish, the island was invaded by Vikings — some of these raids were noted in famous sagas — and by Saxons, Normans, before falling to Edward I of England in the 13th century. Anglesey is one of the 13 historic counties of Wales. In medieval times, before the conquest of Wales in 1283, Môn had periods of temporary independence, as it was bequeathed to the heirs of kings as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd.

The last times this occurred were a few years after 1171, following the death of Owain Gwynedd, when the island was inherited by Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, between 1246 and c. 1255, when it was granted to Owain Goch as his share of the kingdom. After the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglesey was created a county under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. Prior to this it had been divided into the cantrefi of Aberffraw and Cemaes. During the First World War, the Presbyterian minister and celebrity preacher John Williams toured the island as part of an effort to recruit young men to volunteer for a just war. German POWs were kept on the island. By the end of the war, some 1,000 of the island's men had died while on active service. In 1936 the NSPCC opened its first branch on Anglesey. During the Second World War, Anglesey

Å, Åfjord

Å is a village in the municipality of Åfjord in Trøndelag county, Norway. The village is called Årnes or Å i Åfjord or just Åfjord, it is the administrative center of the municipality. The village is located at the end of the Åfjorden, about 10 kilometres west of the village of By; the lake Stordalsvatnet lies just east of the village. Åfjord Church is located in Å, just west of the Nordalselva river. The 1.76-square-kilometre village has a population of 1,212 and a population density of 689 inhabitants per square kilometre. The village is named after the old Aa farm, first referenced in 1329 as "Aom"; the name "Aa" comes from the plural of á which means " river" because two rivers run together beneath the farm. With the Norwegian spelling reforms in the early 20th century, the letter "Aa" was changed to "Å". On 13 July 1934, the name of the municipality was changed from "Å" to "Åfjord". Since the administrative centre in the municipality was referred to as "Å i Åfjord". On 1 November 1980, the postal service changed the name from "Å i Åfjord" to "Årnes".

List of short place names

Carl Christian Amussen

Carl Christian Amussen referred to as Carl Christian Asmussen, with Carl at times spelled Karl, was Utah's first jeweler. Karl Amussen, the third son of Danish sea captain Karl Asmussen and his wife Petra Asmussen née Johansen, was born in Køge, Zealand just outside Copenhagen, Denmark on May 20, 1825. Not wishing to follow in his ancestor's footsteps, Amussen apprenticed as a watchmaker and dentist, his skill in jewelry-making was so great that he spent some time as court jeweler to the Czar of Russia. Additionally he was involved in that trade in Great Britain and Australia and circumnavigated the globe twice over the course of his lifetime. In 1857 Amussen moved to New Zealand where he opened a jewelry store, it was there in 1864 he learned of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from reading Parley P. Pratt's pamphlet The Voice of Warning; the stamp on the booklet noted that it had been published in Liverpool, England and so he traveled there to the headquarters of the church. Amussen was baptized into the LDS Church by Elisha H.

Groves and in 1865 moved to Utah. Amussen was called to serve a mission in New Zealand where he organized an LDS congregation in Kaipoi. In 1868 Amussen returned to Salt Lake City where he met Brigham Young and, upon Young's advice, purchased land on Main Street where he built a jewelry store, he brought supplies via covered wagon and the mirrors that once adorned his store were used in the Salt Lake Temple.. The Amussen Building, designed by pioneer architect William Harrison Folsom, was the first fire-proof building in the Utah Territory, it was constructed of sandstone with cement basement and pane glass windows. The two-story store towered over the surrounding one-story adobe structures and remains standing to this day as a testament to its sound construction. Amussen was connected with the early American department store, Zions Cooperative Mercantile Institution and the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company. Amussen served two missions for the LDS Church in Denmark and later served a mission in Australia.

He was ordained a Seventy by Joseph Young. After Amussen retired from the jewelry business he invested in real estate in Logan and owned business properties in the center of Logan, he was a polygamist with three wives: Anna K. Nielsen, sisters Martha McIsaac Smith and Barbara McIssac Smith. Amussen had 18 children by his three wives, his youngest child, Flora Amussen, born in 1901, married LDS Church president Ezra Taft Benson. For the last several years of his life Amussen resided in Logan, where his son Carl S. Amussen was a prominent car dealer in the 1910s. Sheri L. Dew. Ezra Taft Benson: A Biography. P. 67-69. Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint biographical encyclopedia: A compilation of biographical sketches of prominent men and women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 4. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Andrew Jenson History Company. P. 83. Retrieved November 18, 2013. Noble Warrum, Charles W. Morse and W. Brown Ewing. Utah Since Statehood. Vol. 4, p. 398. Church News, August 22, 1992. Article on Amussen building with bio of Amussen